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for a Maryland campaign, the necessity for true position in the premises, I respectfully ask & the occupation and entrenching was appa- suspension of judgment until a sufficient time be rent. Butler's proclamation (May 14th) was

afforded me to collect the necessary proof, and show pervaded with the decision of a stern mili

as I shall be able to do, most conclusively, that the tary commandant, but it brought a sense of

destruction of the bridges was a part of the conspir. security and of protection. His occupation acy of those acting against the Government, and of the city was welcomed by the great ma

was known and proclaimed in other parts of the

State before the destruction was consummated. But jority of its people. The entry of the troops any person who knows my opinion of George P. into the city was the occasion of much re

Kane and Enoch L. Lowe, will at once admit that I joicing. The Baltimore Clipper said : “On would be very slow to assent to any proposition the route to the Hill the streets were throng- emanating from or endorsed by them. Their intro. ed with people, who greeted the military duction into my chamber at the late hour of the with cheers at every step, the ladies at the night, to urge my consent to the perpetration of an windows and doors joining in the applause unlawful act, was not calculated to convince me of hy waving their handkerchiefs.” This re- the propriety or necessity of that act. Men do not ception came from the citizens, from house- readily take counsel of their enemies." holders, those who had all at stake in the

After the occupation of the Relay House preservation of law and order, and was,

and Baltimore, troops from the North passed doubtless, all the more hearty from the ex

freely, by railroad, to the Capital, by the perience of mob-law and violence which had Northern Central and Wilmington routes. so nearly ruined the city. From the date of The Baltimore and Ohio road was not open that proclamation the cloud which had even for passenger travel, after the 12th of overshadowed the city began to dissipate, May—the possession of Harper's Ferry giving but it was long before the place recovered the Confederates entire control of the track. from the malign effects of its twenty days Up to that date, the trains ran irregularly, of treason and rebellion.

and with some restrictions; but, the blowing Large seizures of arms up of culverts to the west of the Potomac, Large Seizures of

followed the advent of compelled the entire through traffic of the

Butler's forces. May 14th, road to cease. it was ascertained that a vessel lay at the May 16th, Butler was relieved of the comdock loaded ready for Virgivia. Being board- mand of the Department of Annapolis-haved by an officer, she was found to contain a ing been created Major-General, with orders cargo of Minie rifles and about four thousand to repair to Fortress Monroe. Brigadier-Gen. pikes, from Winans' machine shops. The

eral of Pennsylvania volunteers, Cadwallader, vessel was removed to the vicinity of Fort was placed in command of the vacated DeMcHenry. The same day Butler relieved partment, heaıl-quarters at Fort McHenry, Marshal Kane of a large quantity of arms

in Baltimore. found stored in a warehouse, consisting of

That the Federal Government proposed a fifteen dray loads of carbines, flint-lock mus

war of offense in its own defense became kets and pikes, from Winans' shops. All were evident by the middle of May. Butler was taken to Fort Mcllenry. The opposition of placed in command at Fortfered by this Superintendent of Police, Geo. ress Monroe for active opeP. Kane, and his complicity with treason, rations. Fifteen thousand soon induced his arrest and incarceration in troops—including all the Massachusetts cona military jail. Governor Hicks for some tingents and several of the New York militia

days rested under the odi- regiments--were placed at his disposal and um of having ordered, or

soon found themselves in quarters at the exassented to, the destruction tremity of the York peninsula. of the railway bridges. He denied this, and movement was ordered, Scott had definitively gave his opinion of this Kane as follows: anged for the descent over the Potomac,

" If the Mayor's communication and accompanying and only awaited the election in Virginia, certificates have induced any person to doubt my (May 23d,) to order the first step forward of


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The Federal Govern.

mrent's Plan.

Governor Hicks'


When this





the campaign. The heavy concentration of , and the Adams' Express North. If Governtroops at Washington looked less like defense ment had examined the secret archives of than advance. The seizure, May 20th, of that carrier company, it would doubtless have telegraphic dispatches, indicated a determi- obtained enlarged ideas of its industry and nation to ferret out all secret conspirators usefulness to the South. yet at work in the North—a stroke of policy Before chronicling the movements over the which quite as greatly terrified the manufac- Potomac initiated by the advance of May turers and importers of arms, as the hidden | 24th, it will be necessary to advert to the enemies of the Government. Up to the last progress of affairs in Virginia, Tennessee, moment, when delivery by Adams' Express North Carolina, Arkansas, Kentucky and was practicable, the operators in fire-arms Missouri—the first four to place themselves had freely filled Southern orders, and the beside the South, the latter two to vacillate Express Company had freely transported the and experiment with “neutrality,” but finally "goods” to their Southern branch lines. to act out their really loyal sentiments by When the moment came for cutting off all giving a hearty support to the Federal Adcommunication with the Southern States in ministration. The narrative is one of melanrebellion, the Express Company preserved its choly interest, but one offering “food for chartered rights by splitting the corporation thought,” and rich with a moral which the into two sections—the Adams' Express South | future may render available.

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How the Ordinance

was Passed.

was Passed.

The secession of Vir- , tirely in consonance with How the Ordinance

ginia has been chronicled. the malign spirit which had

[See page 92 for the Ordi- controlled the secession renance.] The act was accomplished, in secret volution in other States. No sooner was the session of the Convention, April 17th, by a vote on the Ordinance recorded than legislavote of 60 to 53. That it was passed at all tive steps were taken to convey the State to the was owing to threat, bribery, intimidation, Confederate Government. April 25th, Govand a free use of the parliamentary “gag." ernor Letcher proclaimed the passage, by the Up to that moment the Union men had stood Convention, of an Ordinance adopting the Profirm, and were then placed in the minority visional Constitution of the Confederate States, only by the system of terrorism resorted to and announcing, also, that the Convention by Governor Wise and his adherents to force had agreed to a “convention between the the State into the vortex. The unusual con- Commonwealth of Virginia and the Confedcession was granted of submitting the Ordi- erate States !" If the Unionists in the State nance to a vote of the people, (May 23d ;) had believed that the people were to decide but, this concession was merely to secure the the question of secession they were now unvotes of a few wavering men. Events which deceived. Their State was transferred to the quickly followed demonstrated that it was a Southern Confederacy, and the proposed voto deception of an infamous character—one en- on the Ordinance became, from that hour,

The Deed of Transfer.

The Deed of Transfer.

the merest mockery. We place on record | same occur, turn over to said those two precious documents sealing Vir- | Confederate States all the pubginia's doom and registering the dishonor of lic property, naval stores, and munitions of war, &c., her controlling men :

she may then be in possession of, acquired from the An ordinance for the adoption

United States, on the same terms and in like manof the Constitution of the Pro

ner as the other States of said Confederacy have

done in like cases. visional Government of the Confederate Stules of

“ 3d. Whatever expenditures of money, if any, America.

We, the delegates of the people of Virginia, in said Commonwealth of Virginia shall make before Convention assembled, solemnly impressed by the the Union under the Provisional Government, as perils which surround the Commonwealth, and ap

above contemplated, shall be consummated, shall

be met and provided for by said Confederate States. pealing to the Searcher of Hearts for the rectitude

“ This convention was entered into and agreed to in of our intentions in assuming the grave responsibility of this act, do by this ordinance, adopt and rat

the city of Richmond, Virginia, on the twenty-fourth ify the Constitution of the Provisional Government day of April, 1861, by Alexander H. Stephens, the of the Confederate States of America, ordained and duly authorized Commissioner to act in the matter established at Montgomery, Alabama, on the eighth

for the said Confederate States, and John Tyler,

William Ballard Preston, Samuel McD. Moore, James day of February, eighteen hundred and sixty-one ;

P. Holcombe, James C. Bruce, and Lewis E. Harvie, provided that this ordinance shall cease to have any legal operation or effect if the people of this Comparties duly authorized to act in like manner for

said Commonwealth of Virginia ; the whole subject monwealth, upon the vote directed to be taken on

to the approval and ratification of the proper authe ordinance of secession passed by this Conven.

thorities of both Governments respectively. tion, on the seventeenth day of April, eighteen hun

“In testimony whereof, the parties aforesaid have dred and sixty-one, shall reject the same. " A true copy.

hereto set their hands and seals the day and " JNO. L. EUBANK, Secretary."

year aforesaid and at the place aforesaid, in “ Convention between the Commonwealth of Virginia and

duplicate originals.

“ ALEXANDER H. STEPHENS, (Seal.] the Confederate Stutes of America.

“ Commissioner for Confederate States. “ The Commonwealth of Virginia, looking to a speedy union of said Commonwealth and the other


[Seal.) Slave States with the Confederate States of America,

“ WM. BALLARD PRESTON, [Seal.] according to the provisions of the Constitution for

“ S. McD. MOORE,

[Seal.) the Provisional Government of said States, enters

" JAMES P. HOLCOMBE, (Seal.] into the following temporary convention and agree


(Seal.] ment with said States, for the purpose of meeting


[Seal.) pressing exigencies affecting the common rights, in

“ Commissioners for Virginia. terests, and safety of said Commonwealth and said “ Approved and ratified by the Convention of Confederacy.

Virginia, on the 25th day of April, 1861. · 1st. Until the union of said Commonwealth with

JOHN JANNEY, President. said Confederacy shall be perfected, and said Com

“ JOHN L. EUBANK, Secretary." monwealth shall become a member of said Confed- Troops actually were ordered to Richmond eracy, according to the Constitution of both powers, from Alabama, Georgia, and South Carolina the whole military force and military operations, before the date of “ ratification" of this conoffensive and defensive, of said Commonwealth, in tract of sale, and, by April 25th, several regithe impending conflict with the United States, shall ments were en route for the Northern renbe under the chief control and direction of the Pres. dezvous at Richmond. ident of said Confederate States, upon the same

The reign of terror was principles, basis, and footing as if said Common

The Reign of Terror.

now fairly inaugurated. wealth were now, and during the interval, a member

Union men were silenced ; Northern men doing of said Confederacy.

“ 24. The Commonwealth of Virginia will, after business, or having settled, in Virginia, were the consummation of the union contemplated in this compelled to flee, leaving everything in the Convention, and her adoption of the Constitution way of property to the mercy of the mob. for a Permanent Government of said Confederate One who fled from the scene of violence May States, and she shall become a member of said Con 1st, wrote: “Northern and ultra Union men federacy under said Permanent Constitution, if the began to leave the State in large numbers,






Governor Letcher's


and by every possible means / ginia having been denied, her
The Reign of Terror.
of conveyance. Many who Territorial rights assailed, her

Call for Troops.
could not get away became, outwardly, soil threatened with invasion by
Secessionists, and

the authorities at Washington, and every artifice em. thus protected.

ployed which could inflame the people of the NorthTo prevent the escape of improper or sus

ern States and misrepresent our purposes and wishes, pected persons, the Mayor of Richmond is

it becomes the solemn duty of every citizen of this sued a proclamation forbidding the organi- State to prepare for the impending conflict. Those zation of Vigilance Committees, or Commit- misre presentations have been carried to such an tees of Safety, and ordering the people to give extent tha i toreigners and naturalized citizens who, him information of any person suspected' of but a few years ago, were denounced by the North being disloyal to Virginia, and he would or- and deprived of essential rights, have now been inder their arrest and trial. A number of ar

duced to enlist into regiments for the purpose of rests were immediately made, and the jailer's invading this State, which then vindicated those business became quite lively. The operation rights and effectually resisted encroachments which

threatened their destruction. Against such a policy of this law, or proclamation, was similar to

and against a force which the Government at Washthat under which New England witches were

ington, relying upon its numerical strength, is now arrested and put to death. To be suspected rapidly concentrating, it becomes the State of Virwas sufficient cause of arrest. No person was ginia to prepare proper safeguards. To this end and allowed to leave Richmond without a pass. for these purposes, and with a determination to reAt first the Governor gave them—then the pel invasion, I, John Letcher, Governor of the ComMayor, or a deputized police officer : and monwealth of Virginia, by authority of the Conventhey gave passes to whom they pleased. A tion, do hereby authorize the commanding General number of men escaped who were obliged to

of the military forces of this State, to call out, and leave everything behind them; with them it to cause to be mustered into the service of Virginia, was a question of life or death, and as life from time to time, as the public exigency may rewas dearer than property, they saved the first quire, such additional number of volunteers as he

may deem necessary. by abandoning the latter. Men were not alone

“To facilitate this call, the annexed schedule will the objects of this persecution; the Richmond indicate the places of rendezvous at which the comDispatch impudently ordered the Northern panies called for will assemble upon receiving orders female teachers to shut their mouths,' and for service.” that a word to the wise was sufficient.'' The reception of the news of the issue, by

What wonder that, when the day of voting the President, on the same day, of his proclaon the Ordinance came, only thirty-two thou- mation calling for three years' troops, doubtsand votes were polled against it? What less confirmed the Governor's “ worst apprewonder that the people residing west of the hensions," and gave the madmen some idea Blue Ridge mountains, should repudiate the of the nature of the lion they had aroused. whole atrocious proceedings, and should These high - handed pro

Union Uprising in proceed to reorganize the State Government ceedings, in forcing the

Western Virginia. on its old basis of loyalty to the Federal Gov. State into an attitude of ernment?

offense, found bitter opponents and public The reign of tyranny hastened the develop- expressions of indignation in those sections ment of events. If treason had lurked in of the Commonwealth where the mob did not shadow, waiting for the moment to strike, rule, and where the Confederate troops had its moment was now come and every re- not yet found their way. As early as May straint was removed—the revolutionists had 4th, a large Union meeting was called at

May 3d, Governor Letcher, Kingwood, Preston county, at which the voice snuffing the battle afar off, found ample ex- was unanimous for a division of the State, in cuse in the gathering hosts at Washington order that the Western section might continue for issuing the following manifesto, calling to be represented in the Federal Congress. out the militia, of whom many thousands The meeting expressed its unalterable hostiliwere already under arms :

ty to secession, and took steps looking to a ** The sovereignty of the Commonwealth of Vir. ' Convention of the Western counties. The

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entire sway.


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movements of the mer- | servient, to a contemptible degree, to the Union Uprising in Western Virginia.

chants of Wheeling indi- sentiments of the slaveholding few

cated the gathering storm. not slow to betray the aristocratic tendency These patriotic men resolved to pay no tax of the revolution proposed.* The Richmond "to support the usurped Government at Examiner, early in May, wrote: Richmond.” The resolutions rang out with · In the Northern Stales exists the government of pure the ring of the old spirit which said—“We Democrvy. The lowest, most ignorant, and coarspay King George no further tribute !” These est part of the whole people, who make the major. meetings were the little beginnings from ity of it, control the action of the Government by the whose results sprang the new Government of immediate exercise of their volition, impress upon Virginia, which the President recognized as

it their violence, their instability of opinion and the true and only loyal Government of the fickleness of feeling, and render it, in all respects,

the agent of their crude and unfounded ideas of a State, and whose representatives to the National Congress were admitted to seats.

The essence of the Constitution of the United Virginia was fully adopt- States was representative Democracy. But the conThe Last Act of

ed into the Southern Continual strides of innovation, guided by demagognes, Tyranny.

federacy May 6th, by act have destroyed the representative principle in the of the Confederate Congress. Two of her Northern States. Public officers in those countries delegates were then sworn in and took their reflect the popular feeling of the moment, instead seats. As the people were not to vote upon of that National sentiment and opinion that is formthe Ordinance of Secession until May ed after experience and second thought. In this the this admission demonstrates with what disre- South is wholly different from the North. The loured gard of the people the Conventions and the

* The communication of Commodore Stewart Congress acted. Overriding voters was part (" Old Ironsides") to Mr. Childs, of Philadelphia, of the “system” of the Southern Government (under date of May 4th, 1861,) regarding his interto which Mr. Stephens, in his celebrated Ex- | view with John C. Calhoun in the latter part of De. position (see pages 63–64) had not adverted; cember, 1812, is so interesting as bearing on this but, the contempt generally entertained, in point that we may quote : the South, of their own poor whites — the “ I observed, with great simplicity,' You in the South and aristocratic idea upon which the institution South-west are decidedly the aristocratic portion of this

Union. You are so in holding persons in perpetuity in slav. of slavery itself was founded — the stigma

ery; you are so in every domestic quality; so in every babit fixed upon all white working men and me- of your lives, living and actions; so in babits, customs, inchanics by the “ruling classes” — render it tercourse and manners; you neither work with your hands,

head, nor any machinery, but live and have your living, easy to believe that, in the “new order of

not in accordance with the will of your Creator, but by the things,” the democratic principle of a major-sweat of Slavery; and yet you assume all the attributes, ity rule was not to be accepted. The Slave professions and advantages of Democracy.'”

“ Mr. Calhoun replied : ' I see you speak through the head owners, breeders and traders comprised but

of a young statesman, and from the heart of a patriot; but a meagre minority of the entire white popu- you lose sight of the politician and the sectional policy of the lation of the South; yet, this minority was people. I admit your conclusions in respect to us Southrons resolved to rule, and for that dissevered their

-that we are essentially aristocratic. I cannot deny but we

can and do yield much to Democracy; this is our sectional relations with the Free States.

po icy. We are from necessity thrown upon and solemnly That, even in Virginia, wedded to that party, however it may occasionally clash “ the people” were to be

with our feelings, for the conservation of our interests. It is Many. made subservient to the through our affiliation with that party in the Middle and

Western States, we control, under the Constitution, the gove few, is susceptible of easy proof. The entire erning of the United States; but, when we cease thus to conduct of the Slave interest throughout the control this Nation through a disjoined Democracy, or any

material obstacle in that party which shall tend to throw us secession revolution, and the final steps taken

out of that rule and control, we shall then resort to the disto link the fortunes of the State to the Slave solution of the Union. The compromises in the Constitutwn, Confederacy before the people could exercise under the then circumstances, were sufficient for our fatbers, any voice in the transaction, is evidence of but, under the altered condition of the country from that

poriod, leave to the South no resource but dissolution; for do the purposes of those conspirators against amendments to the Constitution could be reached through a democracy. The press in the South-sub- Convention of the people and their three-fourths rule.'”

The Few to Rule the

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