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on until they had passed the crest of the little an engagement. Firing all along the skirmish elevation, when a storm of shell from our bat-line was quite brisk, but especially on the right tery, and a blinding shower of bullets from the First brigade, brought terror into their ranks. Their line halted-then wavered-rallied-wavered again, and then melted away, leaving traces of its position by the blood of the wounded and the bodies of the slain.

During this little affair-as pretty an engagement as you ever saw depicted on paper-the Second brigade, Colonel Burke, was in line along the river bank, and, although only skirmishers were actually engaged, yet many of the men could not repress their desire to "have a pop," and consequently a considerable little volley was sent. The rebel lines were near enough for some of the balls to reach us. One man, of the Sixty-sixth Illinois, was killed here, and Color Sergeant John A. Wilson, Eighty-first Ohio, was wounded while defiantly waving his flag in the face of the foe.

With this the enemy withdrew, leaving their dead and wounded on the field. Among them was Captain Whitaker, commanding a battery of artillery.

Battle of Rome Cross Roads.

of the entire line, which was bent back so as to cover the flank and also conform to the enemy's line in front of the Rome road. Two hours of skirmishing ensued, with an occasional shot from our batteries, when our boys on the right, becoming impatient, advanced and drove the rebel line beyond the Rome road. This portion of our skirmish line was composed of three companies of the Sixty-sixth Illinois, under command of Captain George A. Taylor, of Lima, Ohio. Brave as the bravest, and always impetuous, this officer, on reaching the Rome road and perceiving a party of rebels retreating in that direction, took four or five men with him and started in pursuit. Reckless of life, he followed until suddenly a volley from a strong line in ambush burst upon him, and he fell dead-shot through the brain. His men could not bear off his body, and it was left to rebel magnanimity. When found next morning, his boots, pants, hat, money, watch, and ring, were gone, and the buttons were cut from his coat. He was decently interred by the men of his regiment, as soon as possible next day.

to press our lines. Stronger and stronger came the firing on the right, until it became evident their attack would be there.

The death of Captain Taylor had such a disheartening effect on his men that they began to The remainder of General Dodge's command yield gradually the ground they had gained. was immediately ordered up, but could not Almost the entire regiment of sharpshooters arrive until some time the next day; conse- |(One Hundred and Sixty-sixth Illinois) was dequently, the Second division built temporary ployed as skirmishers, and several companies of works to guard against surprise in the night, the Eighty-first Ohio were sent out to support. and waited. It was ten o'clock of Monday when Still, the Fourth division did not come up, and General Sweeney's division started towards Cal- we could not attack. Perceiving this, and perhoun. General Veatch's division was consider-haps thinking we were weak, the enemy began ably in the rear. At the distance of a mile or two a strong defensive position was found evacuated, showing that retreat was in progress. About one o'clock our advance became engaged. At the same time General Dodge arrived, having ridden all the way from Resacca, and immediately set about putting his command in position. The First brigade was formed on the left of the road, facing eastwardly, the Third brigade on the right of the First, forming the centre, facing north-east, and on the right of the Third was the Second, facing nearly north. Thus disposed, a heavy line of skirmishers was sent out to ascertain the position of the enemy. It was soon found that their line was formed to protect a road a little in the rear of what is known as the Rome road, which crossed the Calhoun road a little in advance of the right of the Second brigade. Along this back road a heavy train of wagons was passing, and it was important that it should be well guarded. Cleburne's and Walker's divisions, the best of Johnston's army, were detailed for this duty, and were strongly posted.

Of course, General McPherson, who was also present, did not desire to engage these troops until the remainder or a portion of the rest of his command should come up. General Veatch's division and the Fifteenth corps were coming; consequently orders were given to not press

Colonel Burke went forward to learn, as well as possible, the ground and the position of the enemy. It was almost all a dense forest, thickly covered with pine brush, and it was impossible to learn anything except by hearing. Both General McPherson and General Dodge now came to the right, and the former ordered the right to fall back. Although the enemy was hidden from view and the balls striking among the trees, General Dodge rode forward to the advanced line and gave directions in person as to its position. The attack was coming on the right flank of the Second brigade. The Sixtysixth Illinois was scattered along a mile of skirmish line; the Eighty-first Ohio was divided into three battalions, under Lieutenant-Colonel Adams, Major Evans, and Captain Hill, and each battalion separated from the others. The Twelfth Illinois, still on the left of the Eighty-first, was almost entire, only one or two companies out skirmishing. A change of front by the battalions of the Eighty-first Ohio, was ordered so as to face towards the Rome road. Hardly was this done when the rebels advanced in force on the right battalion of the Eighty-first Ohio, under Captain Hill, and were pressing it hard when the centre battalion, under Lieutenant-Colonel

Adams, joined it and checked the advance. The Twelfth Illinois was hurried forward to fill the gap now made between Colonel Adams and Major Evans, who, with the left battalion of the Eighty-first, was ordered to hold that valley until further orders. Before the Twelfth got into position, the rebel line had so overlapped the right of the Eighty-first Ohio, that it was compelled to fall back a short distance, which was done in good order, and a position taken. But by this time Major Evans perceived a line advancing upon him, and relying on the tried gallantry of his command, without stopping to think how many were in his front, he ordered a charge. With a cheer which I wish might ring in every disloyal ear in the North, the line moved forward like one man, stopping for no obstacles. Volley after volley went rattling and thundering through the rebel ranks as the line kept still advancing. By this time, too, the Twelfth got in position on the right, and a volley from them told the rebel Generals that our commanders understood their business. Back, back, fell the rebels, and on sped the gallant Second brigade. Even when the rebel line was passed, and their right overlapped our left, there was no pause; but two companies, quickly changing front and having advantage of position, drove them like sheep before them.

In the meantime the Third brigade, commanded by Colonel Bane, was menaced. A party of sharpshooters attempted to capture one of his batteries, which was well forward. The battery had to be withdrawn. A few shells were thrown directly upon or near the house where General McPherson and General Dodge and staff were stopping, doing no more damage than causing a little sensation among the glittering officers, and cutting off a horse's tail.

ment, to ascertain that the loss in action did not exceed seventy-five. It could only be accounted for by the fact that the rebels fired too high, their balls striking always above our heads. The rebel loss in killed was much greater than ours, though it was impossible to ascertain it correctly.

I could not imagine a more gallant charge made with more fearful courage and confidence than that made by Colonel Burke's brigade through that dense forest. Heedless alike of dangers seen and unseen, every man felt himself a host, and pressed forward with as much condence of success as if the battle was over and the victory already won. Nothing short of annihilation could resist them. When they learned afterwards that they had fought the flower of the rebel army, their victory grew the brighter, and they felt certain of the result when the final contest shall come.

Retreat and Pursuit.

That heading tells the rest of my story. No man can tell you now where General Sherman's army has been since Monday last, unless the General himself. Every road, every field, every by-path, day and night, has been thronged and crowded by the hot pursuit of this great army. It has been a grand charge forward of men, horses, artillery, and trains-the earth has trembled with the vast movement. All the wonderful energy and restlessness of its great leader and with one mind and one purpose everything seem to be instilled into every part of the army, goes forward. Nobody doubts the result; every one knows it will be glorious.

plateau or valley, the country from Calhoun to With the exception of here and there a rich At Adairsville there is a long, fertile strip of Kingston is a barren pine-covered wilderness. but covered with broken stone. Only here and country. Here the soil is good in some places, there, at long intervals, do we see a good farmhouse or country residence. Citizens are more scarce than houses. Everybody is gone. I have seen but one slave man in the State of Georgia.

As it was now late, and the Second brigade had driven the enemy in confusion, the order was given to withdraw it, and relieve the whole division with the Fourth division, which had just come up. The withdrawal was made in excellent order, and so confused was the enemy that not a shot was fired as the brigade retired. Colonel Burke was in the front from the beginning. Early in the engagement a ball struck his left leg below the knee, and shattered the command has taken one hundred prisoners. Of In the operations so far, General Dodge's bone, then penetrated through his horse. The these thirty-two were captured by Colonel horse was not killed instantly, and the Colonel Burke's brigade, twenty-two of whom were tarode up to Lieutenant-Colonel Adams, Eighty-ken by a party of not more than fifty, at the first Ohio, and quietly remarking that he was wounded, turned over the command to him and rode away. His leg had to be amputated. During the short time that Colonel Burke has been in command of the brigade, he has endeared himself to his entire command by his gentle ⚫ manly courtesy and uniform kindness. By his bearing in the field, every soldier who knew him was constrained to place the fullest confidence in him. An important and responsible command (that of the Second brigade) devolves by this casualty upon Lieutenant-Colonel R. N. Adams, Eighty-first Ohio.

It was a matter of wonder, after the engage

first crossing of the Oostenaula, on the fourteenth. After the battle of the sixteenth, one rebel found two or three of our men lost, and volunteered to show them back to our camp. They trusted him, and he was faithful. He gave himself up as a deserter.


May 21, 1864.

On Monday, immediately after the rebel army had evacuated its position at Sugar Grove, the Union army was mobilized, and at noon was on the move in pursuit of the retreating rebels.

Our force moved in three grand columns, sweeping the country for twenty miles. The rebel wounded and dead were scattered along the road and in the edges of the woods, where temporary hospitals had been established. Our surgeons had the rebel wounded conveyed to our own hospitals in the rear and cared for. At Resacca the rebel commissary left behind in his flight a considerable quantity of corn and meal, which was turned over to the hospitals, or given to the soldiers.

which the retreating forces had thrown away to facilitate their flight.

On Monday evening the rear-guard skirmished lightly with our advance, but as they were not pushed very hard, the fight was not a serious one. On Tuesday the centre column, which the rebels chieffy pursued, came up to and passed Calhoun, a quiet country town of about four hundred inhabitants, which possesses many attractions for a country residence. The houses indicated to some extent wealth and thrift; there were handsome gardens, shade trees, an abundance of flowers, and other evidences of refinement and comfort. The people had mostly followed the army South. Three miles beyond, at the "Graves House," the rebels made a determined stand, and our skirmishers, assisted by artillery, were engaged for over two hours in a spirited contest with the enemy, whose sharpshooters occupied the octagon cement house, which served them quite well for a fort. The Union skirmishers of General Howard's Fourth corps, Newton's division, occupied rail barricades and trees, behind which they had partial shelter while peppering away at the enemy. An accident occurred here from the premature bursting of a shell fired from the Sixth Ohio battery, which killed six of our own men and wounded several others.

While the fight was progressing on Saturday and Sunday at Sugar Creek, McPherson was engaged in shelling Resacca, to interrupt the passage of the rebel army, which, late in the day, was observed to be moving in long and unbroken trains. The houses, stores, depot buildings, telegraph office, were riddled by the exploding shells and round shot, and the place rendered very uncomfortable. The inhabitants, like most of the people from Dalton and Tilton, took the train with their household effects, provisions, etc., and went South. The few who remained stated that a massacre and destruction of the people was expected, from the statements of the rebel officers and men. The order for the army to fall back was captured from the rebel courier on his way from Johnston's headquarters, and the whole programme thus revealed to us.

There is too much of this defective ammuTaking the main road to Resacca, the enemy's nition among our ordnance stores. Who is in rear passed the Coosawatchee on Sunday fore- fault? We had but few casualties, and went noon, and burned the railroad bridge. They into camp on the ground, the heavens being also attempted, but failed, to destroy the trestle-lighted up by the flames of burning buildings bridge near it, which, with our pontoon, served on the Saxton estate, where the fight had ocan admirable purpose for crossing our artillery curred. and ambulance train.

General Thomas' and General Howard's headResacca was strongly fortified by earthworks quarters were at the front. commanding the road, which passes through a Early Wednesday morning the army was line of irregular hills, so as to enfilade the ap-again in motion, the Fourth corps leading the proach. Being in the bend of the river, which way. The estate where the rebels had made protects it on three sides, and with forts crown- their stand, and which the rebel Generals had ing all the prominent hills on each side of the occupied for their headquarters, was a fine cotroad, as well as long lines of rifle-pits running ton farm, with all the buildings, presses, gins, zig-zag along the sides and bases of the undulat-etc., attached. The dwelling was also a good ing ground, it would have been next to impos-one, of quite large dimensions. The soldiers sible to have carried the place by assault without the greatest destruction to the attacking force. It might have been taken by overcoming, first, any force stationed on the south side, and then by laying siege to the place, and driving out the enemy by artillery at long range. It was evidently no part of the rebel programme to make a stand at Resacca. There was some necessary detention in crossing the river by the limited means provided, but before sunset the large portion of the forces, with the immense wagon train, were winding over the hills beyond Resacca, while the left wing was crossing the river at Field's Ferry, and going by the way of Newtown. Stragglers and deserters were picked up at every mile of the march; many of them purposely stopping behind and giving themselves up. The road was lined and thickly strewed with broken muskets, blankets, and clothing,

were permitted to rifle it of the old rags and rubbish left by the occupants, and then to set it on fire, with all the other buildings on the estate-a bad use to make of an enemy's property, and a very foolish one, if it were not our own by the treasonable act of the owner. How far this vandalism is to be tolerated remains to be seen. The owners were undoubtedly rebels, as shown by the letters found upon the premises, but has the army of the Union come into Georgia to burn all rebel property, and to lay waste the country? and if not, why this incendiary beginning?

The country becomes more open as we advance. There are finely cultivated fields of corn and wheat. Some of the houses are large, with ample shaded grounds, with cotton-presses, barns, and other evidences of wealth. have passed through the poor North Georgia


border of sandy, hilly soil, and are trenching upon the more fertile wheat and cotton lands of Middle Georgia. We have already passed through three counties, and will soon be in the fourth.

The centre passed through Adairsville this forenoon; a small, but heretofore a thriving town of two or three hundred inhabitants, with a hotel, a dozen stores, railroad depot, and an extensive machine shop and arsenal, where there was formerly a large manufactory of arms. All the people have run away, all the goods have been taken-they had light loads to carry I reckon-another machine shop and foundry were long since dismounted, and the work removed to Atlanta.

Here Cheatham had a hospital, in the loft of a brick store, where he left behind the amputated leg of an unfortunate rebel soldier, and there were other limbs in different places left behind as evidence of the bloody character of the previous day's fight. One or two dead lay in deserted buildings in the town. Some few families remained here, and, with one or two exceptions, were not disturbed. I heard some complaints that the meat and flour saved for families' use had been taken by our soldiers. These actions were unnecessary, and were to be attributed solely to the thieving dispositions of some of the men generally, "buzzards" who are always straggling behind the army, that they may plunder with the greater impunity. Not satisfied with taking articles of food, and, in some cases, all that they can lay hands on, they break and destroy furniture, looms, and farming implements, in the most wanton spirit. The commander of the Twenty-third army corps, I am glad to observe, has a stringent order against this indiscriminate pillaging. Officials of this corps, to my certain knowledge, have set their faces as a flint against these outrages, and have done all they could to prevent them. Colonel Bull, commanding the pioneer corps, is also entitled to the thanks of all who value the good name of the army. He allows no soldiers to enter a house upon any pretext, and when obliged to stop for water at a well, upon any person's premises, personally sees that they commit no depredations, and that they "move along." Such officers redeem the character of the army.

On Friday morning Rome was occupied by McPherson, who came upon the place suddenly, and prevented the destruction of the machineshop, which the rebels attempted to burn. I understand that a considerable number of prisoners were also captured.

The bridge across the Resacca having been repaired by the pioneer corps in an incredibly short time, the trains are now running to Kingston with supplies for the army. A train was also run up to Rome on Friday. The railroads have all been left intact by the retreating army. They undoubtedly expect to return and have use for them hereafter.

cupying the left, pushed the enemy rapidly back, skirmishing heavily on the roads beyond Kingston. At Cassville, a handsome village six miles beyond Kingston, the enemy had constructed earthworks, and after occupying for a time the brick college-buildings, lately used for hospitals, they fell back through the town, taking shelter behind barricades of rails, and finally going to the rifle-pits on the range of high ground back of the village.

General Johnston ordered all the people away, and the rebels took their turn in pillaging as they passed through the place. The work which was begun by the rebel soldiers, was finished by our own. Not one house escaped. Every house was rifled of the few articles left behind, and the clothing and furniture wantonly broken up and destroyed. Some poor families, who only left their houses for a few hours to avoid danger, lost all they possessed, and your correspondent witnessed several cases of the greatest distress growing out of these cases of brigandage. Women and children were frequently seen weeping and mourning in the midst of the wreck which war had made. They had not a shred of personal or of bed-clothing to cover them. Their houses had been emptied of everything except the fragments of torn garments and broken furniture, which lay in a pile about the floor, and every morsel of food had been taken away. These people will have to be fed out of army rations or perish.

The enemy fell back doggedly towards High Tower, on the Etowah River, crossed over and burned the bridge, closely pursued by General Schofield's corps. The day was extremely hot, and the roads filled a foot deep with impalpable dust, which whirled and eddied in suffocating clouds, enveloping the army, and partially shutting all objects from sight. It will take several days to construct the bridge across the Etowah, which will have to be done under the enemy's fire, or we shall have to cross by some other route, and push them further back. The army is soon to go marching on. The officers and men are in good spirits.

Johnston's army drew rations here for seventynine thousand men-so says an escaped officer. General Polk holds their right, corresponding to our left, General Hood the centre, and General Hardee the left. We have taken some three or four hundred prisoners during the past two days.

Sunday, May 22, 1864.

The enemy still have a small party of skirmishers on this side of the Etowah or High Tower, in their earthworks, and we have had some skirmishing with them. Preparations are making for another grand advance, when these rear-guards of the rebel army will probably get up the dust. We shall have some show of a fight, probably, before getting across the river.

General Judah has been relieved of the comThe Twentieth and Twenty-third corps, oo-mand of the Second division, Twenty-third army

corps, and General M. S. Hascall appointed in his place. The latter commander has steadily progressed in the confidence and esteem of the army since he came to the Department of the Ohio.

I have just seen a copy of the Confederacy, published at Atlanta, May fifteen, which contains an editorial article copied from the Chicago Times of April thirty, giving the exact strength of General Steele's army in Louisiana, the position of his forces, and the exact distance of his army from his base of supplies; also hinting that small reinforcements of Price would be able to overwhelm and capture his whole command. Here is "liberty of the press" with a vengeance.

Battle of Sugar Valley, or Resacca.

The heaviest fighting of the campaign has taken place to-day, and though it was indecisive, we have cause to be thankful at the results.

Our line, as formed last night, was in the form of a semicircle, to the north-west of Sugar Valley, while the Oostenaula River completes the circle on the south-east. Sugar Valley is a fertile little plain of about ten square miles in size, much broken by hills, which at this season of the year are covered by a dense undergrowth of small trees and vines, rendering them very difficult to penetrate. It was in this valley, between the projected Rome and Dalton Railroad and the river that encircles Resacca and Tilton, that the enemy made a stand after being closely pressed on his retreat from Dalton. From our centre to the river, the distance this morning was about seven miles. Our line extends completely around the valley, McPherson's right resting on the river near its junction with the Oothkalaga Creek, or Calhoun, while the left strikes the river north of Tilton, near the junction of the river with Swamp Creek, that takes its rise in the hills of Sugar Valley. Lick and Camp creeks also burst out from the hills in the valley and empty their waters into the Oostenaula River, which is very broad and deep, but can be forded, when the water is low, at six points. The above is as intelligible a description of the field as can be given without the aid of a map; and now for the opening of the ball. As I have already said, our line was formed in a half circle, extending from the river on the left to a point on the river near Calhoun. The corps occupied positions in the line as follows, extending from right to left: first, McPherson; second, Hooker; third, Palmer; fourth, Schofield; fifth, Howard.

Skirmishing commenced early in the morning, and many prisoners were brought in as the result, although the attack made by us was but faintly responded to. Skirmishing continued, with occasional truces, lasting from ten to thirty minutes, all the morning. Meantime our General officers were not idle. Generals Sherman and Thomas, with their indefatigable corps com

manders, rode along the line with their staffs, personally superintending the parking of ambulances and ammunition trains, and assigning batteries to positions where they could be of the most service in the event of a general engagement.

At nine o'clock General Schofield was ordered to withdraw his corps from the part of the line between Palmer and Hooker, and take a new position on the left of Newton's division of the Fourth corps. Palmer closed up the gap between his left and Newton, and Judah's and Cox's divisions of Schofield's corps came up in the place assigned to them. Hovey's brigade of the Second corps was left in reserve, and did not participate in the battle of to-day. By some mistake in the giving or reception of the order, General Cox's division failed to get up in time, and Judah and the force on his right advanced upon the enemy, thus leaving a gap of half a mile between Judah's left and Stanley's right, which was promptly filled by cavalry. Considerable confusion followed the announcement of the existence of this gap, and staff officers in vain rode for hours in search of Cox's division through the thick underbrush in which our line was formed. It was lost, and staff officers reported that General Schofield could obtain no intelligence from it.

General Judah, just before noon, received an order from General Schofield to open the attack, and though his left flank was liable at any moment to be turned, he informed General Schofield of the fact, and at once moved forward upon the enemy's skirmishers. The boys moved rapidly through the vines and shrubbery, down the valley, drove the enemy before them, and with a cheer crossed the deep gorge near which the enemy had thrown up strong breastworks commanding the valley. The enemy opened a very destructive fire, and for half an hour the battle was a bloody one, the main lines being within a few yards of each other. The enemy at once opened a destructive fire from their artillery, which the brave division stood for some time, vainly striving by superhuman efforts to carry the breastworks. It was repulsed after a gallant effort, and retired into the valley in disorder. We had not yet got up on the left, and no artillery support was at hand. Nevertheless, General Judah resolved not to retire without one more effort. Collecting together the fragments of his broken but not discouraged regiments, a new line was hastily formed, and the whole division was just in the act of advancing in a charge which all felt would have put it in possession of the enemy's line of works, when the division was relieved by General Newton's division of the Eleventh corps. In the meantime the gap in the line was filled, Cox took his position, and for an hour the incessant roll of the musketry, as volley after volley was poured into the ranks of the enemy, and as vigorously returned, told that the conflict was a desperate one. Artillery fire was delivered into the enemy's ranks rapidly, and with excel

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