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simple and innumerable disputes of the carried through to the point where illiterindustrial world are removed from the acy will vanish, whether the illiterate be wearisome processes of traditional juris- a native-born child or an adult alien. Not prudence. As long ago as 1806, France the least vital task of the public-school created industrial courts, and the example system is to serve the immigrant durhas been followed by Germany, Switzer- ing his struggle for prosperity and citizenland, Italy, and Belgium. 'A president, ship. who represents the public, and an equal Health is no less important than educanumber of workers and employers sit as tion, and authoritative investigation has a jury rather than as a court. Lawyers

Lawyers shown that adult delinquency and depenare barred; the parties to the dispute take dency are largely due to neglect in conturns relating grievance and defense, and nection with the physical defects and dein consequence of this simplicity, ninety ficiencies of the growing youth. Not alone per cent. of the cases are adjusted with- is it necessary to have medical inspection out formal hearings. In event of threat- and dental clinics for every child that ened strikes or lockouts, the courts have passes through the public schools of the the power to sit as boards of arbitration, United States, but particularly in the case and it is only in rare cases that satisfac- of the immigrant and the poverty-stricken tory agreements are not reached.

native-born there is need of infant disCompare the simplicity of this proced- pensaries, model kitchens, milk stations, ure with the American method of fre- visiting nurses, and a program of prevenquent trials, frequent appeals, reversed de- tive medicine. cisions, remanded cases, court costs, law- While new machinery in large measure yers' fees, and months of delay, a gantlet may be necessary for the doing of all these that no poor man dares to run. The dol- things, the plant for its housing is already lar out of which an alien is cheated may at hand. The school-buildings of the mean to him the difference between a bed United States offer themselves for the or a park bench, and certainly his sense purpose in full perfection of convenience, of injustice will not inspire him with re- economy, and effectiveness. As it is tospect for democratic institutions.

day, the schools, which represent the The processes of education must be quick- largest single investment of the people's ened, and greater emphasis should be put money, are in use a scant seven hours a upon the preparation of human beings for day for an average of one hundred and the business of life. Immigrant adults, as forty-four days a year. well as immigrant youth, should have the The neighborhood is the group unit privilege of instruction in the English lan- next in importance to the family itself, guage, national, state, and municipal gov- and the school-building is the center of ernment, industrial laws, customs, and the neighborhood. What reaches every ways of American life, hygiene, sanitation,

child in the United States can reach every and all other allied subjects that will fit parent, and not only does the wider use them to be intelligent, useful American of the school plant hold out its rich promcitizens.

ise to the alien, but to the native-born as Germany, through a compulsory system well. of continuation schools, has control over In every building serving its neighbora youth until his eighteenth year; and hood group may be placed the official repalthough the system has been in force since resentative of the federal system of immi1891, it is only now that the United States grant distribution, the branch office of the is taking timid, tentative steps in the same federal employment-exchange, the indusdirection.

trial court, the medical inspection-bureau, Federal standards of education must be the dental clinic, the milk station, the visraised, and the established principle of iting nurses, the infant. dispensary, the

, federal aid to the poorer States should be free-legal-aid bureau, the health office, and the juvenile court. Here is the natu- by the immigration authorities to care for ral and suitable place for the instruction the adults as well. His should be the poof the adult alien in English and citizen- sition of neighborhood guardian of these ship, for the art gallery, for the branch wards of the nation, looking after their library, for the model kitchen, and for the inclusion in the proper classes, acquainting development of the play instinct.

them with the services rendered by emNight use of the school-buildings strikes ployment-bureau, health-office, free-legalat the very heart of the leisure-time prob- aid bureau, and visiting nurses, and drawlem. In cities thousands of little children ing them into the night play of the social play in the streets, menaced alike by evil center. In thickly settled communities, environment and the police court, and in where a principal would not have the necthe country life is admittedly dull and essary time, an assistant or assistants might stagnant. Growing girls are forced into be appointed. the dance-hall, men into the saloon, and A beginning has been made. Wisconwomen either gossip across stoops and sin, Indiana, Massachusetts, Kansas, New fire-escapes or become fungous growths in York, Washington, New Jersey, and the kitchens. In competition with the reck- District of Columbia are in possession of less greeds of commercialized amusement, a law that permits the people to use the social center offers amateur theatri- school-buildings, aside from school hours, cals, debates, dancing-parties, moving-pic- for the purpose of meeting and discussing ture shows, receptions, gymnasium games, "any and all subjects and questions which all in a clean, inspiring environment, in their judgment may appertain to the subjected to the wholesome restraints of educational, political, economic, artistic, the family group and neighborly friend- and moral interest of the citizens.” Out ship.

of it has grown the new profession of The immigrants can be tapped for their

social secretary. rich store of folk-songs, games, and tra- All that is necessary is the adoption of ditional customs, so that not only will the a federal policy that will give unity, purnative-born be enriched and broadened, pose, and dynamic direction to what is but the alien given that absolutely essen- now isolated and sporadic, and the task of tial sense of belonging. To watch an immigrant assimilation is a sound base for interracial pageant in a New York school- such a policy. Fortunately enough, the building, shared in by twenty nationali- money for the work is at hand, and what ties, happy, laughing, proud, and friendly, is more, it is money provided by the imis complete answer to the question of as- migrant himself. To-day, in the United similation.

States Treasury, there is a balance of The school-building should be the poll- $10,000,000 in the head-tax fund coning-place, and through the medium of the tributed to by every new arrival. There social center it is possible to effect the is no question that this income was priself-organization of voters into a delib- marily intended as a sacred trust fund, erative body that will always be in ses- for the law of 1882, levying a tax of fifty sion, the school-house its headquarters. cents on every immigrant, provided that Would not this be more inspiring to the "the money thus collected . . . shall conalien than the location of voting-booths stitute a fund to be called the immigrant in livery-stables, barber shops, and sheds, fund, and shall be used . . . to defray or the gathering of voters in some saloon- the expenses of regulating immigration connected room or in a hall paid for by under this act and for the care of immiinterested parties out of mysterious funds? grants arriving in the United States, for

With specific reference to the alien, the the relief of such as are in distress, and school-principal employed by the educa- for the general purposes and expenses of tional authorities to look after the chil- carrying this act into effect." dren of immigrants may also be employed In 1894 the head-tax was raised to one

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