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was pursued by Colonel Hanson, again attacked and routed, and again losing several hundred prisoners. The whole country is full of the disorganized and fleeing rebels, and they are being picked up all over the country. Thus has ended Morgan's last raid. He came into the State with about two thousand seven hundred men. He robbed and plundered on all sides. He was pursued and whipped badly three times in six days, and will lose nearly two thousand of his men. Morgan has blundered in every move he has made. He came into the State, followed closely by a superior force; his rear pickets were surprised and captured; his command was surprised and routed at Mount Sterling; he prowled around Lexington, with four or five hundred men, two or three days, when only about one hundred and fifty available men defended it. He could have gone out by Frankfort, but allowed himself to be scared and turned toward Cynthiana, by a trick; he stood up for a fair fight at Cynthiana and was whipped, and his army broken up in fifty-five minutes. His fleeing bands are being overtaken, whipped and captured on all sides. The horses he stole-many of them-have been recaptured. Thus ends the career of this great horse-thief, and his gang of robbers and plunderers. To call them soldiers would be a disgrace to the name; they are nothing more or less than highway robbers. Officers and men, with a few exceptions, are all plunderers. It is useless to say that Morgan is not to blame. Banks were robbed by his orders, and he himself demanded the keys. Yet there are some men of honor among them-men who are with Morgan not willingly, but by orders of the rebel government, and these curse him for everything mean, and openly denounce him as a common thief, fit for nothing but to plunder unarmed citizens and rob defenceless towns. General Burbridge and his command have shown conspicuous skill and gallantry in this whole campaign. The General has proved his title to an independent command, and Colonels Brown, Hanson, and Ratcliff have ably seconded him in all his movements. The men have endured privations and fought the enemy like heroes, and deserve the very highest meed of praise. Kentucky, Ohio, and Michigan men have done the work effectually this time, and none have borne themselves more gallantly than the Twelfth Ohio cavalry. But, Kentucky has suffered a good deal by the raid. The Covington and Lexington and Lexington and Louisville railroads have been damaged considerably and partly burned, and hundreds of thousands of dollars' worth of property destroyed and stolen. The whole country has been full of spies; home rebels have given them aid and comfort, and helped in the work. If General Burbridge will do the thing completely, he will avail himself of their recent acts, to punish them as they deserve. We have a law, and by our law they ought to be punished. Now is the time to rid Kentucky of these foes to her peace, and these friends of her enemies.
GENERAL SHERMAN'S LETTER.
BIG SHANTY, IN THE FIELD, GA., June 21, 1864.
General Burbridge, Commanding Division of Kentucky:
GENERAL The recent raid of Morgan, and the concurrent acts of men styling themselves Confederate partisans or guerrillas, call for determined action on your part.
Even on the southern State Rights" theory, Kentucky has not seceded. Her people, by their vote and their actions, have adhered to their allegiance to the National Government, and the South would now coerce her out of our Union, and into theirs, by the very dogma of "coercion" upon which so much stress was laid at the outset of the war, and which carried into rebellion the people of the middle or border slave States.
But politics aside, these acts of the so-called partisans or guerrillas, are nothing but simple murder, horse-stealing, arson, and other welldefined crimes, which do not sound as well under their true name as more agreeable ones of warlike meaning.
Now, before starting on this campaign, I foresaw it, as you remember, that this very case would arise, and I asked Governor Bramlette to at once organize in each county a small trustworthy band, under the sheriffs, and, at one dash, arrest every man in the community who was dangerous to it; and also every fellow hanging about the towns, villages and crossroads who had no honest calling-the material out of which guerrillas are made up; but this sweeping exhibition of power doubtless seemed to the Governor rather arbitrary.
The fact is, in our country, personal liberty has been so well secured, that public safety is lost sight of in our laws and institutions, and the fact is, we are thrown back one hundred years in civilization, law, and everything else, and will go right straight to anarchy and the devil, if somebody don't arrest our downward progress.
We, the military, must do it, and we have right and law on our side. All governments and communities have a right to guard against real and even supposed danger. The whole people of Kentucky must not be kept in a state of suspense and real danger, lest a few innocent men should be wrongfully accused.
First. You may order all your Post and District Commanders that guerrillas are not soldiers, but wild beasts, unknown to the usages of war. To be recognized as soldiers, they must be enlisted, enrolled, officered, uniformed, armed and equipped, by recognized belligerent power, and must, if detailed from a main army, be of sufficient strength, with written orders from some army commander, to some military thing. Of course we have recognized the Confederate Government as a belligerent power, but deny their right to our lands, territories, rivers, coasts, and nationality-admitting the right to rebel and move to some other country, where
laws and customs are more in accordance with their own ideas and prejudices.
Second. The civil power being insufficient to protect life and property ex necessitate rei, to prevent anarchy, "which nature abhors," the military steps in, and is rightful, constitutional, and lawful. Under this law everybody can be made to "stay at home and mind his and her own business," and if they won't do that can be sent away where they won't keep their honest neighbors in fear of danger, robbery, and insult. Third. Your military commanders, provostmarshals, and other agents, may arrest all males and females who have encouraged or harbored guerrillas and robbers, and you may cause them to be collected in Louisville; and when you have enough-say three or four hundred-I will cause them to be sent down the Mississippi, through their guerrilla gauntlet, and by a sailing ship send them to a land where they may take their negroes, and make a colony, with laws and If they won't live in a future of their own. peace in such a garden as Kentucky, why, we will send them to another, if not a better, land, and surely this would be a kindness to them, and a God's blessing to Kentucky.
I wish you to be careful that no personalities are mixed up in this; nor does a full and generous "love of country," "of the South," of their State or country, form a cause of banishment, but that devilish spirit which will not be satisfied, and that makes war the pretext of murder, arson, theft in all its grades, perjury, and all the crimes of human nature.
My own preference was, and is, that the civil authorities in Kentucky would and could do this in that State; but, if they will not, or cannot, then we must, for it must be done. There must be an "end to strife," and the honest, industrious people of Kentucky, and the whole world, will be benefited and rejoiced at the conclusion, however arrived at.
I use no concealment in saying that I do not object to men or women having what they call "Southern feeling," if confined to love of country, and of peace, honor and security, and even a little family pride, but these become "crimes" when enlarged to mean love of murder, of war, desolation, famine, and all the horrid attendants of anarchy.
I am, with respect, your friend,
SIR: I have the honor to report that an attack was made on this place at half-past four o'clock A. M., by the Tenth Mississippi (rebel) regiment, under command of Colonel Louther.
The garrison had just completed the stockade on which they were engaged when you left, and
in it they fought bravely, though their pickets
The Lexington had steam up and moved im-
We have no casualties, and of the garrison
The wounded federals and rebels are being
Had there been another armed vessel here I could have cut off their retreat and captured the whole command, but I did not deem it prudent to leave this point with the Lexington. I am, very respectfully, your obedient servant. HENRY BOOBY, Acting Ensign, Commanding. Lieutenant-Commander S. L. PHELPS, Commanding 6th District Mississippi Squadron.
BEAUFORT, N. C., June 29, 1864. One of the most daring reconnoissances made during the war has just been successfully achieved by Captain Cushing, of the gunboat Monticello. On the night of the twenty-fourth instant the captain took a first cutter, with fifteen men and two officers (Acting Ensign Jones and Acting Master's Mate Howard), and succeeded in passing the forts of the west bar at Wilmington, and started up the Cape Fear river. After a narrow escape of being run over by one of the rebel steamers plying the river, he passed the second line of batteries and continued his course until Old Brunswick was reached, where the rebels have a heavy battery, when he was halted and fired upon, but succeeded in passing unscathed, by feigning to pass down the river and crossing to the friendly cover of the opposite bank. He then continued his course up the river. By this artifice the rebels were deceived, and signalized to the forts to intercept him as he came down the river, which they supposed was the direction taken.
At half-past two the next morning the captain had reached a point seven miles distant from Wilmington, where he caused the boat to be hauled on the banks and concealed from view by bushes and marsh grass. Day had now dawned, and it became necessary to select a place of concealment, which was found in the brush on the banks.
Soon after daylight the rebel steamers, blockade-runners and transports, could be seen by the party plying up and down the river, and, in fact, the flagship of the rebel Commodore Lynch passed by, penrant flying, the distinguished gentleman entirely unconscious of the fact that
a rifle in a steady hand, could, and would, but for obvious reasons, have given him his quietus. Two blockade steamers of the first-class passed up and one down during the first twenty-four hours. When night had fairly set in, the captain prepared to launch his boat, when two boats rounded the point, and, he supposed, having discovered his position, they designed to attack him; but it proved to be a returned fishing party. The entire party were captured-eight in number. Compelling them to act in the capacity of guides, he proceeeded to examine all the fortifications, river obstructions and other objects of interest within three miles of Wilmington. Here he was compelled to pass through a creek running through a cypress swamp, for several hours, through grass eight feet high and immense cypress trees on each side, whose shadows cast a dark gloom, only exceeded by darkness.
By two o'clock that morning a road was reached, which proved to be a branch to the main road to Wilmington, and joining it at a point two miles distant. The party was here divided, ten being left to hold this road; and the captain, taking the remaining eight men, took position at the junction of the roads, one of which was the main. Several prisoners were here captured, but none of importance. At about eleven o'clock A. M., the rebel courier, with the mails from Fort Fisher and lower batteries, en route to Wilmington, whose approach was awaited, came duly along, and he, with his entire mail, was captured.
whirlwind, and the captain being rather further from his base than be thought prudent, took to his line of retreat, and fell back in rapid but good order.
The telegraph wire leading to Wilmington was then cut for several hundred yards, and the party, with prisoners and spoils, rejoined the squad left with the boat, and, proceeding down the creek, reached the river about dark. The prisoners impeding the speed of the boats, measures were taken to dispose of them by depriving one of the fishing-boats of oars and sails and setting it adrift in the middle of the river, thus rendering it impossible for them to give the alarm until the tide floated them on some friendly bark. But while putting this plan into execution a steamer approached rapidly, and detection was only avoided by the party leaping into the water and holding on to the gunwales of the boat. The steamer passing, the prisoners and boat were sent adrift.
Nothing of interest occurred on the route down the river until a point between the batteries at Brunswick and Fort Fisher, when a boat was discovered making rapidly toward the shore. After an exciting chase she was overtaken, and her occupants, consisting of six persons, four of whom were soldiers, were taken on board, and the boat cut adrift. From them information was obtained that the rebels were on the qui vive, having boats posted at the narrow entrance between the forts to intercept the return. To understand the position of the party, it should be known that they were then but On examination this proved to be a prize of three hundred yards distant from two forts, and value, there being upward of two hundred this on a moonlight night. Captain Cushing, on documents, private and official, and many of learning the rebels' designs, resolved to take a great importance. The party, having thus far desperate chance of fighting his way through, labored successfully, experienced the necessity supposing that, in case there were but one or for refreshment for the inner man, and accord-two boats he might, by giving a broadside, esingly Master's Mate Howard garbed himself in the courier's clothes, and, mounting the same worthy's horse, proceeded two miles to a store and purchased a supply of provisions with which he safely returned. The prices the mate thought exorbitant, but did not feel disposed, in his liberal mood, to haggle or beat down.
Shortly after more prisoners were captured, and all that was now required to add to the eclat of the achievement was to capture the courier and mail from Wilmington, whose advent was looked for at five P. M. The impatience of the party may be imagined when it is stated that the mail would contain the day's papers issued at Wilmington at one P. M., and our nomadic friends were anxious to obtain the latest news early.
The courier arrived slightly in advance of time, but one of the sailors having moved incantionsly across the road, was seen by him, and taking alarm, he took to his heels at full speed. Captain Cushing, like Paul Duval, No. 2, awaited him on the road, with pistol cocked, put spurs to his horse and pursued for about three miles. But the courier speeded on like a
cape in the confusion. On arriving at the mouth of the harbor he perceived, as he imagined, one large boat, which, wonderfully prolific, soon gave birth to three more, which were afterwards increased in number by five from the opposite bank. This completely blocked up the narrow entrance to the harbor. The helm was put hard aport to gain distance, and, seeing a large sailboat filled with troops (seventy-five musketeers), at once decided that the only hope lay in outmanoeuvring them. The rebels, providentially, did not during this interval fire a shot, no doubt anticipating the certain capture of all. There being another means of entrance into the harbor (the west bar), the only possible hope was in impressing the rebels with the opinion that he would attempt that, the only remaining chance of escape. Accordingly, apparently making for this point, the rebel boats were drawn together in pursuit, when, rapidly changing his direction, the captain brought his boat back to the other entrance (the east bar), and, deeply loaded as she was (twenty-six in the boat), forced her into the breakers. The rebels, evidently foiled, dared not venture to
follow, and the guns of the batteries, which were pointed to rake the channel, were unprepared to inflict damage.
Captain Cushing has arrived safely, with his eight prisoners and mail, and can congratulate himself in having performed one of the most hazardous and daring feats of the war. His escape from this position of jeopardy is regarded by the navy officers as little short of miraculous, and the rebel prisoners have not yet recovered their amazement at the boldness of the feat.
DISCIPLINE OF SOUTHERN CAVALRY. HEADQUARTERS CAVALRY DIVISION, VALLEY DISTRICT, June 23, 1864.
General Order, No. 1. The following directions for the march of this command will hereafter be strictly observed:
ances than those allowed from army headquarters will be allowed.
Upon reaching camp, officers and men must remain in their camps, and commanders will establish proper camp guards.
Immediately upon fixing the headquarters of the brigade, the commanders will report their locality to division headquarters.
The utmost order and perfect quiet will be preserved upon the march and in camp. The silly practice of whooping and hallooing is strictly forbidden.
Destruction of the fences and crops of the farmers is positively prohibited, and such outrages will be paid for from the pay of the officers of the command nearest where such depredations may he committed.
Greatest care must be taken of ammunition. Not a cartridge must be fired unnecessarily. An important campaign is commenced, and upou its results depends more than we can estimate. The Major-General commanding asks and ex
Before the march begins on each morning, the rolls of each company will be called after mount-pects from every man of his command a hearty ing, and the Adjutant of each regiment will keep a list of the names of all deserters.
Before dismounting at camp in the evening, the rolls will again be called, and the brigade commanders will report to these headquarters the number of men absent at each roll-call.
The habitual order of march will be in column of" fours," but on narrow roads by "twos." The distance between the head of one brigade and the rear of the other will be two hundred yards.
When artillery and ambulances accompany the brigade, those assigned to each brigade will follow immediately in rear of their brigades. During the march the brigades in rear will regulate their movements by those in front.
Regular halts will be made during the march, and neither officers nor men will leave the column except at such halts, unless by the written consent of the brigade commander, and such permission will not be granted unless for important reasons.
Brigade, regimental, and company commanders will pass frequently from front to rear of their respective commands, to see that the col umn is at all times well closed up.
Brigades will alternate in the march daily. A rear-guard will be placed behind each brigade, and no person except staff officers or couriers will be permitted to fall behind such guard.
All the wagons of this division will march together, under the direction of the division quartermaster.
The quartermasters of the command will constantly accompany their respective trains. One man, dismounted, when practicable, will go with each wagon to assist the driver. He will remain with the wagon. No other parties will be permitted with the train, except when a guard shall be necessary. The quartermasters will be held responsible that no others accom
and cheerful compliance with orders, assuring all that they shall reap and enjoy the full fruits of whatever their labors and privations may obtain.
By command of Major-General Ransom:
WALTER K. MARTIN, A. A. G. Brigadier-General NED MOCAUSLAND,
ATTACK UPON FORT FISHER.
NORTH ATLANTIC SQUADRON, UNITED STATES FLAG-SHIP MALVERN, OFF WILMINGTON, December 24, 1864. SIR-I have the honor to inform you that I
pany the wagons. No other wagons or convey-attacked the forts at the mouth of the Cape Fear
tysburg, Alabama, Keystone State, Banshee, Emma, Lillian, Tristram Shandy, Britannia, Governor Buckingham, and Nansemond.
river this morning at half-past twelve o'clock, derbilt, having a reserve of small vessels, conand, after getting the ships in position, si- sisting of the Aries, Howquah, Wilderness, lenced it in about an hour and a half, there be-Cherokee, A. D. Vance, Anemone, Eolns, Geting no troops here to take possession. I am merely firing at it now to keep up practice. The forts are nearly demolished, and as soon as troops come we can take possession; we have set them on fire; blown some of them up, and all that is wanted now is troops to land to go into them.
I suppose General Butler will be here in the morning. We have had very heavy gales here, which tugs, monitors, and all, rode out at their anchors. The transports have gone into Beau| fort, North Carolina.
I am, sir, very respectfully, your obedient servant,
Previous to making the attack, a torpedo on a large scale, with an amount of powder on board, supposed to be sufficient to explode the powder magazines of the fort, was prepared with great care, and placed under the command of Commander A. C. Rhind, who had associated with him on this perilous service Lieutenant S. W. Preston, Second Assistant Engineer A. T. E. Mullan, of the United States steamer Agawam, and Acting Master's Mate Paul Boyden, and seven men. So much had been said and written about the terrible effects of gunpowder in an explosion that happened lately in England, that great results were expected from this novel mode of making war. Everything that ingenuity could devise was adopted to make the experiment a success.
The vessel was brought around from Norfolk with great care and without accident, in tow of the United States steamer Sassacus, Lieutenant
SIR-I have the honor to forward with this a somewhat detailed report of the two engage-Commander J. L. Davis, who directed his whole ments with Fort Fisher and the surrounding works.
We attacked with the whole fleet on the twenty-fourth instant, and silenced every gun in a very short time.
On the twenty-fifth instant we again took up our position, within a mile of the fort (the iron vessels within twelve hundred (1,200) yards), without a shot being fired at us; shelled it all day, with now and then a shot from the rebels, and stopped firing after sunset.
The army landed and reembarked, considering it impracticable to assault the place.
I shall remain and keep shelling the enemy's works on every occasion, whenever the weather will permit.
I have the honor to be, very respectfully, your obedient servant,
Hon. GIDEON WELLES,
DAVID D. PORTER,
Secretary of the Navy, Washington, D. C.
NORTH ATLANTIC SQUADRON, U. S. FLAG-SHIP MALVERN,
attention to the matter in hand, and though he experienced some bad weather and lost one of his rudders, he took her safely into Beaufort, where he filled her up with powder, and perfected all the machinery for blowing her up. General Butler had arrived at the rendezvous before us, and I hastened matters all that I could, so that no unnecessary delay might be laid to my charge.
On the eighteenth instant I sailed from Beanfort with all the monitors, New Ironsides, and small vessels, including the Louisiana, disguised as a blockade-runner, for the rendezvous, twenty miles east of New Inlet, North Carolina, and found all the larger vessels and transports assembled there, the wind blowing light from the north-east. On the twentieth a heavy gale set in from the south-west, and not being able to make a port without scattering all the vessels, I determined to ride it out, which I did, without any accident of any kind, except the loss of a few anchors, the monitors and all behaving beautifully.
AT SEA, OFF NEW INLET, N. C., December 26, 1864.) Only two vessels went to sea to avoid the SIR-I was in hopes I should have been ablegale, and fared no better than those at anchor. to present to the nation Fort Fisher and sur-The transports, being short of water, put into rounding works as a Christmas offering, but I Beaufort, North Carolina, and were not suitable am sorry to say it has not been taken yet. for riding out at anchor such heavy weather.
I attacked it on the twenty-fourth instant After the south-wester the wind chopped with the Ironsides, Canonicus, Mahopac, Monad-around to the westward and gave us a beautiful nock, Minnesota, Colorado, Mohican, Tuscarora, spell of weather, which I could not afford to Wabash, Susquehanna, Brooklyn, Powhatan, lose, and the transports with the troops not Juniata, Seneca, Shenandoah, Pawtuxet, Ticon-making their appearance, I determined to take deroga, Mackinaw, Maumee, Yantic, Kansas, advantage of it and attack Fort Fisher and its Iosco, Quaker City, Monticello, Rhode Island, outworks. Sassacus, Chippewa, Osceola, Tacony, Pontoosuc, Santiago de Cuba, Fort Jackson, and
*See Document 76, page 490, ante.
On the twenty-third I directed Commander Van-Rhind to proceed and explode the vessel right under the walls of Fort Fisher, Mr. Bradford, of the Coast Survey, having gone in at night and