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the banks swarm with cannibals. Stanley remarks, in selecting the main stream, and in distinguishing the main land from the numerous islands, that the land was inhabited, the islands not often so (below the Aruwini). As Stanley says, the interests of the natives with those of geography appear to be at variance in the region of the Aruwini; and food was procured at the risk of life. He says, trade has hitherto been conducted from hand to hand, and as the balance of power is pretty well established, only three tribes have overcome opposition-viz., the Waringa, the Wa-Mangala, and Wyzanzi. Stanley had to fight the Mangala, and soon afterwards discovered the largest affluents of the Livingstone, namely, the Kaseye, which is nearly as important as the main river itself, from which it differs in the colour of the water. A little after passing E. long. 18°, Stanley came to a river called by the natives Ibari Ukutu, and on European maps, such as they are, called the Kwango. A little E. of long. 17°, occur the falls, which extend over a region of nearly 180 miles, to the Lower Livingstone; in the 180 miles the fall is 585 feet. In this region, fortunately for Stanley, the peoples were not hostile, and the tribes after this appear to have given him little trouble, being much given to trade. Stanley criticises Captain Tuckey's account and map of the Lower Livingstone with considerable sharpness-a sharpness which, considering the circumstances, is perhaps hardly called for. Mr. Stanley says, his experiences of the river extend over a period of about nine months; the highest rise was from May 8 to 22, and was caused by the periodical rains. This flood improves the navigation above the cataracts, but makes them themselves much more formidable. The rise varies according to the channel from 8 to 20 feet. Above the lower falls, the country is thickly inhabited, more so, says Stanley, than at any place in Africa except Ugogo. The towns are described as being, some of them, two miles long, with good houses and streets, superior to anything in East Africa. Every thought in these countries, says Stanley, is engrossed in trade, and fairs and markets abound. The produce of Africa: cotton, india-rubber, ground nuts, sessamum, copal, palm kernels, &c., is to be procured; and ivory seems so plentiful as to be almost worthless. Stanley's expedition was not made without the loss of thirty-five men; one of them, Francis Pocock, being drowned, under very melancholy circumstances, at one of the lower falls. Pocock was born and bred a Medway fisherman, and is described by Stanley as being altogether too bold, and his death is attributed to his contempt for danger.

To sum up the character of the Livingstone, Stanley says, it is to Africa what the Amazon is to America, containing water enough for three Niles, and being better suited to navigation between its cataracts.

An expedition was made during the years 1876-7 by the Italian traveller D'Albertis, up the Fly River in New Guinea. The expedition established the existence of high mountains inland, a short and safe passage from the Fly River to Moatta, and the existence of much fertile soil.

M. Wojeikoff made a journey round the world for the purpose of studying Meteorology. He visited a part of Japan never before seen by Europeans, and collected some valuable information concerning the Ainos tribe which inhabits it.

The frightful famine in India during 1877 made the papers on the connection between sun-spots and rainfall, which came from the pens of several competent persons, of the deepest interest. Professor Archibald, of Calcutta, concludes, from his observations, that the winter rainfall of

Northern India varies inversely as the sun-spots, in a well-marked manner, in the northern provinces. Mr. Baxendeli holds that the rainfall even in the temperate zone is affected by sun-spots, while in North America the coincidence is not established, but the observations on this continent have been less fully carried out than in the before-mentioned countries. At Madras the subject has been carefully investigated by Dr. Hunter, but the whole subject is under consideration.

The discoveries of minor planets during the year were Myrrha, by Perrotin at Toulouse, Ophelia, by Borelly at Marseilles, Baucis by the same. Others by Watson, United States, Peters of Clinton, United States, by Paul Henry of Paris, by Palisa at Pola, and another by Watson at Ann Arbor, United States.

Mr. Glaisher reports that the committee on luminous meteors have to record a year of very active research and successful observations on shooting stars, fire-balls, and aerolites since their last report. The autumn and winter produced some very large fire-balls, some of which were of special interest. Two, if not more, aerolites have fallen in America, and one at Constantine in Algeria. A large meteor passed over Cape Colony. Much of the attention of the committee was engaged in examining and comparing the star showers-the August star shower was below the average in quantity. The Paris observatory added this year to its instruments (through the generosity of M. Bischoffsheim) a transit circle of great excellence. This, as well as the great telescope of the western equatorial, are from the workshop of M. Eichens, and show the revolution which has been made in astronomical instruments by the use of cast iron and steel instead of fine brass work, such as was formerly used, and the appliances of the engineer to castings and metalwork. This revolution was begun by Sir G. Airy about 1847, and M. Leverrier, whose death we have to deplore during the past year, followed suit. The tubes of the microscopes are formed in the block of marble itself which forms the upper part of the pillar, and are consequently part of the wall, and cannot be disarranged as long as the wall stands. The circle bears 4.320 equidistant marks, and tenths of a second of an arc may be observed. A level, which during the observations is raised by a crane fixed to the ceiling, serves to measure and correct the inclination of the axis of rotation. The cross wires during the day stand out on the clear back-ground of the sky; at night a gas lamp throws a ray of light on them through a prism.

On August 19 a telegram to M. Leverrier of Paris announced the discovery by Professor Asaph Hall (of the United States Naval Observatory at Washington) of two satellites of Mars, and one of these was observed at the Paris Observatory on August 27. M. Leverrier characterises this discovery as one of the most important of modern astronomy," and America may well be proud of the astronomical, as well as the other scientific honours gained by her this year. Sir W. Herschel says that when an object has been once found with a large telescope, it may be seen with a much smaller one, and it is a confirmation of this remark that the satellites have been seen by several observers in England and on the Continent since their discovery. One of the satellites is reported by Mr. Common of Ealing to be ruddy, even more so than the planet.

A comet was discovered by M. Borelly on February 9. This was afterwards observed at many places in Europe, and a diameter of 77,000 miles attributed to it. As will be found recorded elsewhere, M. Borelly has discovered two planets during the year.




IN 1877.


1. PROCLAMATION OF THE EMPIRE IN INDIA.-Her Majesty Queen Victoria was to-day (New-Year's Day) proclaimed Empress of India, at Calcutta, Bombay, Madras, and Delhi. It was at the last-named place, however, that the principal ceremony took place-Lord Lytton, the Viceroy, presiding at a magnificent assemblage, including sixty-three ruling chiefs. The proclamation was made in English, Bengali, and Hindustani, at a durbar which was held on the Maidan, at noon. It was followed by a feu de joie, and the National Anthem was played by the bands of the troops present. An address was then delivered in the three languages, and certificates of honour were presented to sixty-one native gentlemen. The ceremony was concluded by a march past of the troops.

At Madras Her Majesty's title of Empress of India was officially proclaimed by the President of the Council, from the steps of the Townhall. The reading of the proclamation was followed by a Royal salute. A reception was held at the Government House in the evening, and there was a grand display of fireworks, the city being brilliantly illuminated and the streets gaily decorated in honour of the occasion. Loyal addresses to the Empress were drawn up by the Corporation and the Hindoo community. There was a grand parade of the troops on the island.

The proclamation of Her Majesty's title of Empress of India was made at Bombay by the Hon. Alexander Rogers, senior member of the Council of the Governor. The reading of the Proclamation was followed by a Royal salute. The good-conduct prisoners, and those deserving of consideration, both European and native, of the Poona district and Yerrowda gaols have been


released. A similar act of mercy has been extended to the Bombay and other Presidency gaols. The houses were decorated and illuminated in honour of the occasion, and all the public offices were closed from December 25 to January 4, inclusive. The Corporation voted 5000 rupees for the festivities and illuminations, and the remainder of the expense was provided for by public subscriptions.

6. The “ThundeRER."-The "Thunderer" completed her official trips by a six hours continuous full-power run. Captain Waddilove was in charge of the ship. Though the long interval during which the vessel was driven at full steam supplied a crucial test of the workmanship and staying powers of the engines and boilers, and was not therefore to be despised, the predominant purpose of the trial was to ascertain the consumption of coal per hour, and per indicated horse-power, while the engines were working at their contract standard. Speed, therefore, which was the principal object aimed at at the measured mile, formed no part of the test of January 6, and in fact no observations were made on the subject. The weather was exceedingly boisterous. The wind had veered round to the south during the night, and at the time the ship got under way, at eight o'clock, it blew "great guns," the force being between seven and nine, or something between half a gale and a gale. Before starting, consequently, it became necessary to make all things safe and snug on the low forecastle. The covers were accordingly placed on the tops of the riding bilts, the flaps were closed over the hawse-holes, and the hatchways battened down, while on the other hand, the sighting ports and the armoured hatchways on the top of the fore turret were used to assist ventilation below. Although it was not deemed expedient to go further to the eastward than the Nab, so that the trial was confined to a series of runs up and down the Solent, these precautions were presently seen to be not uncalled for. St. Helen's Point the sea broke grandly over the starboard bow, deluging the superstructure deck with spray, while occasionally, but very rarely, the monster, driven forward with great force, buried her nose to the depth of the top guard chains, about four feet under water. Deflected from their course by the passage of the ship, the waves rolled along the side flush with the top of the low after deck, and sometimes when going round formed a small lake within the cul de sac, the floor of which, curiously enough, has a sheer inboard. But it was only for a short time that the water was permitted to collect, for as soon as the turret lifted her head the collection was steadily dispersed. Indeed, the vessel displayed unexpected buoyancy, and behaved so well that some of the officers expressed their willingness to take her round the Cape. The "Thunderer" having now passed successfully through the whole of her steam trials, will be shortly commissioned at Portsmouth by Captain Wilson, whose services in connection with the ill-fated "Bombay" will not have been forgotten.

When off

STORMS AND FLOODS-The opening of the year was marked

by severe gales which have done great damage on various parts of the coast, as well as inland. Continued rain, together with the melting of snow, has caused the floods to increase, and the combined effect of inundation and furious winds has been calamitous in many districts. At Dover great damage was done to the Admiralty Pier. At Brighton the gale was accompanied by a very high tide, and a previously existing breach in the sea wall was thus increased. Many of the shops in the King's Road had to be closed, in order to prevent the windows from being blown in. At Cliftonville, during the height of the storm, the waves washed over the roofs of three-storied houses. At Eastbourne, the sea carried away about 150 yards of the pier.

From the Orkney Islands, all along the east coast, from the Channel, from both sides of the Irish Sea, tidings come of a renewed and heavy gale. Piers and sea-walls have been destroyed, vessels wrecked, wharves flooded, and the basements of houses that were thought at a safe distance from the sea have been filled with water by the last tides. In the interior, a heavy rainfall is recorded, while snow has fallen in Yorkshire, and the destruction to the crops has been immense. In many parts the only possible communication is by boat. Wide and low-lying flats, deep valleys, and mountainous districts appear to have suffered in almost equal degree, whether from the rising of rivers, as in Huntingdonshire, or from the descent of torrents, as in Wales and other hilly parts of the kingdom.

The storm which prevailed in Scotland for a fortnight, and which it was hoped had passed away, was renewed on Wednesday, the 3rd, with great severity. Quite a gale from the eastward raged all along the north coast, and the sea was very rough. In the night snow fell heavily in blinding showers.

The floods which came on Monday night, the 1st, into the cellars and lower rooms of the houses on the south side of the Thames in London, were renewed at subsequent tides. After the people had made great efforts to get rid of the water, their precautions against a return of the calamity have been washed away. All along the southern side of the river there is much suffering. The people are crowding in neighbours' houses, where they cannot be accommodated in the mission churches and schoolrooms, which have been opened and soon fitted for the temporary shelter of the homeless. The loss of furniture, clothes, and domestic articles by the poorest classes has been very great. Several local committees, headed by the clergymen of the neighbourhoods, have been formed to collect subscriptions for the alleviation of the distress amongst those rendered temporarily homeless.

A tremendous gale raged, last Tuesday, on the Atlantic coast of France. The cable to this country was broken, houses were destroyed, and some custom-house officers were drowned.

According to a statement made by Mr. Glaisher, the rainfall in the month of December was very nearly six inches, there having

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