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STATE OF INDIANA,
INDIANAPOLIS, November 30, 1907. Received by the Governor, examined and referred to the Auditor of State for verification of the financial statement.
OFFICE OF AUDITOR OF STATE,
INDIANAPOLIS, December 28, 1907. The within report, so far as the same relates to moneys drawn from the State Treasury, has been examined and found correct.
J. C. BILLHEIMER,
Auditor of State.
DECEMBER 28, 1907. Returned by the Auditor of State, with above certificate, and transmitted to Secretary of State for publication, upon the order of the Board of Commissioners of Public Printing and Binding.
FRED L. GEMMER,
Secretary to the Governor.
Filed in the office of the Secretary of State of the State of Indiana, December 28, 1907.
FRED A. SIMS,
Secretary of State.
Received the within report and delivered to the printer this 28th day of December, 1907.
Clerk Printing Bureau.
first duty of the statesman,"_Gladstone.
TWENTY-SIXTH ANNUAL REPORT
INDIANA STATE BOARD OF HEALTH.
HON. J. FRANK HANLY, Governor of Indiana:
In accordance with the commands of the Flealth Law, the Stat Board of Health herewith presents to you its twenty-sixth annual report.
CONTENTS OF REPORT.
This report gives the "doings and investigations” of the Boar:] · for the year ending October 31, 1907; it contains the report of the State Laboratory of Hygiene, which is a department of the Board, the report of the department of Foods and Drugs, and also the vital statistics for the year.
“DOINGS AND INVESTIGATIONS."
Four regular and five special meetings were held during the year, and the minutes fully set forth what was done. The quarterly reports of the Secretary, presented at the regular quarterly meetings, give specific accounts of his office and field work.
The mortality statistics have been very accurate since 1900, owing to the penalty of the law passed that year being very severe and summary for failure to report and for interring the dead without permits. The birth and infectious disease statistics have bee? very imperfect, but the new law passed by the Sixty-fifth Assembly makes it possible to collect them more accurately, and for 1903 these statistics will be much better.
It is to be regretted that the legislature did not pass the Statistical Law as it was written, for then we could have promised that the birth and infectious disease records would be entirely correct.
The method adopted for presenting the death statistics is that known as "The International Classification System.” This system is used by the United States Census Bureau and by all the registration states.
The State Board of Health has been active and made strong efforts to awaken interest in sanitary matters, and has tried hard to see to it that the health laws were enforced. As a result, there has been an increasing demand upon the Board for aid and information. Requests are almost daily received, asking that the Board pay visits and give advice in sanitary matters, or solve some sanitary problem which has arisen. As far as possible, the Secretary or some member of the Board has answered these calls in person. To answer all such calls in person would take all of the Secretary's time and also considerable time of each member of the Board. This is evident, when it is known there were 283 calls from the people in 1907 for personal visits. When it is impossible on account of distance and. time involved, to meet these calls for personal visits, letters of explanation and advice are written. If the demands of the people for personal aid from the State Board of Health are to be met, the authority to employ and the means to support one or two deputy State health officers, must be given. Very few physicians have studied the branch of medicine known as hygiene, and therefore it very frequently happens that the appointed local health officers know nothing or very little of the work they are called to do, and find themselves at sea when a sanitary problem appears. There would be little or no demand for State Board advice if the law required that local health officers should be informed in hygiene, and if the tenure of office and pay were such as to attract competent
We recommend this change in the law as being eminently practical and businesslike.
No widespread epidemics have occurred, but there were a number of local epidemics, all of which are duly told about in the body of the report. Smallpox, which is a declaration of ignorance and neglect, because the people generally will not practically apply the scientific prophylaxis, has existed more or less in every month of the year. Fortunately, the deaths have been few, but the loss and · anxiety has been great.
There is a decrease in diphtheria deaths, with the exception of the
last year, to be recorded for the last seven years, as appears herewith. Diphtheria deaths, 1900, 746; 1901, 554; 1902, 424; 1903, 462; 1904, 314; 1905, 366; 1906, 402.
The free antitoxin law, passed by the Sixty-fifth Assembly, has been duly put in force by the State Board supplying blanks as detailed in the law, and giving general instructions about the matter. It is believed this law will be a force in saving life from diphtheria.
Scarlet fever prevailed to a considerable degree, upon the opening of the schools in September, but it was almost always in mild form. Deaths from this cause have not increased.
STATE LABORATORY OF HYGIENE.
The State Laboratory of Hygiene's report shows a large amount of good work done. The chemical division has carried out the pure Food and Drug Law, which was passed by the Sixty-fifth Assembly, and which went into immediate force on March 4th. It has also made many sanitary water and sewage analyses, and through the five inspectors authorized, many sanitary inspections with corrections of unsanitary conditions, have been made.
The bacteriological division has done a large amount of bacteriological and pathological work, and many letters and much personal approval from the people are on record. The reports of the two departments herewith given show in detail the work done.
In accordance with the law, which makes it the duty of the State Board of Health to make such recommendations concerning health laws as it may deem proper, we recommend as follows:
SANITARY SCHOOLHOUSES AND TEACHING HYGIENE IN THE
We suggest a statute requiring that all schoolhouses hereafter built shall conform to natural sanitary laws; also that the act should contain a clause requiring that hygiene be taught in the public schools. Not less than 10 per cent. of school moneys are now wasted on account of unsanitary schoolhouses, in which start most of our epidemics, and in which are laid the foundations in many for consumption and other diseases in after life. Massachusetts, Michigan and other states have statutes of the character we propose, and better health and progress among the school children has thus been secured, as well as better health in adult life. There is a great opportunity to strengthen the nation by building sanitary schoolhouses and in instructing the children in hygiene.
POLLUTION OF SIREAMS, WATER SUPPLIES AND SEWERS.
Indiana is an inland state, and is fortunately supplied with numerous streams and lakes, and except in the central and southern portion there is yet abundance of ground water. It is apparent that our streams and lakes are valuable assets, and should be jealously protected from pollution or other destruction. They are sources of beauty and refreshment to the land, sources of a valuable food supply, and must eventually furnish public water supplies. It is this last fact which makes it urgent that early action be taken for their preservation.
The experience of the Indianapolis and of the Muncie water companies demonstrates that the ground water is limited, is growing less and less, and is inadequate for the public supply. For a few years both of the cities named had an abundant pure supply, but gradually the quantity diminished and new wells were bored. - This did not relieve the situation, for the new wells penetrated the same water bearing stratum as the old ones, and no increase in quantity was secured.
The Muncie Water Company relieved the situation for a time by making up the deficiency with filtered water from White river, but lately the oil wells above Muncie so badly polluted the river with kerosene products that it was impossible to filter the water. This drove the Muncie company to dam a small creek and establish a water shed. It is certain, however, if stream pollution is permitted to continue, that this supply for Muncie cannot be depended upon.
The Indianapolis Water Company has been compelled to put in extensive filter beds, costing five or six hundred thousand dollars, to filter the water from White river. This filtered water is at present mixed with deep well water (the amount of the latter diminishing daily), and this constitutes the Indianapolis supply. The lesson is—Indianapolis must very soon depend entirely upon the river, and if the gross pollution which now exists is permitted to continue, filtration will become more and more difficult and expensive, and Indianapolis, and also other cities on the shores of White_river, will be sorely injured, possibly to a degree to stop their growth. What has occurred along White river will in time occur in all parts of the State, and now seems to be the time to apply the remedy. We pro