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The military occupation as it was demoralizing to the dignity of free of Maryland already has labor and honest industry. been adverted to. (See Among these we should
The Winans' Family. Chap. VI.] The watchfulness of Butler's mention the family of Witroops kept the would-be revolutionists in a nans, whose great wealth and eminent social condition of apprehension more exciting than position gave it a wide influence. The progratifying to them. Finding that the mili- prietors of extensive iron works, the Winans' tary force present in and around Baltimore controlled a large number of laboring men was equal to the suppression of any attempt- and mechanics-rendering them powerful, as ed demonstration against the Union, the Se- their wealth made them dangerous, foes to cessionists sought to aid and comfort their their country. Their large foundry was closcause by such secret means as lay in their ed to the wants of the Federal Government, power. Men were enlisted for the Southern but open to the enemy. Their money was army, and daily left for Harper's Ferry in not wanting when the Southern cause desquads. This enlistment was not discour-manded. Against their baleful influence aged by the Federal authorities, for every re-Government was constrained soon to exert cruit made one less cut-throat to deal with its fullest authority. The men whose sympathies for the South May 11th, Butler was informed of the paswere most violently expressed, belonged, as sage from Baltimore to Frederick, en route a general thing, to a class of rowdies whose to Harper's Ferry, of a suspicious-looking reign in Baltimore had given the “Monu-box mounted on a carriage. It was seized mental City" an unenviable reputation for by his order, and found to contain the Widisorder, and their absence was a source of nans' Steam Gun-an ugly weapon, designed no regret to any friend of good government to mou down ranks of men at each sweep of There were, however, a number of old fami- its exhaustless tube. Ross Winans himself, lies in that city whose attachment to the the head of the family, was arrested by order South and its peculiar institution was strong-of General Butler at the Relay House, May er than their love for the Union, and in them 14th, on his return from the just adjourned the Government found its most virulent en- session of the Legislature, of which he was a emies. Their at first open demonstrations prominent member. Against this arrest Govagainst the Federal authority soon assumed ernor Hicks again “protested” by exerting a more secret course of proceedings. It was
himself for Winans' release, but Butler placed their influence which controlled the revolu- the old gentleman under guard until he could tionary Legislature. Their power Governor confer with the authorities at Washington. Hicks was made to fear. Their money, freely The day prior to this
Final Occupation of used, armed the secret societies which were evidently pre-determined afterwards discovered to exist throughout arrest of the old conspirathe State, giving the military considerable tor, Butler occupied the city with a force employment in ferreting out depots of arms. comprising the Boston Light Artillery, MaTheir influence swayed the police of Balti- jor Cook; a strong detachment of the Sixth more and rendered it necessary, after a brief Massachusetts regiment, Colonel Jones; and period, to suspend that organization entirely. about five hundred men of the New York Although but a mere score in numbers, as in Eighth, Lieutenant-Colonel Waltenburg. The other sections of the Slave States those “old camp chosen was on Federal Hill. This step families” exercised a sway as unaccountable was preliminary to the occupation of Patter
son's Park and Murray Hill-heights which honor. She had over four hundred troops at Washington, on the morning of the fourth day after the placed the city entirely under the guns of the issue of the President's Proclamation, the Massachu. Federal troops, and covered Fort McHenry setts troops reaching the Capital on the evening of
on the land side. As all these positions were that day, the 19th. These are immaterial points ; higher than the Fort, their possession by an bat, as the pride of States is concerned, we prefer enemy would render that fine work untento recite the facts with precision.
able; and as the Confederates had arranged
for a Maryland campaign, the necessity for true position in the premises, I respectfully ask a the occupation and entrenching was appa- suspension of judgment until a sufficient time be rent. Butler's proclamation (May 14th) was
afforded me to collect the necessary proof, and show jservaded with the decision of a stern mili
as I shall be able to do, most conclusively, that the tary commandant, but it brought a sense of
destruction of the bridges was a part of the conspir. security and of protection. His occupation acy of those acting against the Government, and
was known and proclaimed in other parts of the of the city was welcomed by the great ma
State before the destruction was consummated, But jority of its people. The entry of the troops any person who knows my opinion of George P. into the city was the occasion of much re- Kane and Enoch L. Lowe, will at once admit that I joicing. The Baltimore Clipper said : “On would be very slow to assent to any proposition the route to the Hill the streets were throng- emanating from or endorsed by them. Their introed with people, who greeted the military duction into my chamber at the late hour of the with cheers at every step, the ladies at the night, to urge my consent to the perpetration of an windows and doors joining in the applause unlawful act, was not calculated to convince me of by waving their handkerchiefs.” This re- the propriety or necessity of that act. Men do not ception came from the citizens, from house-readily take counsel of their enemies." holders, those who had all at stake in the
After the occupation of the Relay House preservation of law and order, and was,
and Baltimore, troops from the North passed doubtless, all the more hearty from the ex
freely, by railroad, to the Capital, by the perience of mob-law and violence which had Northern Central and Wilmington routes. so nearly ruined the city. From the date of The Baltimore and Ohio road was not open that proclamation the cloud which had even for passenger travel, after the 12th of overshadowed the city began to dissipate, May—the possession of Harper's Ferry giving but it was long before the place recovered the Confederates entire control of the track. from the malign effects of its twenty days Up to that date, the trains ran irregularly, of treason and rebellion.
and with some restrictions ; but, the blowing Large seizures of arms up of culverts to the west of the Potomac, Large Seizures of
followed the advent of compelled the entire through traffic of the Butler's forces. May 14th,
road to cease. it was ascertained that a vessel lay at the
May 16th, Butler was relieved of the comdock loaded ready for Virgivia. Being board- mand of the Department of Annapolis-hayed by an officer, she was found to contain a ing been created Major-General, with orders cargo of Minie rifles and about four thousand to repair to Fortress Monroe. Brigadier-Genpikes, from Winans' machine shops. The
eral of Pennsylvania volunteers, Cadwallader, vessel was removed to the vicinity of Fort was placed in command of the vacated DeMcHenry. The same day Butler relieved partment, heaıl-quarters at Fort McHenry, Marshal Kane of a large quantity of arms
in Baltimore. found stored in a warehouse, consisting of
That the Federal Government proposed a fifteen dray loads of carbines, flint-lock mus
war of offense in its own defense became kets and pikes, from Winans' shops. All were evident by the middle of May. Butler was taken to Fort McHenry. The opposition of placed in command at Fortfered by this Superintendent of Police, Geo. ress Monroe for active opeP. Kane, and his complicity with treason,
rations. Fifteen thousand soon induced his arrest and incarceration in troops—including all the Massachusetts cona military jail. Governor Hicks for some tingents and several of the New York militia
days rested under the odi- regiments—were placed at his disposal and um of having ordered, or
soon found themselves in quarters at the exassented to, the destruction tremity of the York peninsula. When this of the railway bridges. He denied this, and movement was ordered, Scott had definitively gave his opinion of this Kane as follows: arranged for the descent over the Potomac,
"]f the Mayor's communication and accompanying and only awaited the election in Virginia, certificates have induced any person to doubt my (May 23d,) to order the first step forward of
The Federal Govern
the campaign. The heavy concentration of and the Adams' Express North. If Governtroops at Washington looked less like defense ment had examined the secret archives of than advance. The seizure, May 20th, of that carrier company, it would doubtless have telegraphic dispatches, indicated a determi- obtained enlarged ideas of its industry and nation to ferret out all secret conspirators usefulness to the South. yet at work in the North—a stroke of policy Before chronicling the movements over the which quite as greatly terrified the manufac- Potomac initiated by the advance of May turers and importers of arms, as the hidden 24th, it will be necessary to advert to the enemies of the Government. Up to the last progress of affairs in Virginia, Tennessee, moment, when delivery by Adams' Express North Carolina, Arkansas Kentucky and was practicable, the operators in fire-arms Missouri—the first four to place themselves had freely filled Southern orders, and the beside the South, the latter two to vacillate Express Company had freely transported the and experiment with “neutrality,” but finally "goods” to their Southern branch lines. to act out their really loyal sentiments by When the moment came for cutting off all giving a hearty support to the Federal Adcommunication with the Southern States in ministration. The narrative is one of melanrebellion, the Express Company preserved its choly interest, 'but one offering “food for chartered rights by splitting the corporation thought,” and rich with a moral which the into two sections——the Adams' Express South | future may render available.
How the Ordinance
THE secession of Vir- , tirely in consonance with How the Ordinance
ginia has been chronicled. the malign spirit which had
[See page 92 for the Ordi- controlled the secession renance.] The act was accomplished, in secret volution in other States. No sooner was the session of the Convention, April 17th, by a vote on the Ordinance recorded than legislavote of 60 to 53. That it was passed at all tive steps were taken to convey the State to the was owing to threat, bribery, intimidation, Confederate Government. April 25th, Govand a free use of the parliamentary “gag." ernor Letcher proclaimed the passage, by the Up to that moment the Union men had stood Convention, of an Ordinance adopting the Profirm, and were then placed in the minority visional Constitution of the Confederate States, only by the system of terrorism resorted to and announcing, also, that the Convention by Governor Wise and his adherents to force had agreed to a “convention between the the State into the vortex. The unusual con- Commonwealth of Virginia and the Confedcession was granted of submitting the Ordi- erate States !" If the Unionists in the State nance to a vote of the people, (May 23d ;) had believed that the people were to decide but, this concession was merely to secure the the question of secession they were now unvotes of a few wavering men. Events which deceived. Their State was transferred to the quickly followed demonstrated that it was a Southern Confederacy, and the proposed voto deception of an infamous character—one en- on the Ordinance became, from that hour,
The Deed of Transfer.
The Deed of Transfer.
the merest mockery. We place on record same occur, turn over to said
she may then be in possession of, acquired from the
United States, on the same terms and in like manof the Constitution of the Pro
ner as the other States of said Confederacy have
done in like cases. visional Government of the Confederate States of
" 3d. Whatever expenditures of money, if any, America.
“We, the delegates of the people of Virginia, in said Commonwealth of Virginia shall make before Convention assembled, solemnly impressed by the the Union under the Provisional Government, as
above contemplated, shall be consummated, shall perils which surround the Commonwealth, and appealing to the Searcher of Hearts for the rectitude be met and provided for by said Confederate States. of our intentions in assuming the grave responsi.
“ This convention was entered into and agreed to in bility of this act, do by this ordinance, adopt and rat- the city of Richmond, Virginia, on the twenty-fourth ify the Constitution of the Provisional Government day of April, 1861, by Alexander H. Stephens, the of the Confederate States of America, ordained and duly authorized Commissioner to act in the matter established at Montgomery, Alabama, on the eighth for the said Confederate States, and John Tyler, day of February, eighteen hundred and sixty-one ; P. Holcombe, James C. Bruce, and Lewis E. Harvie,
William Ballard Preston, Samuel McD. Moore, James provided that this ordinance shall cease to have any legal operation or effect if the people of this Comparties duly authorized to act in like manner for
said Commonwealth of Virginia ; the whole subject monwealth, upon the vote directed to be taken on
to the approval and ratification of the proper authe ordinance of secession passed by this Convention, on the seventeenth day of April, eighteen hun. thorities of both Governments respectively.
“In testimony whereof, the parties aforesaid have dred and sixty-one, shall reject the same.
hereto set their hands and seals the day and
year aforesaid and at the place aforesaid, in
duplicate originals. “ Convention between the Commonwealth of Virginia and
“ ALEXANDER H. STEPHENS, [Seal.] the Confederate Slutes of America.
“ Commissioner for Confederate States. “ The Commonwealth of Virginia, looking to a speedy union of said Commonwealth and the other
“ JOHN TYLER,
(Seal.] Slave States with the Confederate States of America,
" WM. BALLARD PRESTON, [Seal.]
“ S. McD. MOORE, according to the provisions of the Constitution for
[Seal.] the Provisional Government of said States, enters
“ JAMES P. HOLCOMBE, [Seal.] into the following temporary convention and agree
“ JAMES C. BRUCE,
[Seal.] ment with said States, for the purpose of meeting
“ LEWIS E. HARVIE,
[Seal.) pressing exigencies affeeting the common rights, in
“ Commissioners for Virginia. terests, and safety of said Commonwealth and said " Approved and ratified by the Convention of Confederacy.
Virginia, on the 25th day of April, 1861. " Ist. Until the union of said Commonwealth with
“JOHN JANNEY, President. said Confederacy shall be perfected, and said Com
“ JOHN L. EUBANK, Secretary." monwealth shall become a member of said Confed- Troops actually were ordered to Richmond eracy, according to the Constitution of both powers, from Alabama, Georgia, and South Carolina the whole military force and military operations, before the date of “ ratification" of this conoffensive and defensive, of said Commonwealth, in tract of sale, and, by April 25th, several regithe impending conflict with the United States, shall ments were en route for the Northern renbe under the chief control and direction of the Pres. dezvous at Richmond. ident of said Confederate States, upon the same
The reign of terror was principles, basis, and footing as if said Common
The Reign of Terror.
now fairly inaugurated. wealth were now, and during the interval, a member Union men were silenced ; Northern men doing of said Confederacy.
“ 24. The Commonwealth of Virginia will, after business, or having settled, in Virginia, were the consummation of the union contemplated in this compelled to flee, leaving everything in the Convention, and her adoption of the Constitution way of property to the mercy of the mob. for a Permanent Government of said Confederate One who fled from the scene of violence May States, and she shall become a member of said Con 1st, wrote: “Northern and ultra Union men federacy under said Permanent Constitution, if the began to leave the State in large numbers,
and by every possible means ginia having been denied, her The Reign of Terror. of conveyance. Many who Territorial rights assailed, her
Call for Troops. could not get away became, outwardly, soil threatened with invasion by Secessionists, and
the authorities at Washington, and every artifice em. thus protected.
ployed which could inflame the people of the NorthTo prevent the escape of improper or sus
ern States and misrepresent our purposes and wishes, pected persons, the Mayor of Richmond is
it becomes the solemn duty of every citizen of this sued a proclamation forbidding the organi- State to prepare for the impending conflict. Those zation of Vigilance Committees, or Commit- misrepresentations have been carried to such an tees of Safety, and ordering the people to give extent tha i toreigners and naturalized citizens who, him information of any person “suspected' of hut a few years ago, were denounced by the North being disloyal to Virginia, and he would or- and deprived of essential rights, have now been inder their arrest and trial. A number of ar
duced to enlist into regiments for the purpose of rests were immediately made, and the jailer's invading this State, which then vindicated those business became quite lively. The operation rights and effectually resisted encroachments which
threatened their destruction. Against such a policy of this law, or proclamation, was similar to
and against a force which the Government at Washthat under which New England witches were
ington, relying upon its numerical strength, is now arrested and put to death. To be suspected' rapidly concentrating, it becomes the State of Virwas sufficient cause of arrest. No person was ginia to prepare proper safeguards. To this end and allowed to leave Richmond without a pass. for these purposes, and with a determination to reAt first the Governor gave them—then the pel invasion, I, John Letcher, Governor of the ComMayor, or a deputized police officer : and monwealth of Virginia, by authority of the Conventhey gave passes to whom they pleased. A tion, do hereby authorize the commanding General number of men escaped who were obliged to of the military forces of this state, to call out, and leave everything behind them; with them it to cause to be mustered into the service of Virginia, was a question of life or death, and as life from time to time, as the public exigency may rewas dearer than property, they saved the first quire, such additional number of volunteers as he
may deem necessary. by abandoning the latter. Men were not alone
“To facilitate this call, the annexed schedule will the objects of this persecution; the Richmond indicate the places of rendezvous at which the comDispatch impudently ordered the Northern panies called for will assemble upon receiving orders female teachers to "shut their mouths,' and for service.” that "a word to the wise was sufficient.' The reception of the news of the issue, by
What wonder that, when the day of voting the President, on the same day, of his proclaon the Ordinance came, only thirty-two thou- mation calling for three years' troops, doubtsand votes were polled against it? What less confirmed the Governor's “ worst apprewonder that the people residing west of the hensions,” and gave the madmen some idea Blue Ridge mountains, should repudiate the of the nature of the lion they had arvused. whole atrocious proceedings, and should These high - handed pro
Union Uprising in proceed to reorganize the State Government ceedings, in forcing the
Western Virginia. on its old basis of loyalty to the Federal Gov- State into an attitude of ernment ?
offense, found bitter opponents and public The reign of tyranny hastened the develop- expressions of indignation in those sections ment of events. If treason had lurked in of the Commonwealth where the mob did not shadow, waiting for the moment to strike, rule, and where the Confederate troops had its moment was now come and every re- not yet found their way. As early as May straint was removed—the revolutionists had 4th, a large Union meeting was called at entire sway. May 3d, Governor Letcher, Kingwood, Preston county, at which the voice snuffing the battle afar off, found ample ex- was unanimous for a division of the State, in cuse in the gathering hosts at Washington order that the Western section might continue for issuing the following manifesto, calling to be represented in the Federal Congress. out the militia, of whom many thousands The meeting expressed its unalterable hostiliwere already under arms :
ty to secession, and took steps looking to a ** The sovereignty of the Commonwealth of Vir. ' Convention of the Western counties. The