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was moving a large column on his left, did not advance at once; but subsequently ascertaining that no attack was designed by the force referred to, he advanced, drove in the enemy's skirmishers, and, when night closed, was in position on ground previously held by the enemy. During this fight Brigadier-Generals Elzey and Stewart were wounded, and disabled from command.

This engagement with Fremont has generally been known as the battle of Cross-Keys, in which our troops were commanded by General Ewell. I had remained at Port Republic during the principal part of the eighth, expecting a renewal of the attack. As no movement was made by General Shields to renew the action that day, I determined to take the initiative and attack him the following morning.

the Fifty-eighth and Fifty-fourth Virginia regiments, directed by General Ewell and led by Colonel Scott, although his command was afterward driven back to the woods with severe loss. The batteries were all safely withdrawn except one of Captain Poague's six-pounder guns, which was carried off by the enemy.

Whilst Winder's command was in this critical condition, the gallant and successful attack of General Taylor on the Federal left and rear, directed attention from the front, and led to a concentration of their force upon him. Moving to the right along the mountain acclivity, through a rough and tangled forest, and much disordered by the rapidity and obstructions of the march, Taylor emerged with his command from the wood, just as the loud cheers of the enemy had proclaimed their success in front; and although assailed by a superior force in front and flank, with their guns in position within point-blank

Accordingly, General Ewell was directed to move from his position at an early hour, on the morning of the ninth, toward Port Republic, leaving General Trimble with his brigade, sup-range, the charge was gallantly made, and the ported by Colonel Patton with the Forty-second battery, consisting of six guns, fell into our hands. Virginia infantry and the First battalion of Vir- Three times was this battery lost and won in the ginia regulars, to hold Fremont in check, with in- desperate and determined efforts to capture and structions if hard pressed to retire across the recover it. After holding the batteries for a North-River, and burn the bridge in their rear. short time, a fresh brigade of the enemy advancSoon after ten o'clock, General Trimble with the ing upon his flank, made a vigorous and welllast of our forces had crossed the North River, conducted attack upon him, accompanied by a and the bridge was destroyed. In the mean time, galling fire of canister from a piece suddenly before five in the morning, General Winder's brought into position, at a distance of about brigade was in Port Republic, and having crossed three hundred and fifty yards. Under this comthe south fork by a temporary wagon bridge, bined attack, Taylor fell back to the skirt of the placed there for the purpose, was moving down wood, near which the captured battery was the river road to attack the forces of General stationed, and from that point continued his fire Shields. Advancing a mile and a half, he en- upon the advancing enemy, who succeeded in countered the Federal pickets and drove them in.recapturing one of the guns, which he carried off, The enemy had judiciously selected his posi- leaving both caisson and limber. The enemy, tion for defence. Upon a rising ground near the now occupied with Taylor, halted his advance to Lewis House, he had planted six guns which the front. Winder made a renewed effort to commanded the road from Port Republic, and rally his command, and succeeding, with the swept the plateau for a considerable distance in Seventh Louisiana, under Major Penn, (the Colfront. As General Winder moved forward his onel and Lieutenant-Colonel having been carried brigade, a rapid and severe fire of shell was open- from the field wounded,) and the Fifth Virginia ed upon it, Captain Poague, with two Parrott regiment, Colonel Funk, he placed part of guns, was promptly placed in position on the left Poague's battery in the position previously occuof the road to engage, and if possible dislodge pied by it, and again opened upon the enemy, the Federal battery. Captain Carpenter was who were moving against Taylor's left flank, apsent to the right to select a position for his bat-parently to surround him in the wood. tery, but finding it impracticable to drag it through the dense undergrowth, it was brought back, and part of it placed near Poague. The artillery fire was well sustained by our batteries, but found unequal to that of the enemy. In the mean time, Winder being now reënforced by the Seventh Louisiana regiment, Colonel Hays, seeing no mode of silencing the Federal battery, or escaping its destructive missiles, but by a rapid charge and the capture of it, advanced with great boldness for some distance, but encountered such a heavy fire of artillery and small-arms as greatly to disorganize his command, which fell back in disorder. The enemy advanced across the field, and, by a heavy musketry fire, forced back our infantry supports, in consequence of which our guns had to retire. The enemy's advance was checked by a spirited attack upon their flank, by


battery now reported, and was placed in position, and did good service. Soon after, guns from the batteries of Brockenbrough, Courtnay, and Rains, were brought forward and placed in position. Whilst these movements were in progress on the left and front, Colonel Scott, having rallied his command, led them, under the orders of General Ewell to the support of General Taylor, who pushing forward with the reënforcements just received, and assisted by the well-directed fire of our artillery, forced the enemy to fall back, which was soon followed by his precipitate retreat, leaving many killed and wounded upon the field. General Taliaferro, who the previous day had occupied the town, was directed to continue to do so with part of his troops, and, with the remainder, to hold the elevated position on the north side of the river, for the purpose of

his rear.

lowing members of my staff: Colonel Abner Smead, Assistant Inspector-General; Major R. L. Dabney, Assistant Adjutant-General; First Lieutenant A. S. Pendleton, A.D.C.; First Lieutenant H. K. Douglass, Assistant InspectorGeneral; First Lieutenant J. K. Boswell, Chief Engineer, and Colonel William L. Jackson, volunteer A.D.C. The Medical Director, Dr. Hunter McGuire, gave special attention to the comfort and treatment of the wounded. Major W. J. Hawks, Chief Commissary, and Major J. A. Harman, Chief Quartermaster, had their departments in good condition. For further information respecting the conduct of officers and men who distinguished themselves, as well as for a more detailed account of the movement of troops, I would respectfully refer you to the accompanying official reports of other officers.

cooperating, if necessary, with General Trimble, and prevent his being cut off from the main body of the army by the destruction of the bridge in But finding the resistance more obstinate than I anticipated, orders were sent to Taliaferro and Trimble to join the main body. Taliaferro came up in time to discharge an effective volley into the ranks of the wavering and retreating enemy. The pursuit was continued some five miles beyond the battle-field by Generals Taliaferro and Winder with their brigades and portions of the batteries of Wooding and Caskie. Colonel Munford, with cavalry and some artillery, advanced about three miles beyond the other troops. Our forces captured in the pursuit about four hundred and fifty (450) prisoners, some wagons, one piece of abandoned artillery, and about eight hundred muskets. Some two hundred and seventy-five (275) wounded were paroled in the hospitals near Port Re-Hotchkiss, one giving the route of the army durpublic.

Whilst the forces of Shields were in full retreat, and our troops in pursuit, Fremont appeared on the opposite bank of the south fork of the Shenandoah, with his army, and opened his artillery upon our ambulances, and parties engaged in the humane labors of attending to our dead and wounded, and the dead and wounded of the enemy. The next day, withdrawing his forces, he retreated down the Valley.

On the morning of the twelfth, Munford entered Harrisonburgh, where, in addition to wagons, medical stores and camp equipage, he captured some two hundred small-arms. At that point there also fell into our hands about two hundred of Fremont's men, many of them severely wounded on the eighth, and most of the others had been left behind as sick. The Federal surgeons attending them were released, and those under their care paroled.

The official reports of the casualties of the battle show a loss of sixteen (16) officers killed, sixty-seven (67) wounded, and two (2) missing; one hundred and seventeen (117) non-commissioned officers and privates killed, eight hundred and sixty-two (862) wounded, and thirty-two missing, making a total loss of one thousand and ninety-six, (1096,) including skirmishers on the sixth; since evacuation of Winchester, one thousand one hundred and sixty-seven, (1167;) also one piece of artillery. If we add to the prisoners captured on the sixth and ninth, those who were paroled at Harrisonburgh, and in hospitals in the vicinity of Port Republic, it will make the number of the enemy who fell into our possession about nine hundred and seventy-five, (975,) exclusive of his killed and such of his wounded as he removed. The small-arms taken on the ninth, and at Harrisonburgh, numbered about one thousand (1000.) We captured seven pieces of artillery, with their caissons and all of their limbers, except one. The conduct of the officers and men, during the action, merits the highest praise.

I forward, herewith, two maps, by Mr. J.

ing the retreat from Strasburgh to Port Republic, and the other of the battle-field.

On the twelfth, the troops recrossed South River, and encamped near Weyer's Cave. For the purpose of rendering thanks to God for having crowned our arms with success, and to implore his continued favor, divine service was held in the army on the fourteenth.

The army remained near Weyer's Cave until the seventeenth, when in obedience to instructions from the commanding general of the department, it moved toward Richmond. I am, General, very respectfully, your obedient servant, T. J. JACKSON, Lieutenant-General,

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Major R. L. Dabney, Assistant Adjutant-General, Valley District:

MAJOR: I have the honor to submit the follow ing report of the action of the eighth instant at Cross-Keys, between the division commanded by me and the forces under Major-General Fremont. I was ordered on the seventh, by the General Commanding, to occupy the advance, and my division encamped for that night near Union Church. The enemy made a reconnoissance in the afternoon, and, going forward, I found General Elzey drawing up his own and General Taylor's brigades in position. I at once determined to meet the enemy on the ground selected by General Elzey.

On the morning of the eighth, the enemy advanced, driving in the Fifteenth Alabama, Colonel Cantey, from their post on picket. The regiment made a gallant resistance, enabling me to take position at leisure. The camp-fires left by the regiment-no tents or any thing elsewere the camps from which the enemy report to have driven us. At this time I had present Elzey's, Trimble's, and Stewart's brigades, short During the battle, I received valuable assist-of five thousand men-Taylor's having been ance, in the transmission of orders, from the fol-ordered to Port Republic. The general features

of the ground were a valley and rivulet in my front, woods on both flanks, and a field of some hundreds of acres, where the road crossed the centre of my line. My side of the valley being more defined and commanding the other.

tre, directing the artillery. General George H. Stewart was severely wounded, after rendering valuable aid in command of the left.

I had Courtnay's, Brockenbrough's, Raines's, and Lusk's batteries. The enemy testified to General Trimble's brigade was posted a little the efficiency of their fire. Captain Courtnay in advance of my centre, on the right; General opened the fight, and was, for hours, exposed to Elzey in rear of the centre, and General Stew- a terrible storm of shot and shell. He and Capart on the left. The artillery was in the cen-tain Brockenbrough have been under my obsertre. Both wings were in woods. The centre vation since the campaign opened, and I can was weak, having open ground in front, where testify to their efficiency on this as on former the enemy was not expected. General Elzey occasions. The loss in all the batteries shows was in position to strengthen either wing. the warmth of the fire. I was well satisfied About ten, the enemy felt along my front with with them all. The history of the Maryland skirmishers, and shortly after posted his artil- regiment, gallantly commanded by Colonel lery, chiefly opposite mine. He advanced, under Bradley T. Johnson, during the campaign of the cover, on General Trimble, with a force, accord- Valley, would be the history of every action ing to his statement, of two brigades, which from Front Royal to Cross-Keys. On the sixth were repulsed with such signal loss that they instant, near Harrisonburgh, the Fifty-eighth Virdid not make another determined effort. Gen-ginia regiment was engaged with the Pennsyleral Trimble had been reënforced by the Thirteenth and Twenty-fifth Virginia regiments, Colonel Walker and Lieutenant-Colonel Duffy, of General Elzey's brigade. These regiments assisted in the repulse of the enemy. General Trimble, in turn, advanced and drove the enemy more than a mile, and remained on his flank ready to make the final attack. General Taylor, with the Eighth brigade, composed of Louisiana troops, reported about two P.M., and was placed in the rear. Colonel Patton, with the Fortysecond and Forty-eighth regiments, and Irish battalion, Virginia volunteers, also joined, and with the remainder of General Elzey's brigade, was added to the centre and left, then threatened. I did not push my success at once, because I had no cavalry, and it was reported and reaffirmed by Lieutenant Heinrich's topographical engineers, sent to reconnoitre, that the enemy was moving a large column two miles to my left. As soon as I could determine this not to be an attack, I advanced both my wings, drove in the enemy's skirmishers, and when night closed, was in position on the ground previously held by the enemy, ready to attack him at dawn. My troops were recalled to join in the attack on Port Republic. The enemy's attack was decided by four P.M., it being principally directed against General Trimble, and, though from their own statement they outnumbered us on that flank two to one, it had signally failed. General Trimble's command, including the two regiments on his right, under Colonel Walker, is entitled to the highest praise for the gallant manner in which it repulsed the enemy's main attack. His brigade captured one of their colors. As before mentioned, the credit of selecting the position is Some of the enemy's wounded were brought due to General Elzey. I availed myself fre- off and arrangements made for moving them all, quently during the action of that officer's coun- when I was ordered to another field. There are sel, profiting largely by his known military skill good reasons for estimating their loss at not less and judgment. He was much exposed. His than two thousand in killed, wounded, and prihorse was wounded early in the action, and at a soners. On a part of the field they buried one later period of the day was killed by a rifle-ball, hundred and one at one spot, fifteen at another, which at the same time inflicted upon the rider and a house containing some of their dead was a wound that forced him to retire from the field. said to have been burned by them: and this is He was more particularly employed in the cen-only a part of what they lost. They were chiefly

vania " Bucktails," the fighting being close and bloody. Colonel Johnson came up with his regiment in the hottest period of the affair, and, by a dashing charge in flank, drove the enemy off with heavy loss, capturing the LieutenantColonel (Kane) commanding. In commemoration of their gallant conduct, I ordered one of the captured bucktails to be appended as a trophy to their flag. The gallantry of the regiment on this occasion is worthy of acknowledgment from a higher source, more particularly as they avenged the death of the gallant General Ashby, who fell at the same time. Two color-bearers were shot down in succession, but each time the colors were caught before reaching the ground, and were finally borne by Corporal Shanks to the close of the action. On the eighth instant, at Cross-Keys, they were opposed to three of the enemy's regiments in succession. My staff at Cross-Keys consisted of Lieutenant-Colonel J. M. Jones and Major James Barbour, AdjutantGeneral's Department; Lieutenants G. Campbell Brown, and T. T. Turner, aids; and Captain Hugh M. Nelson, volunteer aid. These officers were much exposed during the day, and were worked hard, over an extensive field. Their services were valuable, and were rendered with zeal and ability. Lieutenant Brown was painfully wounded by a fragment of shell toward the close of the fight. I append a list of casualties, showing forty-two killed, and two hundred and eighty-seven killed, wounded, and missing. I buried my dead and brought off all the wounded, except a few whose mortal agonies would have been uselessly increased by any change of position.

of Blenker's division, notorious for months on other field at Port Republic, seven (7) miles disaccount of their thefts and dastardly insults to tant, some of them without food for twenty-four women and children in that part of the State hours. The commands of General Trimble and under Federal domination. The order of march Colonel Patton were kept in position to hold of General Fremont was found on a staff-officer the enemy, under Fremont, in check and keep left in our hands. It shows seven brigades of him from advancing upon Port Republic, or tak infantry, besides numerous cavalry. I had three ing any part in the engagement on that day. small brigades during the greater part of the The difficulty in effecting the crossing of the action, and no cavalry at any time. They made south branch of the river at Port Republic, occa no bayonet-charge, nor did they commit any sioned a delay which separated the forces in my particular ravages with grape or canister, al- command. When I reached the field, the Eighth though they state otherwise. Colonel Mercer Louisiana brigade, commanded by General Tay and the Twenty-first Georgia tried to close with lor, had been sent by Major-General Jackson, them three times, partly succeeding in overtaking under cover of the wood, to attack the enemy in them once. That officer is represented to have flank and rear. One of the regiments of the handled his regiment with great skill, and, with Second (2d) brigade of my division was attached the Sixteenth Mississippi, Colonel Posey, was to the left, and I placed the Fifty-eighth, Colonel the closest engaged. Brigadier-General Trimble, Scott, and the Forty-fourth Virginia, Colonel Seventh brigade, had the brunt of the action, Letcher, under cover at the woods with the flank and is entitled to most thanks. Colonel Bradley toward the enemy. When, after a severe strug T. Johnson, (First Maryland,) Colonel Carnot gle, from the advantage of position and numbers Posey, (Sixteenth Mississippi,) Colonel J. T. the enemy were driving our front on the left, and Mercer, (Twenty-first Georgia,) Captain Court- the flank of the advancing enemy (at least two nay, (of the Courtnay battery,) are officers who brigades) came in front, an advance was ordered. were enabled to render highly valuable service. The two regiments, bravely led by Colonel Scott, I regret I cannot go more into detail of those rushed with a shout upon the enemy, taking lower in rank, whose gallant services are recom-him in flank. For the first time that day, the pensed by the esteem of their comrades and their own self-approval—after all, the highest and most enduring record.

I inclose a copy of General Fremont's order of march on the day of battle, and detailed reports of the killed and wounded-names and regiments of the officers killed and wounded, and tabular statements of killed and wounded according to regiments. Also, the official report of Colonel J. A. Walker, commanding Fourth brigade. Respectfully, etc.,


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Major R. L. Dabney, A. A. G., V.D.:
MAJOR: I have the honor to report the move-
ments of my division in the battle near Port
Republic, on the ninth of June, 1862.

When I received the order to march to Port Republic, to join in the attack on the forces under General Shields, my command included, in addition to my own division, the Second brigade of the army of the Valley District. This brigade, under the command of Colonel J. M. Patton, had been attached to my command during the engagement of the day before. My command had been engaged with General Fremont throughout the day on the eighth of June, and slept upon their arms. The brigades commanded by General Trimble and Colonel Patton, (except one regiment,) and the Seventh Louisiana regiment, Colonel Hayes, had, before night closed in, been advanced within range of the enemy's musketry. Day was breaking on the morning of the ninth June, before these troops commenced their march from this position to the

enemy was then driven back in disorder for some thousands of yards. At the same instant, while our artillery was retiring rapidly from the field, one piece was halted and opened fire upon the enemy, showing great quickness and decision in the officers commanding it. These efforts checked the enemy so long that, although Colonel Scott's command was driven back to the woods with severe loss, there was time to rally and lead them to the assistance of the Eighth brigade, General R. Taylor commanding, which was heard engaging the enemy far to their rear. The remnants of the two regiments reached General Taylor at the moment when, as shown in his report, fresh troops of the enemy had driven him from the battery he had captured. His brigade formed and advanced with these two regiments, and the enemy fled a second time from the battery and the field, after exchanging a few shots. The credit of first checking the enemy, and then assisting in his final repulse, and of the capture of the battery, is due to these two regiments. It would be difficult to find another instance of volunteer troops, after a severe check, rallying and again attacking the enemy. To General Taylor and his brigade belongs the honor of deciding two battles-that of Winchester and this one. As soon as his fire was heard in rear and flank, the whole force of the enemy turned to meet this new foe. Colonel Walker, commanding Fourth brigade, ordered by the Major-General commanding, to follow the Eighth brigade, was lost in the mountains, reported to me and joined in the pursuit. General Trimble, commanding Seventh brigade, with part of Colonel Patton's command, was left to hold Fremont in check. The Fifty-second Virginia regiment was detailed, and fought on the left flank with General Winder. Colonel Scott reports: "I

Carpenter's battery arriving, I ordered it to be placed on the left of Poague's and the eight pieces of the two batteries to be directed on the retreating battery and column of infantry advancing up the road. The guns were admirably and rapidly served, pouring a heavy and destructive fire upon the enemy. His column halted, staggered at so warm a reception, wavered, and then retreated down the road, being signally repulsed by the artillery alone. I directed the pieces to move to the left, keeping up a constant fire so long as he was within range. Two or more guns were moved a mile beyond the original position. Colonel Allen, Second regiment, arriving, I

particularly commend the gallantry of Lieutenant Walker, company E, Forty-fourth Virginia. There may have been others equally worthy of commendation, but I could not fail to notice him. When the brigade halted in the field and sat down, he alone stood erect, went in front and attempted to get the brigade to advance still nearer the enemy." I inclose this report, and recommend the officer to executive favor. Lieutenant-Colonel J. M. Jones, Major James Barbour, Lieutenant T. T. Turner, and Captain Hugh M. Nelson, of my staff, rendered valuable service in rallying the broken troops. Lieutenent G. Campbell Brown was absent, owing to the wound received the day previous. I inclose sub-reports of Colonel Scott and General Tay-directed him to move to the left, (General Talialor; also a detailed list of killed and wounded, ferro's brigade having gone to the bridge,) throwamounting to seventy-eight killed, and five hun- ing out skirmishers, guarding against a flank dred and thirty-five wounded, and four missing; movement by the enemy. The Fourth regiment, in all, six hundred and seventeen killed, wound- Colonel Ronald, was ordered to support this ed, and missing. Respectfully, etc., regiment. The Fifth regiment, Lieutenant-Colonel Funk, supported Poague's battery. The Twenty-seventh, Colonel Grigsby, supported Carpenter's battery. The Thirty-third regiment, Colonel Neff, was advanced on the left and held in position to repel a flank movement, and at night picketed near the same point. Some few unimportant changes occurred during the day, but the enemy did not again advance within range of our guns. So heavy and well-directed was our artillery fire, he was obliged to abandon a howitzer and two limbers, which were found in the woods on the following day, being a portion of the battery used against us in the morning. I had observed him trying to remove it, and succeeded beyond my expectation in forcing him to leave it, though I knew he had not taken it off by the road by which it advanced. The brigade moved to camp at dark, just above Port Republic. The total strength of the brigade was one thousand three hundred and thirty-four rank and file in action.



Major R. L. Dabney, A. A. G., Headquarters Valley District.

SIR: I have the honor herewith to report the part taken by this brigade in the operations of the eighth and ninth instant, near Port Republic, Virginia:

Whilst quietly in camp, Sunday morning, the eighth instant, between eight and nine o'clock, I heard artillery to our right and rear, which I inferred must be that of the enemy. Captain Poague came in at this time and informed me he had ordered his battery to be prepared for action. I approved it, and requested him to transmit to Captain Carpenter, camped just by him, instructions to the same effect. The good judgment of both these officers had anticipated such ordersa most fortunate circumstance, indeed, as the enemy were pressing rapidly on our rear.

General Jackson rode to my tent at this time, and ordered me to send a regiment to the bridge over the Shenandoah at Port Republic in doublequick time. I at once sent orders to Colonel J. W. Allen, commanding Second regiment, to conduct his regiment to that point. Mounting my horse, I rode in the direction of the bridge. Passing Poague's battery, I observed a Parrott gun hitched up, and ordered it to follow me. About a quarter of a mile from camp I discovered the position of a battery of the enemy across the river, it sending shell just across the road, but too high to do any damage. The gun arriving, I turned it to the left to bear on the aforesaid battery, when General Jackson directed me to send it to him on the right; this I did, and awaiting the arrival of other guns, which were soon brought up and placed in position on the hill commanding the opposite side of the river. The second shot silenced the enemy's battery, causing it to limber up and move off.

On the morning of the ninth instant, at fortyfive minutes past three o'clock, orders were immediately given, and the head of the brigade reached the point indicated at that hour. I met General Jackson shortly thereafter, who ordered me to move across South River, on a temporary foot-bridge being constructed. I sent Lieutenant Garnett to recall Colonel Neff's regiment from picket, and then moved the brigade as indicated. I was ordered to follow the road down the valley. I placed Colonel Allen in front, throwing forward two companies as an advanced-guard. Having proceeded about a mile, the cavalry in front reported the enemy's pickets. General Jackson being near, I referred the officer to him. I then received orders to drive them, occupy the woods in front, and attack the enemy. I directed Captain Nadenbousch, commanding advance, to deploy skirmishers on either side of the road, and move forward. Captain Carpenter to advance two pieces, take post on left of road, and shell the pickets. These orders were rapidly and well executed. The enemy's pickets disappeared and the skirmishers advanced, the line being

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