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cle, east of which place we destroyed consider- command crossed the river near the burnt bridge, able of the track, and passed through Rutledge and went on foot seven miles, to Greensboro, Station at noon, near which place we halted for driving a small force of cavalry through the town, dinner. At this place destroyed the dépôt, and taking possession of it. After remaining in water-tank, and other railroad buildings, and tore undisturbed possession of the town for several up and burned the track. Encamped for the hours, and having convinced the inhabitants that night within two miles of Madison, having the most of General Sherman's army was close marched eighteen miles. The roads from Social by, with designs upon Augusta, this little party Circle to Madison were excellent, and the coun- returned safely, recrossing the river in canoes. try was much superior to that previously passed I learned the next day that the enemy were tearthrough. Forage was abundant on every side, ing up the Georgia Railroad at Union Point, and during the day we made captures of horses seven miles east of Greensboro, apparently being and mules. possessed with the idea that General Sherman's army was moving on Augusta, and using the railroad as it came. From all, I could learn, then and since, it is my opinion that my small command could at that time have penetrated to Augusta, without serious opposition.
November 19.—In accordance with orders from the General commanding the corps, my command was detached, and moved at five A.M., unencumbered with wagons, leaving my whole train to be brought on with those of the other division. I passed through Madison before daylight, and moved along the road parallel to the Georgia Railroad, halting for dinner at Buck Head Station, where I destroyed the water-tank, station engine, and all the railroad buildings. After marching a mile beyond the station, I again halted, and destroyed a portion of the railroad, also a large quantity of cord-wood and other railroad materials. At Buck Head Station my advance exchanged shots with the enemy's scouts. I sent on a detachment in advance of the main body to drive these scouts and whatever there might be of the enemy's cavalry in the vicinity across the Oconee, and to burn the railroad bridge across the river; also another detachment several miles above, to destroy a large mill and the ferry-boats across the Apalachee. Both of these parties were successful; the railroad bridge, which was a fine structure about four hundred yards long and sixty feet high from the water, and was approached by several hundred yards of trestlework at each end, was thoroughly destroyed. At Blue Spring I halted, and set my troops to work destroying railroad. Here, at night, encamped on the plantation of Colonel Lee Jordan, on which I found two hundred and eighty bales of cotton and fifty thousand bushels of corn stored for the rebel government. All the cotton and the most of the corn was destroyed. In addition to this, my command destroyed elsewhere during the day two hundred and fifty bales of cotton and several cotton-gins and mills. I also destroyed in all to-day about five miles of railroad and a large quantity of railroad-ties and string-timbers.
Leaving Park's Mill, and having crossed Sugar Creek, I came to Glade's Cross-Roads, when I took the one leading to the left; moving one and a half miles on this road, I again turned to the left on a smaller one, and encamped at dark near the large tannery and shoe factory and store owned by James Denham, one of the most extensive establishments of the kind in the South. Most of the leather stock and goods had been carried off; a few boxes of shoes and leather were found hidden in a barn, and were turned over to the quartermaster's department for issue. My skirmishers and foraging parties during this day's march spread through all the country between the Oconee and the route of march taken by the rest of the corps. A large number of splendid mules and beef cattle and some horses were captured, and the troops lived well on the produce of the country. Distance to-day, ten miles.
November 21.-A heavy rain fell all last night, and continued throughout to-day, rendering the roads very deep and the streams much swollen. After entirely destroying Denham's tannery and factory, I moved at eight A.M. on the road to Philadelphia Church; reaching which, I took the Milledgeville road, crossed Crooked Creek, and encamped at the forks of the road, one leading to Dennis Mill and Station, the other to Waller's Ferry, at the mouth of Little River. A very heavy cold rain fell all day, and marching was quite difficult. The country passed through was a rich one, and supplies were abundant. Distance marched, eight miles. The rain ceased toward night, and the air become very cold. Among our captures to-day was Colonel White, of the Thirty-seventh Tennessee regiment. He had been in command of the post at Eatonton, and in attempting to escape from the other column of our troops, fell into my hands.
November 20.-Moved at seven A.M.; the weather rainy, the roads very deep and swampy. Leaving the railroad, I moved toward the Oconee, which was reached two miles below the railroad bridge, and then moved down parallel to the river to Park's Mill, which was burned. The November 22.-The weather was extremely bridge across the river at this place had been cold. Moved at six A.M., taking the road to previously washed away, and ferry-boats were Dennis Station, having previously ascertained used at the crossing. These I destroyed. Some that it would be impossible for my command to annoyance was experienced as we moved along the river-bank from squads of rebel cavalry on the opposite shore. They were, however, soon driven off. A small party sent out from my
cross Little River below the crossing of the railroad, there being no bridge, and the ferry-boats having been destroyed by the inhabitants. Crossed Rooty Creek at Dennis Mill.
in park, and the troops of the First division skirmishing with Wheeler's cavalry, and driving them through Sandersville. Moved on to Sandersville, where I parked my trains, and having left them under charge of Third division, proceeded to Tennille, (Station No. Thirteen, on the Central Railroad.) Upon reaching the railroad, I moved eastward, destroying two miles of the road, and went into camp near a school-house four miles east of Tennille. One battalion of Michigan Engineers, under Major Yates, reported to me for duty, assisted in the destruction of the rails, and encamped with my troops at night. Distance marched, thirteen miles.
stream here was quite large, and over it I constructed a foot-bridge for the infantry, fording it with horses, artillery, and ambulances. Burned the mill and a cotton-gin and press in the vicinity, destroying a large amount of grain and cotton. Moved on to the railroad, which I reached at Dennis Station, and where I found the rear of the train of the other divisions just passing. Moved on in rear of the train to Little River, where I received orders to advance immediately to Milledgeville; accordingly crossed the river on the pontoon-bridge, passing the trains with much difficulty, and reached Milledgeville at dark, the other division having already encamped. Having passed through the town, I crossed the Oconee on the large bridge, and went into camp on the left of the First division, with my left resting near the river. Marched during the day twenty miles. Weather to-night intensely cold. November 23.-Remained in camp. In the afternoon, sent out my Third brigade to the Gordon and Milledgeville Railroad, where I remained until dark, destroying track. November 24.-In accordance with orders, mov-road west of Davisboro from the point indicated ed at seven A.M., but finding the road completely blockaded with trains, I did not get my column fairly in motion until ten o'clock. Just before dark, crossed Town Creek, the bridge over which was very bad, and went into camp near Gum Creek; the First division being encamped about three quarters of a mile in advance, the Third division about the same distance in my rear. The road travelled, although rather hilly, was in the main good. Marched during the day fourteen miles.
November 25.-Moved at half-past six A.M., and marched about half a mile, when I came upon the trains preceding me, not yet drawn out of park, and was obliged to halt until nine o'clock, when I moved steadily forward until reaching Buffalo Creek, where I found the troops and trains of the First division halted. This creek is an extensive, heavily timbered, swampy stream, being nearly half a mile wide where the road passes through it. The stream or swamp is here divided into eight channels, which are spanned by as many bridges, varying in length from thirty to one hundred feet each. Between these, earthen causeways are thrown up. These bridges had been destroyed by the enemy, and were reconstructed by two o'clock P.M., under the superintendence of Captain Poe, Chief Engineer on the staff of Major-General Sherman. By dark, the road in my front was clear, and I crossed my command, encamping for the night one and a half miles east of the creek. The crossing, in the extreme darkness of the night, and through the swampy roads east of the creek, was a very laborious one. During the night, shots were exchanged between my pickets and some of Wheeler's cavalry. Distance marched, nine miles.
November 26.-Moved at six A.M. After marching about two miles, came up with the trains preceding me, which had not yet left park. Here I parked my trains, being detained for two hours. Marching two miles further, again found the trains
November 27. In accordance with orders, moved this morning at seven o'clock, destroying the railroad for four miles to a point indicated, where a road crosses the railroad seven miles from Station No. Thirteen. From here, in pursuance of my orders, I marched to Davisboro by the most direct road, and there encamped about nine P.M. Distance marched, twelve miles. November 28.-The work of destroying the rail
above, which was assigned, by orders, to the First
November 29.-Moved at half-past six A.M.,
fences, which had been erected a few days previous during a fight between the cavalry of Kilpatrick and Wheeler. The bridge was destroyed, and the enemy's pickets fired upon us from the eastern bank. These were soon driven away by a regiment of my command, and the bridge was reconstructed by the Michigan Engineers. I crossed it with my advance at three P.M., and encamped on the east side of the creek, in the vicinity of Buck Head Church.
following the main Louisville road for seven miles to Fleming's house; there turning square to the right by a small road, moved eight miles to Spiers Station, (No. Eleven,) which I reached at one o'clock. After a short halt for dinner, moved on, following the road toward Station No. Ten, and encamped about seven P.M. on the east side of a small creek which crossed the road six miles from Station No. Eleven, the camp of the First division being about one mile and a half in advance of mine. The roads travelled to-day December 3.-My division having been assignwere generally good, and quite dry and hard west ed the rear of the corps, did not leave camp until of Spiers Station; east of that place, there was eleven A.M., when I moved, following closely the considerable swamp and marshy ground. The rear of the Third division. Colonel Dustin's bricountry through which we passed on the Louis-gade, of that division, having been directed to ville road was excellent, the plantations being report to me, was assigned the charge of the train large and the buildings fine. After leaving that of Kilpatrick's cavalry, which was given me to road, the country is poorer, and appears to be guard. Lieutenant Newkirk's .battery was also newly settled. Distance travelled was twenty- under my orders, and was placed in rear of my one miles. Third brigade, which followed the trains. About November 30.-Marched at six A.M., and reach- five miles north of Millen, and not far from the ing the encampment of the First division, found railroad, there is a prison-pen or stockade, in the troops had not yet left. At half-past ten, fol- which had, until recently, been confined some lowed that division north toward Louisville, leav-three thousand of our soldiers. The stockade ing Jones's brigade, which was then about three was about eight hundred feet square, and inclosand a half miles distant, at the railroad bridge ed nearly fifteen acres. It was made of heavy across the Ogeechee, to destroy that and the pine logs, rising from twelve to fifteen feet above wagon-bridge across the river, and then to follow the ground; on the top of these logs, at intervals to Louisville. After halting a few hours for din- of some eighty yards, were placed sentry-boxes. ner, and to repair the bridge over the Ogeechee, Inside of the stockade, running parallel to it, at which had been partly burned by the rebel cav- a distance from it of thirty feet, was a fence of alry, we crossed the river and encamped, at dark, light scantling, supported on short posts. This two miles beyond, on the east side of Big Creek, was the "dead line." About one third of the on a high hill overlooking miles of the country, area, on the western side, was occupied with a and two and a half miles south of Louisville. The crowd of irregular earthen huts, evidently made country on both sides of the Ogeechee is an ex- by the prisoners. tensive swamp, with thick, tangled growth. These swamps, however, have good sandy bottoms, and it was not difficult to pass through them. The distance marched was ten miles.
December 1.-Moved at seven A.M., my division leading, following the road toward Millen. My advance was preceded by the Ninth Illinois mounted infantry. Crossed Big Dry Spring and Baker's Creeks, passing through the camp of Carlin's division of the Fourteenth corps, west of Baker's Creek, and encamped one and a half miles from Bark Camp Creek. The country passed through on this day's march was very swampy, although the roads in the main were very good. The facilities for forage were not as ample as on the previous days, the plantations being comparatively few; and although these few bore marks of having been well cultivated, the stock and provisions had been mostly removed. The distance travelled was thirteen miles.
December 2.-My division, still retaining the advance, moved at six A.M., and crossing Bark Camp Creek, moved easterly in the direction of Buck Head Creek, which I reached about noon. The roads travelled were excellent, following the course of a low dividing ridge. Passed but few plantations; among these was that of Dr. Jones, about five miles west of Buck Head Creek-one of the finest in this part of Georgia. Upon approaching the creek, I found a number of rail de
In these were lying unburied three of our dead soldiers, which were buried by us. Through the eastern part of the pen ran a ravine with a stream of good water. The atmosphere in the inclosure was very foul and fetid. A short distance outside the stockade was a long trench, at the head of which was a board bearing the inscription : "650 buried here." On rising ground, a short distance south-east of the prison, were two forts, not yet completed; south-west of this stockade was a smaller one in process of construction. This prison, if indeed it can be designated as such, afforded convincing proofs that the worst accounts of the sufferings of our prisoners at Andersonville, at Americus, and Millen, were by no means exaggerated. I crossed the railroad about three miles north of Millen. The track at the crossing had been destroyed, and the ties were burning, this work having been performed by the troops preceding. A short distance beyond the creek, my column and trains became involved in a long and almost impassable swamp. To add to the difficulty, night closed in before my advance had crossed, and it was with the utmost labor, and only by the united efforts of myself, officers, and troops, that I succeeded in bringing the wagons through. Encamped for the night within three miles of Big Horse Creek, the advance division of the corps being camped on the creek. The rear of my
column did not reach camp until half-past six A.M. of the fourth. The distance marched during the day was ten miles.
December 4.-Moved at half-past seven A.M., still in rear of the corps, and about noon came up with the Third division trains, in park on the western side of Crooked Run.
The eastern side of this stream presents an extensive, level, swampy track of land, across which trains could not pass until the roads were corduroyed. I found the Michigan Engineers engaged at this work. The last of the Third division train crossed at dark. I then crossed my command, and by half-past eleven P.M. had encamped them about one mile east of the creek, leaving Jones's brigade in camp on the other side. The weather continued fine — country poor, roads good, excepting through the large swamps at Big Horse Creek and Crooked Run. Distance to-day, four miles.
December 5.-Moved at half-past six A.M., crossed, during the day, Little Horse Creek, south fork of Little Ogeechee and Little Ogeechee, destroying all the bridges after crossing. Much of the route to-day was through swamps which had to be corduroyed for my trains. At the south fork of Little Ogeechee, I destroyed a large saw-mill. Here we heard what the inhabitants stated to be cannon in Charleston harbor, about one hundred miles distant. Weather pleasant, country poor. Distance to-day, twelve miles.
December 6.-Moved at eight A.M., being the Second division in line of march; was obliged to halt twice, during the forenoon, for the trains preceding to move out of my way. After having moved my command, advanced a mile, and found all the trains of the Third division parked, and waiting for a long swamp to be corduroyed. I found but a few men working on the road, and immediately set a portion of my command at work, giving my personal superintendence until it was finished, at dark. The Third division trains then crossed, followed by my entire command. Crossed another smaller swamp, a short distance beyond, and encamped my division on good dry ground. The country was better than usual along the route to-day, and foraging parties were quite successful. Weather warm and pleasant. Distance, seven miles.
December 7.-The forenoon was rainy. Moved at seven A.M., and passed through a succession of terrible swamps, the surface-crust of which, in many places, would not bear up either man or horse. I distributed my entire division along the trains, so that each brigade, regiment, and company had its specified number of teams to bring through. With this arrangement, under the personal superintendence and efforts of myself, my brigade commanders and my staff, but little delay was allowed to occur, although so bad were the roads, that at one time I counted twenty-four loaded wagons sunk to the wagon-beds. Mules, in some places, went in nearly out of sight, but the trains were kept quite well closed up through all these difficulties. Twice, during
the forenoon, I halted, and massed my troops and trains, until those preceding me moved on. As we approached Turkey Creek, the road improved. About one P. M. the rain ceased, and the sun shone out warm and pleasant. At two P.M., reached Turkey Creek, quite a wide, fordable stream, with good bottom. Across this creek the corps pioneers had constructed a bridge for the troops, after cutting away a quantity of timber which had been felled to hinder our progress. By five P.M., the division preceding had finished crossing. I then crossed my command, moved three miles forward on an excellent road, and encamped within a half-mile of Springfield. Distance, fifteen miles.
December 8.-Received orders to march in advance of the corps toward Monteith, leaving my trains under guard of the Third division. Moved at six A.M. on a road running south by east from Springfield. After following this road six miles, was ordered to take a small road branching off to the right, with a view of finding some middle road to Monteith. Followed this road, general direction west by south, for seven miles, and encamped in the woods, about one and a half miles from the Louisville road, on which the Seventeenth corps was then moving. The looked-for middle road was not found today. The roads were generally fair, although we crossed several small swamps. In them we found timber felled across the road. This was removed by our pioneers, without delaying the march more than thirty minutes at any one time. Most of our route, to-day, was through pine forests. We passed a number of plantation houses in these forests, and quite a large supply of potatoes, sugar-cane, fodder, mutton, and poultry was obtained. It is worthy of note that the swamp water through this region is excellent for drinking purposes, being much superior to the well water. Weather, to-day, pleasant. Distance, thirteen miles.
December 9.-Moved at half-past eight A.M., following the First division. At Zion Church we struck the Louisville road, and there turned to the left, on the main road running due east to Monteith Station. At Monteith Swamp, five miles west of the station, we found the most extensive obstructions yet met with. The swamp is a very large one, about two miles wide where the road crosses it. Throughout this two miles of crossing, the enemy had felled great quantities of timber, and at the eastern side of the swamp had erected two small redoubts with flanking rifle-pits. In these works they had two pieces of light artillery, supported by a small force of infantry. The artillery was so posted as to rake the road running through the swamp. While the division preceding me was engaged in movements for the dispersion or capture of the force opposing us, my command was halted and massed at the western side of the swamp. Receiving orders to that effect, I sent Jones's brigade rapidly forward to support Carman's brigade, of the First division, which was working its way through to our right of the enemy's
position. The services of this brigade were us, keeping up a steady fire throughout the day, afterward found not to be required. At dusk, my command was encamped on good dry ground, between the two portions of Monteith Swamp. Weather, to-day, was fine, roads were excellent. Distance, six miles.
SIEGE OF SAVANNAH.
December 10.-Order of march in the corps today, First, Third, and Second divisions, the trains of the entire corps being guarded by my troops. My command moved at ten A. M., on the direct road to Monteith Station. This road is broad, solid, and perfectly level. We passed the two redoubts captured last evening, and reached Monteith Station on the Charleston Railroad, ten miles from Savannah, at noon. Here the troops preceding me had destroyed considerable of the track. Having nooned, I moved toward Savannah on the Augusta road, the advance of the Fourteenth corps coming in on that road and reaching Monteith as I left it.
The advance of our corps having found the enemy behind their fortifications about three miles from Savannah, I received orders to encamp for the night near the five-mile post. The trains came forward and parked in the woods in the vicinity of the troops. Distance to-day, ten miles. December 11.-At seven A.M., Barnum's brigade was sent to reconnoitre between the Augusta road and Savannah River to ascertain exactly the enemy's position in that direction. The duty was quickly performed, and their entire line was developed to the river, where my skirmishers drove the enemy from an advanced work into their main line, capturing a few prisoners. At ten A.M., my other brigade were brought up, and my line was established along an old rice-field dyke, myself (Barnum's brigade) resting on the river bank, my right (Pardee's brigade) extending toward the Augusta road, while Jones's brigade was massed in reserve in rear of Barnum's. Toward night the left of the First division moved forward, and connected with my right. Sloan's battery reported to me during the afternoon, and took position on the river bank near Jones's brigade. My front line was concealed by the woods, with the exception of my left, which lay in open ground within two hundred and fifty yards of a large work on the river bank, in which the enemy had seven heavy guns. In front of my entire line were open fields affording a full view of the intrenchments held by the enemy. Immediately in front of these intrenchments were extensive rice-fields, flooded with water, and between the fields in my front and these flooded rice-fields was a canal twenty-five feet wide and five or six feet deep, which also was filled with water.
The sluice-gates to these fields were all under control of the enemy, as was also the mouth of the canal, between which and my position was the large advanced work before mentioned as being in front of my left. Besides this one, the enemy had in my front three other works mounted with heavy guns in their main line across the flooded rice-fields. These guns all opened upon
but causing very few casualties. No reply was made by my artillery, but my skirmishers were advanced as far as possible, and annoyed the enemy considerably. Opposite my left, in the Savannah River, was the upper end of Hutchinson's Island, which extends from there down opposite the lower part of the city of Savannah. island contains about nine hundred acres in ricefields, and on the upper end of it is a large ricemill. A great number of negroes had been left there. On discovering our troops, a few of them crossed in canoes. Captain Veale, Aid-de-Camp of my staff, taking one of these canoes, went alone to the island, and, guided by a negro, walked nearly its entire length, reconnoitred the enemy's position along the river, and returned safely, bringing valuable information.
December 12.-My troops strengthened their breast works during the night, so as to resist the enemy's heavy shot. A steady artillery fire was kept up by the enemy all day, causing a few casualties. I had Hutchinson's Island reconnoitred again, but found only a few of the enemy's scouts there.
December 13.-The usual constant artillery fire was kept up by the enemy, their gunners improving in practice. They had posted some sharp-shooters in the upper story of a house, near their advanced fort, on the river bank. These sharp-shooters annoyed the left of our line considerably. Among the casualties to-day was Lieutenant Ahreets, Adjutant of the One Hundred and Thirty-fourth New-York volunteers, and Acting Assistant Inspector-General Twentieth corps, who was killed instantly by a shot from that house, while engaged in reconnoitring our lines. Last night the enemy landed some troops on Hutchinson's Island, and captured a few of our men who had gone there for forage and supplies. To prevent such a recurrence, Major Hoyt, One Hundred and Thirty-fourth New-York volunteers, was sent to the island today, with a detachment of forty-seven men, to hold the upper part of it. This evening he was reenforced with one hundred men, and the whole were placed under command of Lieutenant-Colonel Jackson, of the One Hundred and Thirtyfourth New-York volunteers. A sunken battery was made to-day on the bank of the river, near Jones's position, and was occupied by the four three-inch rifled guns of Sloan's battery. These guns commanded the approaches up and down the river, also ranging across Hutchinson's Island, toward the South-Carolina shore. supplies of food and forage in our trains being mostly exhausted, our troops were now subsisting upon fresh beef, coffee, and rice. Large quantities of the latter had been obtained upon the plantations in this vicinity, and a large ricemill on the Colerain plantation, three miles up the river from my line, was kept constantly at work. Forage for our animals was obtained from rice-straw and from the cane-brakes. There was also tolerable grazing in the woods. An advanced line of pits for my skirmishers and