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and the General sent me, two pieces of Captain Cockerill's battery, under command of Lieutenant
HEADQUARTERS THIRD BRIGADE, SECOND DIVISION,
Osborne, who soon paid his compliments to the THE BATTLES OF CHICKAMAUGA, TENN.
Major-General J. M. Palmer, commanding
nessee River at the mouth of Battle Creek, on
SIR: I have the honor to make a brief report of the part this brigade took in the recent enWe found that the enemy had lost Lieutenant-gagements with the enemy. I crossed the TenColonel Hutchison, one captain, and three men killed on the field (the former in command of the forces at the place), and heard of others being carried off, killed or wounded. One we saw mortally wounded left in the town. My men having had so much desperate fighting recently with the enemy, we might well have doubted a desire to again engage him; but I am proud to say every officer and man, with energy and alacrity, moved upon the discharge of his whole duty. Captain Boden, Twenty-onel O. H. P. Cary; Twenty-third Kentucky, third Kentucky, and Lieutenant Dryden, Twentyfourth Ohio, I noticed as prompt and efficient commanders of the front skirmish lines, and perhaps to some one of their men belongs the credit of killing Colonel Hutchison, as he was killed by a Minié ball at an early stage of the skirmishing.
Allow me to call attention to the want of the cooperation of the cavalry that was to have acted with our forces, as the cause of our not capturing the enemy.
Lieutenant-Colonel James C. Foy; aggregate officers and men, including staff, one thousand six hundred and eighty-seven.
To which were attached Batterries H and M, Fourth United States artillery, commanded by Lieutenants Cushing and Russell (ten pieces). In conjunction with the division, we marched thence to Shell Mound, to Squirrel Town Creek, and thence to Lookout Valley; and on the morning of the ninth instant, with the Twentyfourth Ŏhio, Twenty-third Kentucky, and Eightyfourth Illinois, I ascended, or rather climbed, upon Lookout Mountain, near Hawkins' farm, nine miles to the right of Chattanooga, and met Colonel, commanding Third Brigade, and drove the enemy from the mountain, with
I am your obedient servant,
Capt, and A. A. A G Third Brigade.
The foregoing is the official report of Colonel
I have the honor to remain
no loss to my force. The enemy left the mountain to the north-east, via Summer City. Cavalry was all that I found on the mountain. As I reached the point of the mountain overlooking Chattanooga, the remainder of my brigade, with the first brigade, General Cruft's, and General Wood's division, were entering the city. I may here notice Captain Isaac N. Dryden,, of the Twenty-fourth Ohio, and his company, for daring bravery in the advance, in ascending the mountain, and driving and punishing the enemy. With light but successful skirmishing near Graysville, Ringgold, and Chickamauga Creek, and a reconnoissance from the latter to Worthen's farm, to a pass in Pigeon Mountain, I was directed, on the morning of the nineteenth instant, to make a reconnoissance below Lee and Gordon's Mills, on the Chickamauga Creek, in the State of Georgia, which I did, and found the enemy in force, and on receiving orders I withdrew the brigade, joined the column, and with it moved upon the enemy, into an open woodland to the right of the road leading towards Chattanooga. My position happened to be on a small elevation, General Cruft's brigade to my left, and General Reynolds' division on my right. We met the enemy's lines about twelve o'clock м. My brigade was formed in double lines; the Twenty-fourth Ohio Colonel
Higgins, and Twenty-third Kentucky, Lieutenant-Colonel Foy, in the front line; the Thirty-sixth Indiana, Lieutenant-Colonel Cary, aud the Eighty-fourth Illinois, Colonel Waters, in the rear line; the Sixth Ohio, Colonel Anderson, in reserve. On meeting the enemy with the front line, the troops on the right of my brigade gave way, and the Thirty-sixth Indiana was immediately changed to the right to defend the flank, and in a very few minutes the enemy passed so far by my right and rear, that the Sixth Ohio, as well as the Thirty-sixth Indiana, Twenty-fourth Ohio, and Twenty-third Kentucky, were all desperately engaged, and so continued for two long hours.
forces that now came to our assistance, advanced the third time and held the woodland.
In this contest for mastery over the woodland, fell many of my best and bravest officers and men. The dead and dying of both armies mingled together over this bloody field. Here I parted with my comrades in arms for ever, particularly old messmates of the Thirty-sixth Indiana, and whose remains I was unable to remove from the field. In this conflict, and amid the shifting scenes of battle, Colonel Waters, of the Eighty-fourth Illinois, with a part of his regiment, became detached from the brigade to the west of the road, and became mingled with the division of General Negley, who, it seems, shortly after ordered that portion of Colonel Waters' regiment, with at least a portion of his own command, towards Chattanooga, on the pretext of sending that of Colonel Waters as train guard: for particulars of which reference is made to the report of Colonel Waters. The residue of the Eighty-fourth Illinois regi
Here was the best fighting and least falling out of ranks (except the killed and wounded) I ever witnessed. Finally, the ammunition of these four regiments gave out, and there being none at hand (bad luck), they had to be retired. Now came the time for the Eighty-fourth Illinois to come into the breach. The Colonel changed front to the right, and with his brave and hith-ment, under the command of Captain William erto well-tried regiment, contested every inch of ground until compelled to give way before overwhelming numbers. The enemy having reached his then right flank (our former rear), all was retired in tolerably good order, which ended my fighting for the day. General Cruft's brigade, that had not yet exhausted its ammunition, nor been seriously engaged, now changed front to the enemy, engaged him, and came off master of that part of the field.
Erwin, of Company C, with Lieutenants McLain, Scroggan and Logue, with parts of four companies, remained with the brigade, and on the left of, and with, the Thirty-sixth Indiana, did efficient and good service. Captain Erwin deserves notice for coolness and bravery during this fight, as well as the lieutenants above named. After the fighting had ceased, and with seeming success to our arms on this portion of the line-now about one or two o'clock P. M.— The ensuing night we laid upon our arms, I withdrew the Thirty-sixth Indiana, Twentywithout water or rest, and though the fatigues fourth and Sixth Ohio, with that portion of the had been great, yet there were more to endure Eighty-fourth Illinois under command of Captain upon the coming day. Ammunition replenish- Erwin, to near the position we had taken in ed, we were again in position for the fearful the forenoon, near the right of General Hazen's labors that awaited us on the holy Sabbath. brigade, and put my men in position to rest, Early, I was ordered to take position on the and to await further developments; the Twenright of General Hazen's brigade, on the right ty-third Kentucky having remained with Genof our division, which was done, and each regi-eral Hazen at that point where I had left it in ment quickly threw before it barricades of logs and such materials as could readily be obtained; but before the action on our part of the line commenced, one of my regiments, the Twentythird Kentucky, had been loaned to General Hazen, to fill out his lines, and with the other four, about nine o'clock, I was ordered to the left of General Baird's division (General Rousseau's old division) to strengthen his left. Before we arrived at the intended position in the line, the enemy came upon Baird's division, and consequently upon my command, in fearful numbers. I formed the four regiments, under a destructive fire from the enemy, in a woodland covered with a heavy underbrush, fronting nearly north, and at right angles with the main line of battle; the Thirty-sixth Indiana and Eighty-fourth About four o'clock a deserter came in and inIllinois in the front line, the Sixth and Twenty- formed us that Breckenridge's division of the fourth Ohio in the second line. Thus formed, rebel army was advancing towards the same we met the enemy and had a desperate strug-point where we had been in such deadly strife gle, with fearful loss on both sides. The brigade advanced and was repulsed, advanced a second time and was repulsed, and with some
the morning. The enemy's sharpshooters and occasional cannonading kept up amusement for us in the meantime. It was here, near by me, that Colonel King, of the Sixty-eighth Indiana, fell a victim to the aim of a sharpshooter.
In these two days my command took a considerable number of prisoners and sent them to the rear. Amongst them was Captain E. B. Sayers, Chief Engineer of General Polk's corps. He surrendered to me in person, was put in charge of Lieutenant Scott, my Engineer, and sent back to General Thomas' corps hospital. Sayers was one of the Camp Jackson prisoners, and formerly a citizen of St. Louis, Missouri. I presume many of the prisoners taken on Sunday escaped.
during the fore part of the day, which statement was soon verified by the roar of artillery and small arms in that direction, again moving
upon Johnson and Baird's shattered divisions;
of death, and see that the captain was coming with his command. The direction was promptly obeyed, and the lieutenant made the trip and returned unharmed. My fears for his safety were inexpressibly relieved when I saw him safely return. For this and similar efficient service during all these battles, Lieutenant Boice deserves the most favorable notice. In the position assigned me, with my command, at and near Rossville, on the twenty-first, although I did no fighting, and a better situation could not have been given me, yet I lost one man killed and one wounded from the enemy's artillery. From thence we withdrew to our present position without further harm.
Lieutenant Russell, in command of M Company, Fourth United States artillery, on Saturday, the nineteenth, was placed in position in the centre of my front line, and did effective service. On Sunday he, as well as Lieutenant Cushing, commanding H Company, Fourth United States artillery, played a heavy part upon the enemy's columns. Those lieutenants, although they look like mere boys, yet for bravery and effective service they are not excelled, if equalled, in efficiency by any artillerist in the army. They have the credit of being in the last of the fighting, and then retiring, all but the loss of one piece, of Lieutenant Cushing's, that had been disabled during the engagement. Colonel Waters, with his brave regiment, deserves great credit for the manner in which the one commanded, and the other performed the perilous duties devolving upon them during the battles. The brave Colonel Nick Anderson, with his regiment, Sixth Ohio, performed a whole duty up to the evening of the nineteenth; he having been wounded during that day, was compelled to be relieved. The command thereafter devolved on Major Erwin, who performed it highly satisfactory. Lieutenant-Colonel Carey, Thirty-sixth Indiana, brave to the last, received a severe wound during the battle on the nineteenth, and was succeeded by Major Trusler in command, who deserves a high meed of praise for continuing the good management of the regiment. Brave old regiment, your country will remember you when these trying times are Lieutenant-Colonel Foy and Twenty-third over. Kentucky, side by side with your comrades and brothers in arms from Ohio, Indiana, and Illinois, you did your duty well. Colonel Higgins and Twenty-fourth Ohio can boast of as brave and dutiful officers and men as can be found in any army. Captain George M. Graves, my Assistant Adjutant-General, a brave and good officer, fell by my side mortally wounded on the nineteenth, while rendering efficient service. He has since died. Rest in peace, brave soldier. Isaac Bigelow and George Shirk, two of my orderlies, were wounded on the twentieth, the latter seriously, and who was carrying the brigade flag when he fell.
Corporal Dossey Lennin, of Company I, Twenty-fourth Ohio, seeing the flag fall, rushed to it, rescued it, and bore it off the field, as he did his own regimental colors on
two occasions the day before, when the color Captain George M. Graves. Many officers and guards had been shot down. Such bravery and men of my command, that it is impossible to refer high bearing as this is highly deserving the to especially, are equally deserving with the best notice of the appointing power. My grateful of soldiers. Patriots, Captain Adams, Eightythanks are due to the brave officers and men of fourth Illinois; Captain Tinker, Sixth Ohio; the brigade for their noble conduct through Captain Wadsworth, Twenty-fourth Ohio; Lieuthese trying scenes in behalf the right, and to tenant Patterson, _Thirty-sixth Indiana; Lieuput down the wrong. My staff officers, Cap-tenant Hoffman, Twenty-third Kentucky, with tain Brooks, Inspector; Lieutenant Scott, Topo- fifty-seven brave enlisted men, fell on these graphical Engineer; Lieutenant Livzey, Aid-de-battle-fields a sacrifice upon their country's altar. Camp; Major Kersey, Medical Director; Captain Peden, Provost Marshal, with those heretofore mentioned, as well as my non-commissioned staff, have my grateful acknowledgments for their kind and efficient help during these laborious battles; and they, with me, unfeignedly lament the fall of our comrade and brother,
My heart sickens to contemplate these irreparable losses. To the suffering wounded: may the God of battles soothe their afflictions, heal and restore them again to usefulness.
The following table shows the casualties of the brigade, as near as is possible to ascertain at the present time:
I have the honor to be
Your most humble servant,
Colonel, commanding Third Brigade.
Lieutenant and A. A. D. C.
THE ARMY OF THE POTOMAC.
ance with orders from Headquarters Army of the Potomac.
The division consisted of two brigades, one of which, commanded by General Wessells, was at the headquarters at White Oak Swamp. The other, under General Naglee, was guarding the entrenched line between the railroad and Bottom's bridge, distant some four-and-a-half miles. A squadron of cavalry and nine pieces of artillery were at the headquarters, and four pieces of artillery near Bottom's bridge.
On assuming command, I proceeded to make a personal examination of the whole of the White Oak Swamp, commencing at the pickets of General Couch, and also of the Chickahominy, up to and beyond the railroad bridge. My conclusions were that the swamp offered but a slight defence against enterprising infantry. During my stay at that place, I kept several hundred choppers employed in closing up, with HEADQUARTERS PECK'S DIVISION, trunks of trees and other obstructions, all the HARRISON'S POINT, July 11, 1862 fords and passages. An abatis was constructed Captain C. C. Suydam, Assistant Adjutant-Gene- across the open area in front, and the timber ral, Fourth Corps: slashed extensively on the right and left. By SIR: I have the honor to report that I assumed cutting certain timber on the right, three large command of this division at White Oak Swamp, clearings were connected and brought under the on the twenty-fourth of June, 1862, in compli-guns of the batteries. At last one-half mile of
rifle-pits was constructed, adding materially to
ing to the bridge. Reports were made to the headquarters Fourth corps at intervals of half hours.
On the twenty-eighth, at daylight, I received instructions from headquarters, Fourth corps, to throw my immediate command across the White Oak Swamp, and seize strong positions so as to cover most effectually the passage for other troops. So soon as the bridge was passable I moved General Palmer, (who had joined me with his brigade,) Russell's regiment leading a squadron of cavalry, and Regan's and Fitch's batteries of artillery, forward, to a position of much strategic importance, some four miles in advance towards Richmond, covering the junction of the Quaker, New Market, Charles City, and other principal roads. General Woodbury, at my request, accompanied General Palmer, and made a hasty reconnoisance of the position. Having placed Wessell's brigade, with Lieutenant Mink's battery, in movement to support General Palmer, I proceeded in advance with Captain Keenan to make a careful reconnoisance of the country between the main road and the White Oak Swamp. After placing Colonels Rose and Dunkee's regiments on the right of the road, and the Sixty-second New York, Colonel Niven, far to the right, towards the swamp, in advance of Palmer's line, for the purpose of covering an important road, I examined the dispositions of General Palmer, which met my approval. The remainder of Wessell's brigade, with the artillery, were placed in reserve. Soon after General Couch came up with his division, and after examining and approving the dispositions, placed his command in position. Lines of pickets were established, but every precaution was taken to prevent any information from reaching the enemy.
Late on the twenty-sixth, I was advised that the enemy had crossed the Chickahominy, in large force, for the purpose of cutting our communications. Early on the twenty-seventh, I proceded to Bottom's Bridge and made a careful reconnoissance of all the approaches, in conjunction with General Naglee, which resulted in ordering the construction of a redoubt for ten or twelve guns at the bridge, close to the river; an epaulement for three guns was also ordered on the railroad. I reinforced General Naglee with Colonel Hovell's regiment, placing it at the battery below Bottom's Bridge. Lieutenant Morgan's regular battery was sent to General Naglee, also all the entrenching tools at my command. A squadron of cavalry for special service was asked for on that part of the line. The reported crossing of Jackson with sixty thousand men proving too true, I deemed it advisable to guard the whole line to the extent of my ability, from Bottom's Bridge to the White Oak Swamp. By a thorough examination, I found a line of high bluffs commanding all the approaches from At two P. M., I ordered Colonel Fairman's New "Chickahominy Swamp. Four different sites were York regiment and two sections of Fitch's selected for lines of rifle-pits, and the work battery to proceed to Long's Bridge to destroy commenced; one was completed and Colonel what remained of it, and prevent the enemy's Lehman's regiment placed in position that night. crossing in that quarter. A detail of two The instructions from headquarters to destroy hundred infantry was sent, with a section of Bottom's and the railroad bridge, in case an artillery, to Jones' Bridge, with similar instrucattack should be made in overwhelming force, I tions. About this time the Eighty-fifth Penncommunicated to General Naglee, and the neces-sylvania volunteers, Colonel Hovell, was estabsary preparations were made therefor. The important order" to hold the road to the James river over White Oak Swamp at all hazards," was received and carried out to the letter.
During the evening, Captain Fitch's battery, Colonel Russell's Seventh Massachusetts volunteers and General Woodbury's engineer force, joined for duty at my headquarters. Parties, under discreet officers, were sent down the Chickahominy, with instructions to burn all bridge structures, and to proceed as far as Jones' Ford, if possible. General Woodbury was employed in preparing bridge structures to be thrown across the White Oak at or before daylight. He was furnished with men and implements, and every facility afforded for the discharge of his duty. A large force was employed during the night clearing the obstructions in the road lead
lished as an outpost on the Charles City road, to cover the debouch of the crossing of the White Oak Swamp at Bracket's Ford. Infantry and cavalry pickets were established in advance of this.
In this connection, I would mention that the Ninety-second New York, Colonel Anderson, was left on duty at the White Oak Swamp bridge. At this time, in consequence of the numerous detachments along the Chickahominy and White Oak Swamp, my force in hand was reduced to less than one thousand four hundred. An abatis was ordered to be cut in front, but not much progress was made, for want of tools. The day passed without disturbance, which I attributed in a great degree to the precaution I had taken of having the provost guard over every house within a distance of two or three