« PreviousContinue »
BRIGADIER-GENERAL BAIRD'S REPORT.
HEADQUARTERS THIRD DIVISION, FOURTEENTH ARMY CORPS, SAVANNAH, GEORGIA, January 7, 1865. Lieutenant-Colonel A. C. McClurg, Assistant Adjutant-General Fourteenth Corps: COLONEL I have the honor to submit the following report of the part performed by this division in the operations of the army against Hood after the capture of Atlanta, and the subsequent advance to and capture of this place.
Having gone into camp at Atlanta, after the taking of that city, the army remained there for the purpose of repairing the damages caused by the long and arduous campaign of the summer until about the first of October. It was then ascertained that the rebel army of Hood, recovered from the effect of the recent discomfiture, was moving to the west and north, as if to threaten our communications, and our forces were put in motion to meet it.
The following diary of daily events sets forth the movements of this division in consequence: October first and second, division remained in camp, situated about one mile south of the city of Atlanta. On Monday, October third, at ten o'clock P.M., pursuant to orders from corps headquarters, tents were struck and the march commenced toward railroad bridge. Crossing the Chattahoochee River, bivouacked during the night half a mile from the river. October fourth, crossed the river and encamped upon the ground occupied by the enemy on the front of the Second division Fourteenth army corps, on the fourth of July last. October fifth, marched all day, and encamped near Marietta, Georgia. October sixth, marched to Jack's House, near Pine Mountain, and went into camp.
evening. Crossed the Oostanaula at daylight of the fifteenth, and encamped on the summit of Mill Creek Mountain. October sixteenth, marched through Snake Creek Gap to a point within two miles of Ship Gap.
From this place, October eighteenth, passed through Dick's and Ship's Gaps, moved along the side of Taylor's Ridge, and crossed the Chattooga on the nineteenth. October twentieth, division reached Galesville, Alabama, where it remained encamped till the twenty-ninth. October twentyninth, crossed the Chattooga, destroyed the bridge and also a large and valuable flouring-mill, passed through McCullough's Gap, and encamped five miles from Rome, at which place the division remained until the morning of November second, 1864.
November second, division moved from camp near Rome, Georgia, and arrived, at three P.M. same day, at Kingston, where it remained until November twelfth, when the march toward Atlanta was begun, encamping first night three miles from Etowah River. November thirteenth, passed through Allatoona Gap, destroyed the railroad from Allatoona Creek to a point one mile beyond Ackworth, and went into camp at Big Shanty. November fourteenth, division crossed the Chattahoochee River. November fifteenth, marched through and camped near the city of Atlanta.
November sixteenth, passed through Decatur and marched as far as Shaphinger Creek. From the seventeenth the march was continued through Lithonia, Conyers, crossing Yellow River, through Covington, over the Ulcofahauchee, through Shady Dale, and reaching the city of Milledgeville. On the morning of the twenty-fifth, crossed the Oconee and destroyed the bridge. On the twentysixth, arrived at Sandersville. November twentyseventh, division started for Louisville, taking the road to Fenn's Bridge, the First and Second divisions, with all the trains of the corps, following the direct road. Head of column reached Rock Comfort Creek at half-past eight A.M., but, the bridge having been destroyed by the enemy, was unable to cross till late in the afternoon; encamped near Louisville, where the division remained until December first, 1864.
December first, at ten o'clock A.M., division moved from camp near Louisville, Georgia, in company with General Kilpatrick's division of cavalry, and went into camp at five P.M. on the bank of Buck Head Creek. During the day considerable skirmishing with the enemy's cavalry, with a loss on our side of three men killed and ten wounded.
October seventh, division made a reconnoissance two miles beyond Lost Mountain, in the direction of Dallas. October eighth, moved to a point near Ackworth, and remained in camp until five P.M., October tenth, when the division marched all night, passing over Allatoona Mountains, through Cartersville, at seven A. M., October eleventh, and halted for the night half a mile west of Kingston. October twelfth, marched to Rome at half-past nine P.M. October thirteenth, started Savannah and Augusta road, and during the night for Resaca, passing through Calhoun at three thoroughly destroyed several miles of railroad P.M. next day, and reaching Resaca the same track. December fourth, General Kilpatrick at
December second, met the enemy again at Rocky Creek at ten A.M., posted behind strong barricades and disposed to dispute our crossing at the ford. The Seventy-fourth Indiana charged and dispersed them, and the division marched to the farin of Mr. Gisholm, and went into camp. December third, arrived at Thomas Station on the
tacked the enemy's cavalry one mile from Thomas Station, and drove them in confusion through Waynesboro and two miles beyond.
Division followed up and supported General Kilpatrick during the day and then made a night march to Alexander. December fifth, reached Jacksonboro. December sixth, arrived at Beaver Dam Creek and joined the other two divisions of the corps. December seventh, late at night, reached Sisters Ferry. December eighth, remained in camp during the day and had considerable skirmishing with the advance of the enemy's cavalry; marched at midnight and crossed Ebenezer Creek at three A.M., December ninth. December tenth, encamped within twelve miles of Savannah, making short marches.
Division encamped, December thirteenth, on the Louisville road six miles from the city, where it remained until the twenty-second, at which time, the city having been evacuated on the night of the twentieth, it was moved to a position, still occupied, half a mile from the town. December twenty-seventh, corps reviewed by Major-General Sherman.
The division entered upon the campaign organized as it had hitherto been, into three brigades of infantry, commanded respectively by Colonel George P. Este, Fourteenth Ohio volunteers; Colonel Morton C. Hunter, Eighty-second Indiana volunteers; and Colonel N. Gleason, Eighty-seventh Indiana volunteers.
The Fifth Wisconsin battery, four guns, Captain Joseph McKnight, was likewise attached to it. Our effective force of fighting men during the whole march was, upon an average, a little under five thousand.
The number of mouths which we had to feed, including teamsters and servants, somewhat over six thousand.
We cut loose from our connections at Atlanta to march to this point with the following supplies: 57,000 rations bread, about nine and a half days; 161,000 rations coffee, about twenty-seven days; 117,000 rations sugar, about nineteen days; 30,000 rations salt meat, about five days; and an abundance of salt, with some candles and soap. We also started with five hundred and fifty head of beef cattle and have yet remaining seventy-five head.
On these supplies, together with what was drawn from the country, the division subsisted from the sixteenth of November to the sixteenth of December.
The amount of sweet potatoes, hogs, cattle, and poultry taken in the country and consumed by the troops cannot be estimated, but it must have been very large, the men living well.
The division destroyed quite effectually eighteen miles of railroad and two large bridges-that over Rocky Comfort Creek on the Augusta road, and that over Oconee River at Milledgeville, as well as the State magazine at that place. It destroyed, I feel quite sure, over one thousand bales of cotton and probably less than two thousand bales.
The amount of forage and other minor articles consumed and destroyed cannot be estimated.
The command "foraged liberally." The number of draught and saddle animals captured was about five hundred and ninety-seven; some of them were used to replace those in our trains already worn out, others were worthless, and my quartermaster has still about four hundred head to turn over.
Negroes to the number of about six hundred and sixty-eight joined or followed our column on the march, and have, since our arrival here, either been employed or turned over to the ProvostMarshal. A large number was probably with the column, or near it, at certain times; but as no notice was taken of any of them, and no restraint exercised over those simply passing along the road, many doubtless disappeared without any account being had of them.
The division captured sixteen prisoners, and its loss in action was eight men wounded, three of whom afterward died. The list of casualties by is appended.
List of Wounded
in Third Division, Fourteenth Army Corps, on the Campaign from Kingston, Georgia, November 12th, 1864, to Savannah, Georgia, December 21st, 1864.
Seat of Nature of Injury. Date of Death. Injury.
17th Ohio, Face,
38th Ohio, Chest,
2. Ferret, Henry N.,. Musician,
Ragan, Patrick,... Private,
5. Hobbart, R.,...... Private,
closing this report, I have again to commend to the notice of my superior commanders the ability and meritorious services of Colonel George P. Este, Fourteenth Ohio; Colonel Morton C. Hunter, Eighty-second Indiana; and Colonel N. Gleason, Eighty-seventh Indiana, who commanded
my three brigades, and to ask for their promotions, at least by brevet, to the rank of BrigadierGeneral.
I have also to request that Colonel B. D. Fearing, Ninety-second Ohio volunteers, an officer of surpassing merit, and the only other full colonel who made the campaign with the division, may be promoted to the same grade.
To my staff-officers, I am again deeply indebted, and I beg to renew the recommendations which I have heretofore given for their promotion. I am, sir, very respectfully,
Brigadier-General Commanding Division,
OPERATIONS OF THE TWENTIETH ARMY
BRIGADIER-GENERAL JACKSON'S REPORT. HEADQUARTERS FIRST DIVISION, TWENTIETH Corps, SAVANNAH, GA., December 31, 1864. Lieutenant-Colonel H. W. Perkins, Assistant Adjutant-General, Twentieth Corps: COLONEL I have the honor to submit the following report of the operations of this division, from the time at which I was placed in command, to the time of the occupation of Savannah. November 11th.-Pursuant to Special Orders No. 124, Headquarters Twentieth corps, I assumed command of the First division, Twentieth corps.
November 13th.-The Second brigade (Colonel E. A. Carman commanding) was ordered to proceed to a point on the Chattanooga Railroad, midway between the Chattahoochee Bridge and the city of Atlanta, and destroy the railroad track, each way. Colonel Carman reported that he destroyed three and a half miles.
November 15th.-Pursuant to orders previously received, the division having the advance of the corps, moved out of Atlanta at seven A.M., taking the road through Decatur, and encamping at night one and one half miles south-east of Stone Mountain. The Second Massachusetts volunteers (Colonel Cogswell commanding) remained behind to destroy the public property in the city and accompany the Fourteenth corps until such time as it could rejoin its command. Marched sixteen miles.
November 16th.-The division being ordered to march in the rear, did not break camp until two P.M. In the mean time the Third brigade (Colonel Robinson, commanding) moved to the Georgia Railroad, and destroyed two (2) miles of the track. The road was hilly and rough, and the march consequently impeded by the several trains of the corps. Crossed Yellow River, and encamped at ten P.M. near Rockbridge Post-Office. Marched ten miles.
Social Circle at noon, where we crossed to the south side of the Georgia Railroad. After passing Social Circle, the road was good, and at ten P.M. the whole division was in camp within five (5) miles of Madison, having marched nineteen miles.
November 19th.-The division had charge of the entire wagon-train of the corps, the other two divisions having been assigned to other duty. Marched at seven A.M., passing through Madison, and encamped four (4) miles south of that place. Marched nine miles.
November 20th.-Broke camp at eight A.M., the division being in the rear and guarding one half of the trains of the Second division. Considerable rain had fallen, which retarded the movement of the trains, so that the rear did not get into camp until eleven P.M. Encamped within four and a half miles of Eatonton, having marched fourteen miles.
November 21st.-Marched at seven A.M., still in the rear and having the same number of wagons to guard. Passed through Eatonton at twelve M. On account of continued rain the roads were extremely muddy, and it was with the greatest labor that a portion of the trains could be got along. Marched twelve miles.
November 22d.-Crossed Little River at nine A.M., the division having the advance. The head of the column arrived within one mile of Milledgeville at two P.M., having met with no opposition. Here the command was halted, and, pursuant to orders from Major-General Slocum, commanding left wing, army of Georgia, the Third Wisconsin and One Hundred and Seventh NewYork volunteers were sent forward to occupy as provost-guard, the city, Colonel Hawley, commanding Third Wisconsin volunteers, being appointed Post Commander. The remainder of the division was then marched through the city across the Oconee River, where it encamped, with right resting on that river.
Marched fourteen miles.
November 23d.-Pursuant to orders from headquarters of the corps, I ordered the First brigade (Colonel Selfridge commanding) to proceed to the Gordon and Milledgeville Railroad, and destroy the track. Colonel Selfridge reported that he effectually destroyed five (5) miles of the track. The remainder of my command remained in camp resting after their tedious marches.
November 24th.-Moved at seven 4.M., having the advance. Roads good. Encamped at four P.M., having marched fifteen miles.
November 25th.-Moved at six A.M., having again the lead, reached Buffalo Swamp at eight A.M., found that the bridges, nine (9) in number, had been destroyed by enemy's cavalry, which delayed the column until two P.M. Encamped at four P.M., cavalry skirmishing in front. Distance nine miles.
November 17th.-Marched at ten A.M., in the rear. Crossed No Business, Big Haynes, and Little Haynes Creeks, and encamped for the night November 26th.-Marched at six A.M., the dinear Flat Creek, the rear of the division not get-vision still having the advance; entered Sandersting up until after midnight. Distance, thirteen miles.
November 18th.-Marched at seven A.M., still having the rear of the corps. Passed through
ville at eleven A.M., having driven out the enemy's cavalry with my skirmish line. Leaving the wagon-trains to be guarded by the Third division, my command marched to the Georgia Cen
tral Railroad, at Tennille Station, and destroyed of the road, with instructions to advance well six (6) miles of track, the railroad dépôt, gov-around the enemy's left and endeavor to get in ernment warehouses, and three hundred and for- his rear. At the same time I ordered Colonel ty-two bales of cotton. Marched nine miles. November 27th.-Marched to Davisboro, sixteen miles.
November 28th-29th. - Destroyed the Georgia Central Railroad, from Davisboro to Bostwick Station, a distance of twenty miles, together with the dêpôts and government buildings along that portion of the road, also two (2) saw-mills and lumber-yards, and four (4) large bridges framed and ready for use, estimated to contain one million five hundred thousand feet of lumber. November 30th.-Crossed the Ogechee River, and joined the trains near Louisville, having marched eleven miles.
December 1st.-Moved at half-past eleven A.M., being the centre division in column. Portion of the road very bad. The First brigade (Colonel Selfridge commanding) was, by order of Brigadier-General Williams, commanding corps, directed to report to General Ward, to assist in guarding the trains of the cavalry. Encamped at eleven P.M. Marched ten miles.
December 2d.-Marched through Bardsville to Buckhead Church, thirteen miles. The First brigade reported back to the command.
December 3d.-Crossed the Waynesboro Railroad three (3) miles north of Millen. The enemy having destroyed the bridges, the column was somewhat delayed. Encamped on Home Creek at four P.M., having marched fifteen and a half miles, the division being in advance.
December 4th.-Division again in advance; crossed several streams; country low; marched fourteen miles.
December 5th.-Marched at five P.M., having waited in camp for the other divisions to pass. The road was extremely bad, and but three (3) miles were made at eleven P.M., at which time the division went into camp.
December 6th.-Marched at seven A.M., still in the rear. Roads very bad. Marched fourteen miles.
December 7th.-Moved at seven A.M., still in rear, and encamped at ten P.M., near Spring field. Country low and swampy, and roads bad. Marched fifteen miles.
December 8th.-Leaving the wagon-trains in charge of Third division, my command moved through Springfield in rear of Second division. Marched sixteen miles.
Robinson, commanding Third brigade, to send three (3) regiments to the left of the road, to come up on the right flank of the enemy. Owing to the nature of the ground-a rice-swamp-Carman's brigade was unable to reach the desired position before the regiments of the Third brigade had debouched from the woods on the right of the enemy's works. The enemy fled after firing one volley, leaving their knapsacks and camp equipage, but succeeded in removing the piece of artillery. Four (4) prisoners were captured. My loss was one man killed and seven (7) wounded. The distance marched was nine miles.
December 10th.-Struck the Charleston and Savannah Railroad at Monteith Station, ten miles from Savannah. After destroying three (3) miles of the track, my command advanced toward Savannah, following the Third division. When within five miles of the city, the enemy having been found in an intrenched position, by direction of the Brigadier-General commanding the corps, I placed my command in position with right resting on Savannah road. I then ordered Colonel Selfridge, whose brigade was on the left, to send a regiment with instructions to go, if possible, to the river. Afterward, it having been reported that this regiment was meeting with resistance, I ordered Selfridge to reenforce it with another regiment. Owing, however, to the lateness of the hour at which the expedition started, it did not succeed in reaching the river.
On the eleventh I ordered a reconnoissance to be made in front of my line, consisting of two regiments of Carman's brigade, under command of Colonel Cogswell, Second Massachusetts volunteers, which developed the enemy's position and the nature of the intervening ground. On the same day, by direction of the Brigadier-General commanding the corps, I directed Colonel Carman to send one regiment to Argyle Island to secure the stores and hold the rice-mills upon the Island. Pursuant to orders from headquarters of the corps, I also directed Colonel Robinson (commanding Third brigade) to send three regiments to the rear to protect the trains; and on the thirteenth, Colonel Robinson was directed to take the remainder of his brigade to the same position.
On the fifteenth, the Second Massachusetts volunteers, Colonel Cogswell commanding, was ordered to report with his regiment to Colonel Hawley, on Argyle Island, and on the next day, pursuant to orders from headquarters of the corps,
December 9th.-My command moved in advance, coming into the main Savannah road shortly after leaving camp. On arriving at Monteith Swamp about noon, the road was found very directed Colonel Carman to move the remainmuch obstructed by felled trees; beyond the por- ing regiments of his brigade to Argyle Island, tion of the road obstructed, the enemy had thrown and from thence to the South-Carolina shore. up two redoubts, and in the more advanced one, Owing to the want of boats, the passage to the had posted a piece of artillery, which commanded South-Carolina shore was made with great diffithe road and prevented the removal of the ob-culty, and it was not until the nineteenth instant structions. Having ordered Colonel Selfridge that the whole brigade had effected a landing on (commanding First brigade) to occupy the atten- the Carolina shore, where it took up a position tion of the enemy in front, I sent the Second bri- threatening the Charleston and Savannah road. gade (Colonel Carman commanding) to the right Understanding that the object of this movement
was merely to threaten the enemy's only line of communications, and thereby cause him to withdraw his troops from his main line in front of On the twelfth, Colonel Hawley, commanding Savannah, I directed Colonel Carman to present Third Wisconsin, on Argyle Island, took possesa bold front and send out frequent reconnoissan- sion of the steamer Resolute, which had been ces. On the morning of the twenty-first, the en- driven on the Argyle shore by Captain Winneemy having evacuated the city of Savannah dur- gar's battery. The boat, and stores captured upon ing the afternoon and night previous, I received her, as well as prisoners, were turned over by orders from the Brigadier-General commanding Colonel Hawley directly to corps headquarters. the corps, to move the First and Second brigades One hundred and fifty (150) horses and one hunto a position nearer the city. The First brigade dred and seventy-five (175) mules were captured was moved at once to the position assigned to it; during the march. Of these, one hundred and but owing to the high winds which prevailed thirty (130) horses were turned over to the Produring this and the following day, and the activ-vost-Marshal of the corps, and the remainder of ity of the enemy, quite a force of which still re- the horses and the mules were put into the dif mained in his front, Colonel Carman was unable ferent trains of the division. Twenty-two (22) to cross his entire brigade to the Georgia shore cotton-gins, and one thousand and twenty-eight until the afternoon of the twenty-second. bales of cotton were destroyed by my command. One thousand eight hundred (1800) bales of cotton were also turned over by Colonel Hawley, Third Wisconsin volunteers, while commanding post of Milledgeville, by order of Major-General Sherman. My command also destroyed thirty-six (36) miles of railroad. About nine hundred (900) negroes joined and followed the column to our position in front of Savannah, where all except those who had been taken for teamsters and officers' servants, were turned over to the Provost-Marshal of the corps.
During the crossing, Colonel John H. Ketcham, commanding the One Hundred and Fiftieth New-York volunteers, a brave and efficient officer, was wounded severely in the thigh. In the evening of the twenty-second, the Second brigade was brought to its present camp, and on the following morning the Third brigade (which had remained in its old position until the trains could be moved to the vicinity of the city) was also brought up, and encamped with right resting on Savannah River. During the march, which, from time of leaving Atlanta, to the arrival before Savannah, occupied twenty-six (26) days, the troops of my command subsisted mostly upon provisions taken from the country through which we passed, and were abundantly supplied. After arriving in front of Savannah, a large supply of rice was found on the plantations in the vicinity; upon which, with the beef cattle on hand, the command subsisted until supplies were obtained from the fleet.
The following supplies were taken from the country by the foraging parties which were sent out daily:
dersleeve burned the steamer, after removing the prisoners.
My aggregate of effective force on leaving Atlanta, was five thousand three hundred and sixtythree, (5363,) and on arriving at Savannah the "report of effective force" showed an aggregate of five thousand one hundred and seventy-four, (5174,) making a loss of one hundred and eighty-nine, (189.) Of this number, one hundred and fiftyseven (157) were killed, wounded, or missing, and are accounted for by name, in the "report of casualties;" the remaining number, thirty-two, (32,) were taken from the effective force by sickness.
The organization of my command is as follows: First brigade, Colonel Selfridge, Forty-sixth Pennsylvania volunteers, commanding; composed of the following regiments: One Hundred and Twenty-third New-York volunteers, Fifth Connecticut veteran volunteers, Forty-sixth Pennsylvania veteran volunteers, and One Hundred and Forty-first New-York volunteers.
Five hundred and sixty head beef cattle; three hundred sheep; five hundred hogs; two hundred and ninety-eight thousand four hundred and seventy-two pounds corn; three hundred and ninety-nine thousand and fifty-one pounds fodder; twenty thousand pounds rice, (in sheaf;) thirty-eight thousand eight hundred pounds rice, (threshed;) one hundred and sixty-four thousand two hundred pounds sweet potatoes; one thou-teenth New-Jersey volunteers, commanding; sand five hundred pounds meal and flour; one composed of the Third Wisconsin veteran volunthousand pounds bacon; ninety-five thousand teers, Second Massachusetts volunteers, One Hunpounds fresh meat; one thousand pounds sugar; dred and Seventh New-York volunteers, Thir one thousand five hundred pounds tobacco; twen- teenth New-Jersey volunteers, and One Hundred ty-six barrels molasses; three barrels whiskey; and Fiftieth New-York volunteers. six barrels salt.
Second brigade, Colonel E. A. Carman, Thir
Third brigade, Colonel J. S. Robinson, Eighty second Ohio volunteers, commanding; composed of Thirty-first Wisconsin volunteers, Eightysecond Ŏhio volunteers, Eighty-second Illinois volunteers, One Hundred and First Illinois volunteers, One Hundred and Forty-third New-York volunteers, and Sixty-first Ohio volunteers.
My staff was composed of the following-named
In addition to the foregoing, on the tenth of December a foraging party of Carman's brigade, commanded by Captain Gildersleeve, One Hundred and Fiftieth New-York volunteers, captured the despatch steamer Ida, from the enemy, taking thirteen prisoners, among whom was Colonel Clynch, of General Hardee's staff. On account of the approach of rebel gunboats, Captain Gil-officers: VOL. IX.-Doc. 4