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and the General sent me, two pieces of Captain Cockerill's battery, under command of Lieutenant

Doc. 13.

CHATTANOOGA, TENN., Sept. 27, 1863.

Major-General J. M. Palmer, commanding
Second Division:

Osborne, who soon paid his compliments to the THE BATTLES OF CHICKAMAUGA, TENN. stone fences and those behind them, causing the enemy to "retire" in confusion, double-quick. We pursued to the further side of the town. The enemy, being all cavalry, could easily move out of our way. He was, perhaps, about one SIR: I have the honor to make a brief report My forces thousand strong, with no artillery. of the part this brigade took in the recent enmet no serious injury. We found that the enemy had lost Lieutenant-gagements with the enemy. I crossed the Tennessee River at the mouth of Battle Creek, on Colonel Hutchison, one captain, and three men killed on the field (the former in command of the night of the third of September, by means the forces at the place), and heard of others of log rafts, sending most of my train by way being carried off, killed or wounded. One we of Bridgeport, six miles below, to cross on the My command consaw mortally wounded left in the town. My bridge. I passed over without any loss of men having had so much desperate fighting either men or property. recently with the enemy, we might well have sisted of the Sixth Ohio, Colonel N. L. Anderdoubted a desire to again engage him; but I son; Eighty-fourth Illinois, Colonel L. H. am proud to say every officer and man, with Waters; Twenty-fourth Ohio, Colonel D. J. energy and alacrity, moved upon the discharge Higgins; Thirty-sixth Indiana, Lieutenant-Colof his whole duty. Captain Boden, Twenty-onel O. H. P. Cary; Twenty-third Kentucky, third Kentucky, and Lieutenant Dryden, Twentyfourth Ohio, I noticed as prompt and efficient commanders of the front skirmish lines, and perhaps to some one of their men belongs the credit of killing Colonel Hutchison, as he was killed by a Minié ball at an early stage of the skirmishing.

Allow me to call attention to the want of the cooperation of the cavalry that was to have acted with our forces, as the cause of our not capturing the enemy.

Lieutenant-Colonel James C. Foy; aggregate officers and men, including staff, one thousand six hundred and eighty-seven.

To which were attached Batterries H and M, Fourth United States artillery, commanded by Lieutenants Cushing and Russell (ten pieces). In conjunction with the division, we marched thence to Shell Mound, to Squirrel Town Creek, and thence to Lookout Valley; and on the morning of the ninth instant, with the Twentyfourth Ŏhio, Twenty-third Kentucky, and Eightyfourth Illinois, I ascended, or rather climbed, upon Lookout Mountain, near Hawkins' farm, nine miles to the right of Chattanooga, and met Colonel, commanding Third Brigade, and drove the enemy from the mountain, with


I am your obedient servant,




Capt, and A. A. A G Third Brigade.

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no loss to my force. The enemy left the mountain to the north-east, via Summer City. Cavalry was all that I found on the mountain. As I The foregoing is the official report of Colonel reached the point of the mountain overlooking W. Grose, commanding Third brigade of Second Chattanooga, the remainder of my brigade, with (General Palmer's) division, of the battle of the first brigade, General Cruft's, and General Woodbury. Colonel Grose has left no room for Wood's division, were entering the city. I may comment, nor will I attempt to make any, as he here notice Captain Isaac N. Dryden,, of the I Twenty-fourth Ohio, and his company, for darhas mentioned facts, as he always does. corres- ing bravery in the advance, in ascending the noticed a communication from some pondent of the Sixth Kentucky to the Louisville mountain, and driving and punishing the enemy. Democrat, published February first, 1863, in With light but successful skirmishing near which said correspondent ignores the presence Graysville, Ringgold, and Chickamauga Creek, While and a reconnoissance from the latter to Worof any other regiment than his own. Colonel Grose is ever ready to give praise to then's farm, to a pass in Pigeon Mountain, I his own command, he is equally prompt in giving was directed, on the morning of the nineteenth other regiments that come under his notice instant, to make a reconnoissance below Lee their just due. It is remarked throughout the and Gordon's Mills, on the Chickamauga Creek, corps, that the official report of the Third in the State of Georgia, which I did, and found brigade of the battle of Stone River is the the enemy in force, and on receiving orders I most correct handed in or published. Colonel withdrew the brigade, joined the column, and Grose shows modesty (a scarce article in the with it moved upon the enemy, into an open army) in all his reports-letting his actions and woodland to the right of the road leading towards Chattanooga. My position happened deeds tell the story for him. to be on a small elevation, General Cruft's brigade to my left, and General Reynolds' division on my right. We met the enemy's lines about twelve o'clock M. My brigade was formed in double lines; the Twenty-fourth Ohio Colonel

I have the honor to remain
Your most obedient servant,
Adjutant Twenty-third Kentucky Infantry.

Higgins, and Twenty-third Kentucky, Lieutenant-Colonel Foy, in the front line; the Thirty-sixth Indiana, Lieutenant-Colonel Cary, and the Eighty-fourth Illinois, Colonel Waters, in the rear line; the Sixth Ohio, Colonel Anderson, in reserve. On meeting the enemy with the front line, the troops on the right of my brigade gave way, and the Thirty-sixth Indiana was immediately changed to the right to defend the flank, and in a very few minutes the enemy passed so far by my right and rear, that the Sixth Ohio, as well as the Thirty-sixth Indiana, Twenty-fourth Ohio, and Twenty-third Kentucky, were all desperately engaged, and so continued for two long hours.

forces that now came to our assistance, advanced the third time and held the woodland.

In this contest for mastery over the woodland, fell many of my best and bravest officers and men. The dead and dying of both armies mingled together over this bloody field. Here I parted with my comrades in arms for ever, particularly old messmates of the Thirty-sixth Indiana, and whose remains I was unable to remove from the field. In this conflict, and amid the shifting scenes of battle, Colonel Waters, of the Eighty-fourth Illinois, with a part of his regiment, became detached from the brigade to the west of the road, and became mingled with the division of General Negley, who, it seems, shortly after ordered that portion of Colonel Waters' regiment, with at least a portion of his own command, towards Chattanooga, on the pretext of sending that of Colonel Waters as train guard; for particulars of which reference is made to the report of Colonel Waters. The residue of the Eighty-fourth Illinois regiErwin, of Company C, with Lieutenants McLain, Scroggan and Logue, with parts of four companies, remained with the brigade, and on the left of, and with, the Thirty-sixth Indiana, did efficient and good service. Captain Erwin deserves notice for coolness and bravery during this fight, as well as the lieutenants above named. After the fighting had ceased, and with seeming success to our arms on this portion of the line-now about one or two o'clock r. M.— The ensuing night we laid upon our arms, I withdrew the Thirty-sixth Indiana, Twentywithout water or rest, and though the fatigues fourth and Sixth Ohio, with that portion of the had been great, yet there were more to endure Eighty-fourth Illinois under command of Captain upon the coming day. Ammunition replenish- Erwin, to near the position we had taken in ed, we were again in position for the fearful the forenoon, near the right of General Hazen's labors that awaited us on the holy Sabbath. brigade, and put my men in position to rest, Early, I was ordered to take position. on the and to await further developments; the Twenright of General Hazen's brigade, on the right ty-third Kentucky having remained with Genof our division, which was done, and each regi-eral Hazen at that point where I had left it in ment quickly threw before it barricades of logs and such materials as could readily be obtained; but before the action on our part of the line commenced, one of my regiments, the Twentythird Kentucky, had been loaned to General Hazen, to fill out his lines, and with the other four, about nine o'clock, I was ordered to the left of General Baird's division (General Rousseau's old division) to strengthen his left. Before we arrived at the intended position in the line, the enemy came upon Baird's division, and consequently upon my command, in fearful numbers. I formed the four regiments, under a destructive fire from the enemy, in a woodland covered with a heavy underbrush, fronting nearly 'north, and at right angles with the main line of battle; the Thirty-sixth Indiana and Eighty-fourth About four o'clock a deserter came in and inIllinois in the front line, the Sixth and Twenty- formed us that Breckenridge's division of the fourth Ohio in the second line. Thus formed, rebel army was advancing towards the same we met the enemy and had a desperate strug-point where we had been in such deadly strife gle, with fearful loss on both sides. The brigade advanced and was repulsed, advanced a second time and was repulsed, and with some

Here was the best fighting and least falling out of ranks (except the killed and wounded) I ever witnessed. Finally, the ammunition of these four regiments gave out, and there being none at hand (bad luck), they had to be retired. Now came the time for the Eighty-fourth Illinois to come into the breach. The Colonel changed front to the right, and with his brave and hith-ment, under the command of Captain William erto well-tried regiment, contested every inch of ground until compelled to give way before overwhelming numbers. The enemy having reached his then right flank (our former rear), all was retired in tolerably good order, which ended my fighting for the day. General Cruft's brigade, that had not yet exhausted its ammunition, nor been seriously engaged, now changed front to the enemy, engaged him, and came off master of that part of the field.

the morning. The enemy's sharpshooters and occasional cannonading kept up amusement for us in the meantime. It was here, near by me, that Colonel King, of the Sixty-eighth Indiana, fell a victim to the aim of a sharpshooter.

In these two days my command took a considerable number of prisoners and sent them to the rear. Amongst them was Captain E. B. Sayers, Chief Engineer of General Polk's corps. He surrendered to me in person, was put in charge of Lieutenant Scott, my Engineer, and sent back to General Thomas' corps hospital. Sayers was one of the Camp Jackson prisoners, and formerly a citizen of St. Louis, Missouri. I presume many of the prisoners taken on Sunday escaped.

during the fore part of the day, which statement was soon verified by the roar of artillery and small arms in that direction, again moving



upon Johnson and Baird's shattered divisions;
about the same time a heavy force of the enemy
commenced an attack to our right and rear, from
towards Lee and Gordon's Mills, and from the
direction we had come in the morning, and
opened the most terrific cannonading I had
heard during these battles, and in a few mo-
ments completely enfilading our entire rear.
At fifteen minutes before five o'clock, Lieutenant
Thomas, Major-General Palmer's Aid, brought
me an order to "retire my command." Which
way or where to retire to was not an easy ques-
tion to solve; the enemy fast approaching
from the right and left towards our rear, their
artillery fire meeting. I, however, immediately
sent orders to the regiments there with me, to
retire across the farm to our rear, passing to
the right of the farm-house, in the following
order: Sixth Ohio, Thirty-sixth Indiana, and
that portion of the Eighty-fourth Illinois with
me, the Twenty-third Kentucky to bring up the
rear; portions of the Twenty-fourth Ohio were
with each of those regiments. My artillery had
been retired to the west of the farm. The
forces that were to my left, when faced about,
had to retire further to my right and cross the
farm further north. When I commenced the
move it seemed evident that my now small com-
mand would be swept away by the artillery fire
of the enemy. To prevent breaking of ranks
or any further panic, and to indicate to the men
that this was a time for coolness and "steady
habits," with Lieutenant Boice, one of my Aides-
de-Camp, he carrying the brigade flag at my
side, we rode on the left of the front regiment,
and in the direction from which the most terri-
ble fire of the enemy emanated, until we passed
the ordeal of danger. As soon as we passed
the point of greatest danger, I halted the two
front regiments, Sixth Ohio and Thirty-sixth
Indiana, and into line faced them to the rear to
defend and cover the retreat; this was done
coolly and deliberately. General Palmer was
here to consult with me and give directions. Here
was the last I saw of Captain J. R. Muhleman,
A. A. G. of the division, and I presume he
fell near this place, for we were yet under a
sharp fire. As soon as all was closed up and
had passed this line, I again retired the force
across another farm about one-half mile and
ascended a high wooded hill, and re-formed,
faced as before, now out of the range of the
enemy's fire. It was now dusk, and as soon as
all was closed up, and meeting General Cruft,
with his brigade, here, we consulted together
with our division commander, and retired to
Rossville, about four or five miles distant, on
the Chattanooga road, and rested for the night.
It is due that I mention, in this place, an act of
bravery and danger of my Aid, Lieutenant
Boice. After we had passed over the first
farm, fearing that my orders to Captain Erwin,
of the Eighty-fourth Illinois, had not been defi-
nitely understood, and that he, with his com-
mand, might be left behind and lost, I directed
Lieutenant Boice to return again over the field

of death, and see that the captain was coming with his command. The direction was promptly obeyed, and the lieutenant made the trip and returned unharmed. My fears for his safety were inexpressibly relieved when I saw him safely return. For this and similar efficient service during all these battles, Lieutenant Boice deserves the most favorable notice. In the position assigned me, with my command, at and near Rossville, on the twenty-first, although I did no fighting, and a better situation could not have been given me, yet I lost one man killed and one wounded from the enemy's artillery. From thence we withdrew to our present position without further harm.

Lieutenant Russell, in command of M Company, Fourth United States artillery, on Saturday, the nineteenth, was placed in position in the centre of my front line, and did effective service. On Sunday he, as well as Lieutenant Cushing, commanding H Company, Fourth United States artillery, played a heavy part upon the enemy's columns. Those lieutenants, although they look like mere boys, yet for bravery and effective service they are not excelled, if equalled, in efficiency by any artillerist in the army. They have the credit of being in the last of the fighting, and then retiring, all but the loss of one piece, of Lieutenant Cushing's, that had been disabled during the engagement. Colonel Waters, with his brave regiment, deserves great credit for the manner in which the one commanded, and the other performed the perilous duties devolving upon them during the battles.

The brave Colonel Nick Anderson, with his regiment, Sixth Ohio, performed a whole duty up to the evening of the nineteenth; he having been wounded during that day, was compelled to be relieved. The command thereafter devolved on Major Erwin, who performed it highly satisfactory. Lieutenant-Colonel Carey, Thirty-sixth Indiana, brave to the last, received a severe wound during the battle on the nineteenth, and was succeeded by Major Trusler in command, who deserves a high meed of praise for continuing the good management of the regiment. Brave old regiment, your country will remember you when these trying times are over. Lieutenant-Colonel Foy and Twenty-third Kentucky, side by side with your comrades and brothers in arms from Ohio, Indiana, and Illinois, you did your duty well. Colonel Higgins and Twenty-fourth Ohio can boast of as brave and dutiful officers and men as can be found in any army. Captain George M. Graves, my Assistant Adjutant-General, a brave and good officer, fell by my side mortally wounded on the nineteenth, while rendering efficient service. He has since died. Rest in peace, brave soldier. Isaac Bigelow and George Shirk, two of my orderlies, were wounded on the twentieth, the latter seriously, and who was carrying the brigade flag when he fell. Corporal Dossey Lennin, of Company I, Twenty-fourth Ohio, seeing the flag fall, rushed to it, rescued it, and bore it off the field, as he did his own regimental colors on

Captain George M. Graves. Many officers and men of my command, that it is impossible to refer to especially, are equally deserving with the best of soldiers. Patriots, Captain Adams, Eightyfourth Illinois; Captain Tinker, Sixth Ohio; Captain Wadsworth, Twenty-fourth Ohio; Lieutenant Patterson,_Thirty-sixth Indiana; Lieutenant Hoffman, Twenty-third Kentucky, with fifty-seven brave enlisted men, fell on these

two occasions the day before, when the color guards had been shot down. Such bravery and high bearing as this is highly deserving the notice of the appointing power. My grateful thanks are due to the brave officers and men of the brigade for their noble conduct through these trying scenes in behalf the right, and to put down the wrong. My staff officers, Captain Brooks, Inspector; Lieutenant Scott, Topographical Engineer; Lieutenant Livzey, Aid-de-battle-fields a sacrifice upon their country's altar. Camp; Major Kersey, Medical Director; Captain Peden, Provost Marshal, with those heretofore mentioned, as well as my non-commissioned staff, have my grateful acknowledgments for their kind and efficient help during these laborious battles; and they, with me, unfeignedly lament the fall of our comrade and brother,

My heart sickens to contemplate these irreparable losses. To the suffering wounded: may the God of battles soothe their afflictions, heal and restore them again to usefulness.

The following table shows the casualties of the brigade, as near as is possible to ascertain at the present time:

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Add to this the six hundred and fifty-nine loss at Stone river, with many other casualties in smaller engagements, it shows a fearful destruction of human life in one small command.

For further and more minute particulars, reference is made to the reports of regimental commanders herewith forwarded.


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ance with orders from Headquarters Army of the Potomac.

The division consisted of two brigades, one of which, commanded by General Wessells, was at the headquarters at White Oak Swamp. The other, under General Naglee, was guarding the entrenched line between the railroad and Bottom's bridge, distant some four-and-a-half miles. A squadron of cavalry and nine pieces of artillery were at the headquarters, and four pieces Colonel, commanding Third Brigade. of artillery near Bottom's bridge.

I have the honor to be

Your most humble servant,

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On assuming command, I proceeded to make a personal examination of the whole of the White Oak Swamp, commencing at the pickets of General Couch, and also of the Chickahominy, up to and beyond the railroad bridge. conclusions were that the swamp offered but a slight defence against enterprising infantry. During my stay at that place, I kept several hundred choppers employed in closing up, with trunks of trees and other obstructions, all the fords and passages. An abatis was constructed across the open area in front, and the timber slashed extensively on the right and left. By cutting certain timber on the right, three large clearings were connected and brought under the guns of the batteries. At last one-half mile of


rifle-pits was constructed, adding materially to the strength of the position. A small work was ordered, across the railway, near a screen of timber, on the right of General Naglee's line; also a general slashing of timber in his front. A redoubt, on the road from Bottom's bridge, was found in a half-finished state, which I directed to be completed. The whole country beyond the White Oak Swamp, in the direction towards Richmond, New Market, and the Chickahominy, and also the territory across Bottom's Bridge, was most thoroughly covered by cavalry patrols, under the general direction of Captain Keenan. From him I had information of the movements of General Wise, with his force of some five thousand of all arms, his headquarters being near New Market.

ing to the bridge. Reports were made to the
headquarters Fourth corps at intervals of half

On the twenty-eighth, at daylight, I received
instructions from headquarters, Fourth, corps,
to throw my immediate command across the
White Oak Swamp, and seize strong positions so
as to cover most effectually the passage for other
troops. So soon as the bridge was passable I
moved General Palmer, (who had joined me with
his brigade,) Russell's regiment leading a squad-
ron of cavalry, and Regan's and Fitch's bat-
teries of artillery, forward, to a position of much
strategic importance, some four miles in advance
towards Richmond, covering the junction of
the Quaker, New Market, Charles City, and
other principal roads. General Woodbury, at
my request, accompanied General Palmer, and
made a hasty reconnoisance of the position.
Having placed Wessell's brigade, with Lieuten-
ant Mink's battery, in movement to support
General Palmer, I proceeded in advance with
Captain Keenan to make a careful reconnoisance
of the country between the main road and the
White Oak Swamp. After placing Colonels
Rose and Dunkee's regiments on the right of
the road, and the Sixty-second New York, Col-
onel Niven, far to the right, towards the swamp,
in advance of Palmer's line, for the purpose of
covering an important road, I examined the dis-
positions of General Palmer, which met my
approval. The remainder of Wessell's brigade,
with the artillery, were placed in reserve. Soon
after General Couch came up with his division,
and after examining and approving the dis-
positions, placed his command in position. Lines
of pickets were established, but every precau-
tion was taken to prevent any information from
reaching the enemy.

Late on the twenty-sixth, I was advised that the enemy had crossed the Chickahominy, in large force, for the purpose of cutting our communications. Early on the twenty-seventh, I proceded to Bottom's Bridge and made a careful reconnoissance of all the approaches, in conjunction with General Naglee, which resulted in ordering the construction of a redoubt for ten or twelve guns at the bridge, close to the river; an epaulement for three guns was also ordered on the railroad. I reinforced General Naglee with Colonel Hovell's regiment, placing it at the battery below Bottom's Bridge. Lieutenant Morgan's regular battery was sent to General Naglee, also all the entrenching tools at my command. A squadron of cavalry for special service was asked for on that part of the line. The reported crossing of Jackson with sixty thousand men proving too true, I deemed it advisable to guard the whole line to the extent of my ability, from Bottom's Bridge to the White Oak Swamp. By a thorough examination, I found a line of high At two P. M., I ordered Colonel Fairman's New bluffs commanding all the approaches from "Chickahominy Swamp. Four different sites were York regiment and two sections of Fitch's selected for lines of rifle-pits, and the work battery to proceed to Long's Bridge to destroy commenced; one was completed and Colonel what remained of it, and prevent the enemy's Lehman's regiment placed in position that night. crossing in that quarter. A detail of two The instructions from headquarters to destroy hundred infantry was sent, with a section of Bottom's and the railroad bridge, in case an artillery, to Jones' Bridge, with similar instrucattack should be made in overwhelming force, I tions. About this time the Eighty-fifth Penncommunicated to General Naglee, and the neces-sylvania volunteers, Colonel Hovell, was estabsary preparations were made therefor. The important order "to hold the road to the James river over White Oak Swamp at all hazards," was received and carried out to the letter.

During the evening, Captain Fitch's battery, Colonel Russell's Seventh Massachusetts volunteers and General Woodbury's engineer force, joined for duty at my headquarters. Parties, under discreet officers, were sent down the Chickahominy, with instructions to burn all bridge structures, and to proceed as far as Jones' Ford, if possible. General Woodbury was employed in preparing bridge structures to be thrown across the White Oak at or before daylight. He was furnished with men and implements, and every facility afforded for the discharge of his duty. A large force was employed during the night clearing the obstructions in the road lead

lished as an outpost on the Charles City road, to cover the debouch of the crossing of the White Oak Swamp at Bracket's Ford. Infantry and cavalry pickets were established in advance of this.

In this connection, I would mention that the Ninety-second New York, Colonel Anderson, was left on duty at the White Oak Swamp bridge. At this time, in consequence of the numerous detachments along the Chickahominy and White Oak Swamp, my force in hand was reduced to less than one thousand four hundred. An abatis was ordered to be cut in front, but not much progress was made, for want of tools. The day passed without disturbance, which I attributed in a great degree to the precaution I had taken of having the provost guard over every house within a distance of two or three

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