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ditions than the shagbark. It prefers low, moist situations and will even succeed on wet, swamp grounds. On the other hand, the mockernut, which may reach a height of 90 feet and a diameter of 3 feet, does equally well on poorer and especially on drier soils which may contain considerable clay or gravel. It is said that it will succeed even on rocky barrens. It is a tree, the wood of which is similar to that of the shagbark. It is used to much the same purpose, and were it not for the ravages of insects upon it, it would be a valuable form with which to replace the shagbark on the poorer, drier soils of southern Indiana.
In connection with the work outlined in the introduction of this report, private tree plantings throughout the assigned territory were investigated. The purpose of these investigations being to determine to what extent such plantings were being undertaken, together with a study of the methods employed in planting and cultivating, and the degree of success attained under the various conditions.
As to the extent of these plantings, little can be said. A thorough investigation of the entire State would be necessary before comparative and accurate figures could be given. It can be said, however, that the relative number of such plantings is extremely small. They are found to be most numerous in northern and central Indiana, and are almost absent in the southern counties. This state of affairs is supposed to be a natural result of the general timber conditions of the State.
The constantly decreasing supply of post timber, is one phase of this general forest condition of the State. With the demand for such timber increasing and the source of supply rapidly decreasing, not only in Indiana, but over the entire central west, the farmer is being aroused to a state of activity which will eventually result in an investigation of the possibilities of growing his own posts. Indeed, many have already taken up this proposition and it is with the idea of encouraging such undertakings that the following data and photographs have been collected:
Fig. 23. Catalpa Planting. In this planting both species, Catalpa bignonoides and Catalpa speciosa, have been used. The mixture is a result of poor selection of seed and an inability to determine the valuable species (catalpa speciosa) when in the seedling stage. Many of the trees have branches low and their value will consequently remain below the maximum.
The planting was made by the Rockhill brothers near Fort Wayne, Indiana. The trees were planted five years ago and were cut back at the end of the second year. The rows were eight feet apart and the trees four to five feet apart in the rows. At the time the investigation was made, many of the trees would have furnished two good posts. The planting had been cultivated by the ordinary methods of cultivation, for four successive years. The dense crowded condition of the trees shown in the photograph would suggest the removal of every other tree in each row.
Figure 24. Catalpa planting on farm of A. K. Kennert, six miles north of Fort Wayne. These trees are three years old and have an average height of ten feet. The planting had not been cut back, but each individual tree had been annually pruned. This ac·counts for the clear trunks and light crowns. This planting contains only the species (Catalpa speciosa) of which the clear straight trunk and absence of numerous side branches are characteristic. The photograph gives an idea of the wide spacing of the trees which is seven feet each way.
The best spacing for catalpa is not at present known. Much is known to depend, however, upon the purpose for which the trees are intended and upon the soil conditions. The trees may be set quite near together, if thinned at the proper time, but it is safest, never to plant so many trees on the ground that when thinning is to be done, the trees which are taken out must be thrown away on account of inferior size. If one would grow catalpa successfully he must reduce the struggle for existence to the lowest possible limit. It is said that side branches can be more economically removed by pruning than by close planting. And that an upright growth can be secured at less cost than by overcrowding of trees. Cutting the young trees off close to the ground at the end of the second or third years' growth, insures straight trunks and reduces considerably the amount of pruning, since but few side branches ever develop on sprouts which spring from stumps of trees that are cut back.
Figure 25. Planting of black locust (Robinia pseudacacia). The trees are three years old and the planting was made in the edge of a woods in heavy unprepared sod. They were planted in a miscellaneous and careless manner and had received no cultivation. The result is plainly shown in the photograph, where it is seen that many of the two year old seedlings are no taller than the blue-grass in which they are growing.
At least fifty per cent. of this planting was already attacked by the destructive locust borer. The drawings in Fig. 4 were made
Fig. 24. Catalpa planting three years old, on farm of A. K. Kennert, six miles north of Ft. Wayne, Indiana.
from specimens collected from this planting, and show the general nature of the injury to young trees.
Figure 26. Black walnut planting near Frankfort, Indiana. The trees are fifteen years old and had reached a diameter growth of from two to six inches They were planted in rows fourteen feet apart and the trees were from six inches to two feet apart in the rows.
The planting was growing vigorously but was in great need of thinning. Many small trees were being suppressed and stunted in growth by the dense shading and general crowded condition. The soil was a deep black loam, suitable in every way for such a planting.
Figure 27. The cottonwood growth represented in this photograph was serving effectively as a wind break to the farm buildings of James Mackentire. The planting was located about 100 yards to the northwest of the group of buildings and its effectiveness has been appreciable for several years. The trees are now thirteen years old, being planted to their permanent location from one year old cuttings. They are in rows 18 feet apart and range from 10 to 12 feet apart in rows. They were from 6 to 12 inches in diameter and had been allowed to branch low, thus forming dense heavy crowns, which would make them more effective against the wind. This is an example of where one of our most common trees, of somewhat low commercial value, has been utilized for a definite and valuable purpose on account of its rapid and persistent growing.
Figures 28, 29 and 30 show various conditions of a black walnut planting on the farm of J. C. Birdsell, two miles east of South Bend, Ind. This planting of one hundred thousand trees was made about twenty years ago. It was reported upon by Mr. Stanley Coulter in his catalogue of the "Flowering Plants of Indiana, published in 1899. At that time, when the trees were only a few years old, they were said to be of good size and of thrifty appearance. The soil being thin, containing considerable sand and underlain directly by sand and gravel, was noted as being apparently favorable to the development of black walnut.
The trees being only a few years old when the above mentioned report was made, had not made sufficient growth to show the marked effect of the unfavorable conditions of soil and climate. Figures 29 and 30, which are photographs of this same planting, give conclusive evidence of the conditions under which these trees have been struggling. Figure 30 shows one of the isolated groves so characteristic of this planting. These scattered groves have de