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the privileges of freedom. Will not this necessarily make them discontented? or, if not, you ought, in gratitude, and perhaps in policy, to free their wives and children. This will give you, instead of half a million, a million and a half or two millions of free negroes in your midst. That is more than one half of the present slave population of the Confederate States.
How long would slavery last under this strain? Is not your proposition Abolitionism in disguise? No, Messis. Editors, we could not live in a country inhabited by such a class. Either they or we must be forced to leave. Which would it be, and where and how would they go? Abraham Lincoln emancipates all he can steal. You would take and emancipate one half at a word, or, at all events, you would take and emancipate that portion without whom the other portion would be valueless and a charge upon the country. No; our cause is not so desperate, nor its condition so low, as to need the aid of an army of free negroes. There are stout arms and brave hearts enough among the white men of the Confederacy to win and secure its freedom, and he who would call upon the poor, ignorant slave to fight his battles, for the boon of a worthless freedom, must not only be deeply despondent, but regardless of the duties he owes to his country, to his negro, and himself. It is not for the slave either to win freedom for the white men, as you would have him, or take the yoke of subjugation upon him, as would the Yankee. But it is for the Southern white man to achieve his own indepence, to secure himself in the possession of his slave, and to secure to the slave the possession of a good master.Richmond Enquirer, November 4.
OPERATIONS OF GENERAL LEE'S ARMY.
DIARY OF A CONFEDERATE OFFICER.
Wednesday, May 4, 1864.-Received orders at 2:15 P. M., to move by plank-road to front. Enemy reported crossing at Ely's Ford, near Chancellorsville. Camped two miles below Orange Court-house, marching thirteen miles, at a very rapid rate, over a good plank-road, which has been repaired to Unionville.
Thursday, 5th.-Moved, at sunrise, down to Mine Run, at Verdiersville, reaching there at half past ten A. M. Stopped to graze and water. Sent Captain D. to Morton's Ford to report to General Ramseur, taking two wagons with him. Firing on our right, probably at plank-road. Grant crossed, May 4, 1864, at Ely's and Germania Fords. Cavalry fighting near the river. Infantry fighting commenced. Marched twelve miles.
Friday, 6th.-Colonel John Thompson Brown, formerly Colonel of the First Virginia Artillery, was killed by one of the enemy's sharpshooters to-day, at ten A. M., while examining for position between plank-road and the turnpike, three
miles below Locust Grove. Moved up this day (weather very hot), to Locust Grove, Armed the cannoneers with muskets, to resist cavalry. Heavy fighting along our line. Enemy frequently repulsed.
Saturday, 7th.-Moved up near line of battle on turnpike. Put Captain D. in position on turnpike; rode along our picket lines; fired upon by sharpshooters; moved off, after dark, with all the batteries, as we ascertained, that though we had whipped Grant badly on the fifth and sixth, he was moving toward Richmond. Stopped at Verdiersville, near Colonel N., who had used most of the artillery engaged in this corps—his battalion alone being in.
Sunday, 8th.-About one P. M. moved toward Anticon Church, on Terry's Creek of North Anna, and camped on Po river, near Shady Grove Church-thirteen miles.
Monday, 9th.-Moved on to Spottsylvania New Court-house. Fighting yesterday and today at Court-house. We got between Grant and Richmond. Marched seven miles.
Tuesday, 10th.-At sunrise, put Captain S. in position in Daniels' brigade, and Captain J. in position in Ramseur's line. Captain D. in reserve, but near; Captain G. in reserve, near Court-house. Captain S. was about three hundred yards from a dense pine thicket, with an open field between, and our skirmishers from Dole's brigade being driven back to the rifle pits, we were much annoyed at S.'s guns by sharpshooters. Several were wounded. Went up to the right, at Major General Johnston's, who was to the right of Rodes. While there the Yankees charged. Captain D. was changing position, being relieved by Captain M. (Nelson's battalion) at the time. M.'s men showed good spirit but fired badly. About four P. M. went to Longstreet's line, and saw the charges made by Grant's men on our left. Seven heavy charges made and repulsed. Just before dark they charged the right of Rode's division and broke Dole's brigade, about one hundred yards to the right of S.'s battery. S. and his men acted very gallantly, firing their guns after the Yankees were in their rear. Major David Walton was with this battery. I was on the left, with Captain J. The Yankees came in the rear and right of S.'s battery, capturing the guns, as well as Captain S. and nineteen men-wounding seventeen. Ramseur charged by the right flank. I called out to Lieutenant R. to get some of S.'s men, who had got off, and come up with me to S.'s guns, and we would work them, when recaptured. Advanced with the head of the column, calling out constantly to our reinforcements, who were coming in without any order, and not knowing where to go, "by the right flank, men!" Stopped at S.'s fourth gun, a Napoleon, which I loaded with canister, and Lieutenant R. fired it. After firing seven or eight rounds, I found some of the cannoneers had returned. Told Lieutenant R. to work the Napoleon, and I would work another of the pieces. Got three infantry men to put down
their muskets and help me work a three-inch rifle. The dead were so thick around the other Napoleon we could not work it. The Yankees were firing at us from behind our breastworks, on the right, and from pens put up by ambulance men, about sixty yards to our right. This furious musketry continued for one hour and a half or two hours. W., standing by me, had his arm shot through. Took the lanyard from him and gave it to another man. L. was shot on the top of the head and scalped, but not killed. Saw Colonel P. leading in a column of infantry. Ran and asked him to send me up the first cannoneers he could find at a reserve battery He sent Garber's. From this fact a misapprehension arose that S. and his men had abandoned their guns. But I know they acted well. General Daniels complimented them very highly. Major David Watson escaped by jumping over in front and going over to J.'s battery, when S.'s was captured. He returned and assisted Lieutenant R. to work his Napoleon, and was mortally wounded, being shot through the bowels and pelvis. I was very much exhausted, working the guns and serving ammunition. Fired very rapidly and got the guns very hot. Sometimes had to cease firing, and take my men all back to the caissons to search for ammunition. Much of the time had only three men, and an infantry man to sit behind the breastworks and hold friction primers for us, as the implements were gone, and we had to find the extra implements that were necessary. Our works, about thirty yards to the right, had a second line run back to the rear about eighty yards long, to protect the hollow through which the Yankees broke in. When our men from Ramseur's brigade and the left advanced down our works to the right they stopped at this offset, and allowed the Yankees to hold our works until charged by Johnson and Gordon, later at night. The occupation of this offset made it very difficult for us to fire upon the Yankees behind our line without striking our men on the offset, and the blast from the nearest gun on my left, being pointed very obliquely to the right, blew off my hat twice, and seemed as if it would blow off my head. Shots passed through the leg of my pantaloons, the right arm of my coat and right breast of my coat; another struck my spy-glass in my sack coat pocket, which, resting at the time against my thigh, made me think for a moment that my thigh was broken. After recovering from the shock, went back to working the gun. Had nine bullet holes my clothes this night. Surely I should praise God for his mercy. For one hour and a half the Yankee infantry, at sixty yards distance, behind breastworks, tried to silence these gnns, and I was standing up all this time except when fusing shell. The Yankees also brought up a battery, six hundred or eight hundred yards in our front, and fired upon us during this time. General Lee rode up to my battalion next morning, saluted me by raising his hat, pulled off his gauntlet, and shook hands with me, thanking
me for my "gallantry and coolness," as he was pleased to say. I represented to him in proper light the good conduct of S. and his men, telling him forty men were put out of action in that company alone, and twenty-two horses. Four hundred Yankees were killed in our lines in this assault. A colonel and about twenty men were killed very near S.'s guns. They held the outer rifle-pits or breastworks for about two hours, until driven out by Gordon, commanding Early's division. General Johnson drove them to the breast works by charging through the woods. Generals Ramseur, Rhodes, Gordon, and Johnson charged at the head of their troops, I know. General Ewell also led a charge.
Wednesday, 11th--Day comparatively quiet. Just before dark, Colonel C. informed me that General Long had ordered all the guns out at dark. I informed General Ramseur, and went over to General Lee's headquarters to find General Long. He (General Lee) told me he did not intend for the guns to be brought out until the troops left. I then sent word back to General Ramseur and Captains D., J., and G., not to move until the troops moved, but the orders for N., P., and C. were not changed, and all moved out that night, and left the troops on Johnson's line without artillery. [This was the cause of the disaster which happened next morning to Johnson's division.-Editor.] Just at night General Ramseur had a report from Major O., commanding his sharpshooters, that the enemy were using axes in our front.
Thursday, May 12-Morning foggy. At daybreak, Grant charged over our lines, at Dole's position, capturing eight guns of Cutshaw's and twelve of Page's, just going into position, from which they had moved the night before. Page lost his horses and men, Cutshaw did not lose his horses. I had been at my wagons, which were with Captain Graham's battery that night, (the eleventh) and had received orders to put Graham in position, as we heard heavy cheers and no artillery firing on our side. I was told by Major Venable to open fire from about the Court-house. Went over to see LieutenantColonel Pegram, who opened fire as directed by Venable. The enemy charged from Dole's on Wilcox's lines. Our men fought well. Wilcox drove the enemy three hundred yards in front of our breastworks. Edward Johnson was captured and his men scattered badly. Loss heavy. Our lines were drawn in to throw out the point which had been occupied by Johnson. This was a ridge making off from the main ridge on which the Court-house is situated, and made a weak point in our lines, as it could be occupied by Grant if we left it out of our lines, while, if we took it in, it was scarcely tenable against a heavy assault directed upon Dole. The artillery having been removed, it was indefensible. We held our new line. The Yankees shelled furiously. Started to go round to that part of our line to see how matters were progressing. In the orchard, just back of General Lee's headquarters, I was struck on the collar-bone and
shoulder by a fragment of shell, which disabled me. The infantry firing had lulled, and we had repulsed the enemy. This was about ten o'clock in the morning. The Yankees had cut off General Edward Johnson's division, capturing him, and probably most of his men, but were unable to penetrate our lines at any other point, or to break the line which was established after Johnson's was broken.
TRADE WITH THE CONFEDERACY.
GENERAL WASHBURN'S ORDER.
HEADQUARTERS, DISTRICT OF WEST TENNESSEE,
The practical operation of commercial intercourse from this city with the States in rebellion has been to help, largely to feed, clothe, arm and equip our enemies. Memphis has been of more value to the Southern Confederacy since it fell into Federal hands than Nassau. To take cotton belonging the rebel government to Nassau, or any other foreign port, is a hazardous proceeding. To take it to Memphis and convert it into supplies and greenbacks and return to the lines of the enemy, or place the proceeds to the credit of the rebel government in Europe without passing again into the rebel lines, is safe and easy. I have undoubted evidence that large amounts of cotton have been and are being brought here to be sold belonging to the rebel government. The past and present system of trade has given strength to the rebel army, while it has demoralized and weakened our own. It has invited the enemy to hover around Memphis as his best base of supply, when otherwise he would have abandoned the country. It renders of practical non-effect the blockade upon the ocean, which has cost and is costing so many millions. It opens our lines to the spies of the enemy, and renders it next to impossible to execute any military plan without its becoming known to him long enough in advance for him to prepare for it.
The facts here stated are known to every intelligent man in Memphis. What is the remedy for these great and overshadowing evils? Experience shows that there can be but one remedy, and that is total prohibition of all commercial intercourse with the States in rebellion. It is, therefore, ordered: That on and after the fifteenth day of March, 1864, the lines of the army at Memphis be closed, and no person will be permitted to leave the city, except by river, without a special pass from these headquarters after that date. All persons desirous of coming into the city will be permitted to do so, but should be notified by the pickets that they will not be allowed to return. All persons who desire to leave the city to go beyond our lines, must do so before the fifteenth instant.
By order of Major-General C. C. WASHBURN.
THE RETREAT FROM ALEXANDRIA.
Having got our gunboats over the falls above Alexandria in safety, about the thirteenth instant, they, together with the transports, moved down the river, and with inconsiderable annoyance from the guerrillas along the shore, reached Fort De Russy without any casualties worthy of special mention.
The capture by the rebels on the fourth instant of the little gunboat Signal has not been made public. The event occurred at or near Snaggy Point, and very close to the place where the "John Warner" was taken about the same date. The following officers were taken prisoners along with her:
Lieutenant William Simpson, A. D. C., on General Banks' staff; Lieutenant-Commanding E. A. Morgan, U. S. Navy; Acting-Ensign Charles P. Bragg, U.S. Navy; Acting-Ensign William F. Loam, U.S. Navy; Acting Master's-Mate E. D. Lovel; Acting Master's-Mate R. P. Croft; Acting Master's-Mate And. Donaldson; Third Assistant-Engineer J. F. Liddell; Paymaster's Steward Eugene Colbert, and the mail messenger.
As our army marched out from Alexandria the mounted scouts of the enemy were seen hovering almost constantly about us, though they seldom approached near enough to give a chance to pick them off.
As our forces arrived on the sixteenth at Avoyelles Prairie General Banks learned that the enemy, in heavy force, had taken a strong position to dispute our passage. A belt of thick woods on the summit of what passes in this country for a hill, but which really amounted to nothing more than a gradual swell in the prairie, was the site chosen, and from the protection which the timber afforded his men, was admirably selected.
Our skirmishers were immediately thrown out to feel the enemy and draw his fire, the artillery was brought up, and preparations made to show the rebels that the men who had fought and whipped them at Pleasant Hill and Monett's Bluff, were not to be intimidated by the prospect of another brush with the same ragged battallions then. We had not long to wait.. The Confederates opened upon us at once with some twenty pieces of artillery. Having ascertained the position and strength of the enemy, we opened our batteries in return, and continued a furious cannonade on their lines for between three and four hours, when the fire from their artillery gradually slackened, and the greater part of them were silenced.
This was followed by an advance of our infantry, accompanied by a few volleys of musketry, when the panic-stricken rebels hastily retired, carrying their dead and wounded along with them from the field. It was the opinion of many of the officers that pursuit would have enabled us to make a complete route of the
enemy's retreating forces, but the Commanding General thought it best to save the extra fatigue to our already tired soldiers for the remaining march toward Simmsport, and so our column headed again for the Atchafalaya.
The remainder of that day, throughout the whole of the following one, our only collisions with the enemy were the occasional brushes which our cavalry had with theirs, really amounting to nothing, except to show the intrepid bravery which inspired our men throughout this fatiguing and really harassing movement. For it is perhaps one of the most difficult things in the whole military catalogue of difficult operations to withdraw an army from an enemy's country successfully.
forth to other labors and successes. General Canby is with the army at Morganzia.
Among the brilliant movements which deserve mention is a charge by the Twenty-sixth New York battery at the engagement of Avoyelles Prairie. The cavalry was under the command of Richard Arnold, Chief of Artillery of the department, and was handsomely handled throughout. General Mower's division of the Sixteenth Army Corps, a part of the Thirteenth corps, also under the same, and the cavalry, bore the largest part of the hardest fighting.
The most severe losses were sustained by the Fifty-eighth Illinois infantry, the Sixth Massachusetts, and Third Maryland cavalry.
The morale of the army at its camps at Morganzia is excellent, and its position pleasant and healthful, and when again called on to act, the country will hear a good account of what it is called on to perform.
On Wednesday the eighteenth, our army reached Yellow Bayou, which by the way is a bayou that unites with Bayou de la Glaise and empties into the Atchafalaya a short distance above Simmsport. Here our advance had crossed, together with stores, trains, etc., and also a part of our main forces, when the enemy made a sudden dash upon us with the evident hope to throw our troops into a panic. In this DESTRUCTION OF THE HARRIET A. WEED. they were disappointed, as the sequel will show. His very serene highness Prince MajorGeneral Polignac, commanded the rebels, and he was evidently burning to distinguish his new born titles with deeds worthy their exalted quality.
HILTON HEAD, S. C., May 14, 1864. The steamer "Harriet A. Weed," having in tow a schooner, left Jacksonville at about eight o'clock A. M. on Monday, the ninth. When opposite the mouth of Cedar creek, a point halfway between the town and St. John's bar, she ran upon two torpedoes, which exploded simulen-taneously, resulting in the complete destruction of the vessel. She was literally blown to atoms. The following are the names of the lost:
Brigadier-General Mower received his Highness with befitting honors, and after one of the most brilliant affairs of the war-the whole gagement lasting scarcely beyond an hour's time-despatched his Eminence back to those who sent him, with a loss in killed and wounded of not less than five hundred and three hundred prisoners left in our hands. A charge made upon their lines was one of the most spirited of the whole campaign, and resulted in the infliction of the heavier part of their losses in killed, and the capture of the three hundred prisoners above spoken of. Our casualties in this engagement were inside of one hundred and fifty all told. The rebel retreat was a scene of the wildest disorder-their troops throwing away every thing which might encumber them, and skedaddling in fine style. We lost no prisoners in this engagement.
On the nineteenth the army arrived at the Atchafalaya, and a pontoon bridge was improvised as follows: Twenty transports were anchored abreast in the stream, and over them was laid a bridge, on which the army, with all its paraphernalia, passed as orderly, conveniently, and securely as it would or could have done over a turnpike bridge in the land of steady habits. On the twentieth instant our entire army had crossed the river at Simmsport, and again moved toward the Mississippi river. The next evening it reached Morganzia, and went into pleasant camping ground in security and peace, to rest from its labors and dangers till the next move on the chess-board shall call it
C. L. Bell, Assistant Engineer; William Harding, Thomas Johnson, A. Brown, Stephen Wilkins.
The following is a list of the saved:
Captain Gaskill, commander of the vessel; Mr. Gaskill, Mate; D. H. Pettingill, Chief-Engineer; Captain J. R. Smith, Thomas Collins, William Morris, Robert Spagg, J. Smith, Frank Collins, Fred. Hamilton, Richard Whittaker, Henry Coldback, D. Jenkins, Jacob Norcott, Jos. Home, A. Brown, Jr., and twenty soldiers of the Third U. S. colored regiment.
Of the saved nearly all are more or less injured. Captain Swift states that he was thrown in the air a distance of twenty feet. The "Harriet A. Weed" was used more as a picket-boat than a transport. She carried two guns, both of which were exploded by the concussion.
On the same day that the disaster occurred, the river was dragged, and nine torpedoes were picked up. The authorities had information that the rebels were watching for an opportunity to sink torpedoes, for a number of deserters who came into our lines a few days prior to the explosion, stated explicitly what the intention was with regard to torpedoes. The "Harriet A. Weed" makes the third vessel that has been destroyed on the St. John's within a few weeks by means of torpedoes.
THE BATTLE OF MARKS' MILLS, ARK. Subjoined is an account of the battle of Marks' Mills, by "An Eye-witness." The battle was fought near the junction of the roads leading to Camden and Warren, and takes its name from the mill which the rebel General made his headquarters during the action.
The expedition was known to be of a hazardous nature. If Camden was to be held, supplies must be procured overland from Pine Bluff, or by steamers up the Washita. The prospect was not good for receiving them by the latter route; but it was known that only Shelby's forces was north of the Washita, and Colonel Drake's force was fully competent to manage him. If reinforcements were sent to him, General Steele relied upon being advised thereof by his cavalry in time to reinforce Colonel Drake. It subsequently transpired that General Fagen crossed the Washita on the second night after Colonel Drake left Camden, making a forced march of forty-five miles the next day, and joining Shelby in the neighborhood of Marks'
The rebel force then numbered over six thousand of the best troops in the Confederate service, while the total number under Colonel Drake was only about fifteen hundred.
across the field to give the requisite order to Major McCauleigh, he was exposed to a dreadful cross-fire from the enemy. Here he was wounded severely by a Minie ball in the left thigh and hip. Scarcely able to sit upon his horse, he still determined, if possible, to superintend in person the attack he had determined upon. He rode forward to the Major and gave the order. The Major wheeled his little cavalry force of about two hundred and fifty worn-out men and jaded beasts, and rode upon the rebels. The latter wavered and became disordered. Then Colonel Drake placed himself at the head of his men, and was about to give the order to charge, when, from weakness occasioned by loss of blood, he was compelled to dismount. He then directed Captain W. L. McGill, Inspector of the brigade, who had kept constantly by his side, to hand over the command to Major Spillman, of the Seventh Missouri, the ranking officer.
There was no cessation of firing on our side at any time. Every man fought with coolness and courage, until the rebels rushed in upon all sides, and disarmed them. There was no surrender.
Captain McGill acted with distinguished bravery and gallantry throughout the action. Musket-balls lodged in his coat and in his horse's saddle, yet he escaped without a scratch.
Major McCauleigh was wounded, and is still a prisoner.
The night previous to the fight was spent by the pioneer corps of the Federal force in cordu- He did not find Major Spillman. The latter roying the road through Moro Bottom. The had fallen back with his cavalry to Pine Bluff. train when well closed up was four miles long. He then sought Major McCauleigh. While huntThe Seventy-seventh Ohio formed the rearing him, the rebels made their dash. Seeing guard. In the morning, in passing over this the day was lost, Captain McGill struck into the corduroyed portion of the road, after about one timber, and subsequently reached Pine Bluff in hundred wagons had passed, a portion of it be- safety. came so defective from wear that the remainder of the train was delayed and lengthened out. This increased the distance considerably between the advance and rear guards, and was the situation when the advanced guard was attacked. The Thirty-sixth Iowa, in the centre, and the Seventy-seventh Ohio were immediately ordered up. It soon became apparent that the design of the rebels was to surround and crush the main body of our forces before the Seventy-seventh could come up. They appeared in overwhelming numbers in front and on each flank, and were gradually extending the latter so as to cut the train, and thus completely enclose the Union troops.
At this critical juncture word reached Colonel Drake that the Seventy-seventh Ohio was only a mile off. It had become evident that the train could not be saved; and he seems to have conceived the possibility of effecting a junction with the Seventy-seventh, cutting his way out; and escaping with most of his force. He proposed to take their left flank in the rear, with a charge of the small cavalry force under Major McCauleigh, and follow it up with all his available infantry, some four hundred men. Riding
Accompanying the train were several negro recruiting officers, with about three hundred negro recruits. About one hundred and fifty of them, probably, were killed-the balance escaped.
On our side there were between two hundred and fifty and two hundred and sixty killed and wounded.
According to the rebel official report, as I am informed by one of our wounded officers, who read it in manuscript, they had one hundred and ten killed, two hundred and seventy-eight wounded, and forty missing.
All our wounded were paroled. While they remained in the hands of the rebels they were well treated and provided for.
The rebels lost two Colonels in the actionone of them, Colonel Pettus, of this State. Most of our wounded have arrived here, and are well cared for in the hospital.
Colonel Drake, as soon as he can bear the trip, will start North.
Among the killed is Captain Townsend, of General Rice's staff.