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erally with an inquisitive smile. To this ensemble I must add a hat which was the reverse of dignified or distinguished-a simple felt affair, with a round crown and drooping brim, and you have as fair a description of General Sherman's exteruals as I can pen.
There has been no fighting amounting to anything during the operation.
Fifteen members of the Ninetieth Ohio foolishly ventured outside the pickets to-day, two or three miles, and were all captured save
The operation of tearing up the road has been very interesting, and one over which the men, notwithstanding it is the hardest kind of labor, were quite enthusiastic. A regiment or brigade formed along the track; rails were loosened at their flanks, whereupon the whole line seized the track and flung a stretch corresponding to the length of their line from its bed. The rails were then detached, the ties piled up and covered with fence-rails. The iron was then deposited upon the pyre, the torch applied and the thing was soon consummated. The men, not content with the curve made in the rails by the intense and continued heat, seized many and twisted them until they looked like members of a phonographic alphabet.
Seating himself on a stick of cord-wood hardby the fence, he drew a bit of pencil from his pocket and spreading a piece of note paper on his knee, he wrote with great rapidity. Long columns of troops lined the road a few yards in his front, and beyond the road, massed in a series of spreading green fields, a whole division of infantry was awaiting its turn to take up the line of march, the blue ranks clear cut against the uniform verdant background. Those who were near their General looked at him curiously, for in so vast an army the soldier sees his Commander-in-chief but seldom. Page after page was filled by the General's nimble pencil and despatched. For a half hour I watched him, and though I looked for and expected to find them, no symptoms could I detect that the mind of the The troops to-day were placed on threegreat leader was taxed by the infinite cares of a quarter rations, to provide against any emerterribly hazardous military coup de main. Ap-gency. They are getting abundance of roastingparently it did not lie upon his mind the weight ears, so their dinners will have bulk as well of a feather. A mail arrived. He tore open as nutrition. the papers and glanced over them hastily, then chatted with some General officers near him, then rode off with characteristic suddenness, but with fresh and smiling countenance, filing down the road beside many thousand men, whose lives were in his keeping.
Here was a movement in progress, which, turn out as it may, will stand out in high relief in history, as an instance of the marvellous daring and ingenuity of Sherman, and the readiness and compactness of his army. Here was a host such as Napoleon led in the maturity of his fame and power; yet we can hardly realize, as we watch the endless river of men, that we are seeing the event developing-conning the history as it appeals, fresh and unwritten, to our eyes. The columns whose faces seem to have something in common-to be uniformed like their bodies-a brisk squadron of horsemasses of recumbent troops-a cluster of guns, looking stupid with inertia-flankers of the genus camp-African, laden, as to weight, like a Holland emigrant-a General with his staff, a trifle smarter in attire and bearing than the line -and over in valleys, creeping in relief against the hills fused of the emerald and amethyst, and on crests in relief against the pale blue of the sky, the articulated wagon-trains-these are the aggregate the movement.
August 29.-To-day the army has not advanced its lines. The day has been consumed in issuing rations to the men, and tearing up and burning the railroad, thirteen miles of which have been so completely destroyed by Howard, Stanley and Davis, that nothing remains but the embankment. Generals Sherman and Thomas have their headquarters on the railway six miles from East Point.
August 30.-We get the direction of Atlanta to-night by looking toward the north star. We are now directly south of the city, between the West Point and Macon railroads, and so near the latter-the last artery of the Gate City-that we must strike it to-morrow.
The Fourteenth corps broke camp at six o'clock this morning, and moved out on the direct road to Rough and Ready Station, on the Macon railroad, eleven miles from Atlanta. The Fourth corps marched at the same hour on a parallel road further north. The advance has had slight skirmishing with a brigade or two of rebel cavalry and infantry.
Learning that the enemy was fortified along the Macon railway, the Army of the Cumberland halted, and intrenched about two miles west of it. The Twenty-third corps closed up and faced north-east, to guard against an attack from the direction of Atlanta. The Army of the Tennessee moved toward Jonesboro' in two columns, Hazen's division, Fifteenth corps, in advance. On reaching the head of Flint river, about a mile from Jonesboro', skirmishers were found on the opposite bank. After a lively skirmish the Fifteenth corps effected a crossing, where it formed and intrenched.
Kilpatrick's cavalry on the right of the Army of the Tennessee, also made a crossing this morning and attempted to push their way to the railroad. While advancing with this object in view, the rebel infantry attacked him, and forced him back after a severe struggle. Infantry supports were sent up, and the enemy checked. Kilpatrick's loss was about one hundred. His assault proved that the enemy were in heavy force around Jonesboro', and intrenched.
We learn that Hardee's and Lee's corps com
menced arriving at Jonesboro' early this morning, leaving in Atlanta Stewart's corps, and the militia. The merest tyro, by looking at the map, can see the dangers of this disposition.
The men had encountered no opposition after crossing the creek, but skirmishers were thrown out to prevent surprise. By dark strong works had been constructed, facing east and south, and all night the destruction continued.
But to the grand event of the day. At dayFifteenth Army Corps, advanced, gallantly driving the enemy from a prominent hill, which gave our artillery command of Jonesboro' and the railroad, now less than one half mile distant. A brigade of Osterhaus' division reinforced the brigade holding the hill, and the troops fell to fortifying the position immediately. The rest of the Fifteenth corps was rapidly brought into position on the new line, Hazen occupying the hill nearest the enemy, the other divisions, Harrow's and Osterhaus', on his flanks and in reserve. General Corse's division of the Sixteenth corps was brought forward across Flint creek and joined Logan, and General Wood's division of the Seventeenth corps also crossed and went into position on the left.
The country south of Atlanta is the finest surrounding the city. The soil is tolerably productive, and we find many well-to-do far-break the Second brigade in Hazen's division, mers, but few large planters. A mania for sorgho seems to be raging. Nine farms in ten have several acres of it growing finely. The crops generally consist exclusively of corn-one stalk in a hill, of course. We find plenty of grazing and forage for horses and cattle-droves, good water and fine roads. Two or three rusty inhabitants have come in our lines, who profess to have been concealed for many months from the conscription officers. These are the only males I have seen on the march. The women and children are totally bewildered. They say that they heard a cavalry raid was coming, and they stare stupidly at the oceans of men who pour by their doors. I deliberately assert that I have never seen in the South a pretty woman among the humbler classes; and the children are sallow, attenuated little imps, with degenerate livers. No wonder they had but two methods of disposing of people who came down here to take notes-one to entertain them at princely mansions, and take up their time so luxuriously that they never escaped from the aristocratic orbit; the other, if they were rebellious-the halter.
August 31-9 P. M.-This day has been big with history. We have cut the rebel communications, divided their army, and repulsed a heavy and determined assault on our right made by Hardee's and Lee's corps-the flower of the rebel army in Georgia. The success of our grand movement is no longer problematical; it is only a question of how complete and crushing the victory will be.
During last night the tramp and rumble of a passing column were heard in front of our left and centre. It was the massing of two rebel corps on our right for assault.
About three P. M., the enemy suddenly poured from the forests in front of Hazen's position, and formed rapidly into line for assault. On Hazen's right ran a strip of wood; in his front over which the enemy advanced, were fields of tall corn; on his left, a thick and sheltering pine grove. Lee's corps, in four lines, advanced gallantly upon Hazen, while Hardee's corps attempted to work around his right, where he was soon engaged with Harrow's division, and in pouring a converging fire on Hazen's and the other troops occupying the hill. The assault was a desperate one. The rebels were playing their last card, and they fought as if, foreseeing failure, they courted death. They swarmed through the waving corn with flaunting banners, and rushed on our works without wavering under the deadly fire pouring into their thinning ranks.
But in spite of their superhuman efforts, not a man of Lee's corps placed foot on our parapet. Major-General Patton Anderson, commanding At eight o'clock this morning Newton moved Hindman's old division in Lee's corps, fell morhis division into column, and followed Kimball tally wounded within thirty yards of our works. and Wood in an easterly direction. Arriving at At the same moment, his horse, a splendid the edge of a large field a strong rebel line of animal, toppled over, with a half dozen bullets works was plainly discerned before us on the dappling his glistening coat with blood. Brigwest bank of Crooked or Mud creek. Wood, adier-General Cummings, of Stevenson's diviwho had the advance, promptly moved up hission, also fell, desperately wounded, in the assault. artillery, and deploying his skirmishers drove the enemy out and took possession. The skirmishers pushed on, crossed the creek and were soon moving right ahead on the double-quick in pursuit of the enemy. Shots were exchanged, but no casualties resulted.
Crossing the creek at Lee's Mill, Schofield's column moved off to the left toward Rough and Ready, where he struck the Macon railroad at two P. M. Stanley struck it with his advance about the same time. Arriving on the railroad, the men of the two corps commenced throwing up works, while details tore up and burned the the track for over four miles.
Two of General Anderson's staff were killed, and lay near where he fell.
The force of the first assault was no sooner broken, than a second line came surging up, to meet with no better fate. Again and again the enemy broke, and again and again they were rallied and led back. The fighting was desperate for two hours, but at no time can there be said to have been any danger in it, for the enemy had struck us where we were strongest. General Howard sent two regiments of General Wood's brigade, and Colonel Bryant's brigade of the Seventeenth corps, to Hazen's assistance, but the gallant Ohioan would have weathered the
storm alone. Hazen captured one hundred and thirty prisoners and two stands of colors, beside many rebel wounded. It is estimated that the enemy in his front lost one thousand men.
On the right of Hazen, Harrow's division was heavily engaged, but the assault was much feebler, though it cost the enemy heavily.
Cleburne's division failing to make any impression on Harrow, marched down to our extreme right and attacked Kilpatrick, holding the bridge over Flint river. Kilpatrick held them at bay until relieved by General Giles B. Smith's division of the Seventeenth corps, which repulsed the pugnacious Hibernian chief without delay.
The loss of the Fifteenth corps during the sault foots up thirty-one killed, one hundred and twenty-six wounded, four missing. Our loss in the whole affair will not exceed two hundred. We played upon the enemy with two batteries.
Fourteenth, and envelop the enemy's right flank. "Montrose," who was on that part of the line, gives the following relation of the events on the left and centre, including the noble charge of the Fourteenth corps:
The Fourth corps broke camp at four A. M., and Newton's and Kimball's divisions moved direct upon the Macon railroad, which they reached at five. The men were at once spread along the line fronting the track, and at a given signal the ties and rails were lifted from their beds, and turned over like the sod from a plough, the whole length of a brigade front. In a half hour, over a mile and a half was torn up and destroyed. Another advance took place for a as-mile and a half, when the operation was repeated. In this manner the two divisions marched, tearing up and burning every rail from Rough and Ready to within two miles of Jonesboro', a distance of ten miles, where they formed a junction with Wood, and advanced to position, Kimball's division_joining his right to the First division of the Fourteenth corps, with Newton on his left. Wood's division was in reserve. The Twenty-third corps, which followed the Fourth, came up about this time on the left of the Fourth and went into position. The line thus formed was something in the form of the capital letter A, the Army of the Tennessee on the left, the Fourth and Twenty-third corps on the right, and the Fourteenth corps on the flattened apex of the letter. At four o'clock Davis and Stanley made a simultaneous advance.
Lieutenant-Colonel Myers, Tenth Mississippi, fell into our hands badly wounded. The bodies of the rebel Colonel Williams and Major Barton fell into our hands In all, seven rebel fieldofficers were killed and wounded in Hazen's front. It was remarked that the officers behaved during the fight with perfect reckless
Toward evening the Seventeenth corps advanced, and went into position on the left of the Fifteenth. The Sixteenth corps took position on the right of the Fifteenth, and faced to the southeast.
Sixty-eight rebels, all badly wounded, are collected in one of Logan's hospitals.
The two rebel corps at Jonesboro' are commanded by Hardee. Hood remained in Atlanta, laboring under the hallucination that he could hold the city with our whole army in his rear. He, no doubt, instructed Hardee to assault us whenever he came upon us. Such are his tactics. The battles of the twentieth, twenty-second and twenty-eighth of July, and the thirtyfirst of August, have a distinguished family resemblance. All desperate assaults-all bitter defeats for Hood.
September 1.-Another day of grand, decisive victory. Our whole army turned this morning, like an aroused giant, upon the rebels at Jonesboro', and at the hour I write (nine P. M.), we have them enclosed on three sides. We dare not hope to find them still here when day breaks to-morrow.
The Fourteenth corps, owing to the accidents of position, has not been as heavily engaged during the campaign as some others. To day it struck a balance-sheet by the most successful, if not the most gallant assault of the summer.
At day-break this morning the Army of the Tennessee faced east, opposite Jonesboro, and joined on the left by the Fourteenth corps, facing south-east, and running a short distance across the Macon railroad. The Fourth and Twenty-third corps commenced advancing down the track to take position on the left of the
Newton's division was formed with Bradley on the left, Opdyke on the centre, and Wagner on the right. Moving through a dense woods of three hundred yards, the whole division encountered the rebel skirmishers who were hurriedly driven back upon a large corn-field, across which the whole division charged in gallant style, driving the enemy from their barricades, and capturing about fifty prisoners.
The advance was in two lines. General Bradley's command captured a rebel hospital, with two hundred wounded, from the division of Major-General Anderson, who was killed the previous day by Howard. Lieutenant Cox and Captain Tinney, of Wagner's staff, captured six prisoners in person.
I have but few particulars of Kimball's division, owing to the fact that it was put in motion very early, and I had no chance to make notes. The division, however, advanced behind Wagner, but as Stanley had to swing round his corps on the left, Kimball, being on the extreme left, did not have to advance far. He drove the enemy's skirmishers, however, in good style, capturing a few prisoners and their skirmish-pits, with slight loss. The total loss in the corps did not exceed fifty men, only five or six of whom were killed.
Davis formed his line with the First division, Brigadier-General Carlin on the left, and the Second division, Brigadier-General Morgan, joining the Fifteenth corps on the right. Baird was in reserve. The line was formed in the
edge of the woods, a half circle, with the two flanks thrown forward, and the centre somewhat retired, facing a large corn-field half a mile wide, at the south-east edge of which, on commanding ridges the enemy's line was formed, covering Jonesboro'. The rebel skirmishers were in the ravines in the centre of the field.
The brigades on the line were as follows: left resting on the railroad, Colonel Moore of the Sixty-ninth Ohio, commanding, with the Seventyfourth Ohio, reinforced by five companies of the First Wisconsin, as skirmishers; second the regular brigade, Major Eddy coinmanding, with the Sixteenth infantry, Captain Barry, as skirmishers; third, Colonel Simmes' brigade; fourth, Colonel Mitchell's Ohio brigade, three companies of the Ninety-eighth Ohio, Captain Roach, as skirmishers; fifth, Colonel Dilworth's (late McCook's) brigade, with the Fifty-second Ohio, Major Holmes, as skirmishers.
Davis gave the order to advance, and instantly the long line of skirmishers, stretching for over a mile, commenced moving rapidly forward; at the same instant the two lines of battle followed, driving the rebel skirmishers back upon their main line under a terrific artillery fire. Onward upon the double-quick the regiments rushed, receiving volley after volley that made gaps in their ranks, but as quickly the line was dressed, and they never halted until they had got up within two hundred yards of the works, when volleys of grape and canister made the line tremble. It was a critical moment; some regiments showed signs of halting, but none flinched. Still forward they moved, increasing their speed until they got near the works, when with one unearthly yell the men broke into a run, and forward they went, Mitchell left and Lum right, charging direct upon a rebel battery of four guns that had been dealing death into them, and instantly it was in their possession. While this was transpiring on the left of Mitchell, his right and Dilworth's left charged a six-gun rebel battery, whose canister had cut down Dilworth and many brave officers, and captured it, together with General Govan, commanding a brigade in Cleburne's division, and Captain D. C. Williams, his Assistant AdjutantGeneral.
General Govan subsequently stated to General Morgan that this was the celebrated Loomis' Michigan battery, captured by him from us at Chickamauga.
I have not time to dwell upon details; suffice it to say that Davis' whole line carried the rebel works, some brigades carrying two and three lines, which were very strong and protected by a difficult abatis, over which the men charged with difficulty.
The regular brigade carried their line quite early, after one regiment had been slightly thrown off its guard by a deadly volley of grape and canister, and got out of ammunition while holding it. They were relieved by Este's brigade of Baird's division, who held the works while they replenished their cartridge-boxes,
when they again took their position and hold it to-day.
Our artillery, placed on slightly elevated ground, mowed down the enemy behind their works on the skirmish line in large numbers, and when I rode over the field the following morning, I am certain I saw at least three hundred dead of the enemy in front of the corps.
Our loss is about one half of that of the enemy, who suffered largely in prisoners and killed. Davis took about four hundred prisoners, including the Second Kentucky rebel regiment, and fifty of the Sixth Kentucky and its flag, which are the trophies of Captain Dumfree, of the Tenth Michigan, to whom Colonel Lee, commanding the rebels, surrendered.
The losses in the command are, about: Carlin's division, Moore's brigade, two hundred, including Major Carter, in hip; Captain Jenkins, thigh; Captain Perry, mortally, and Lieutenant Osborne, slight; all of the Thirty-eighth Indiana. Lieutenant Bailey, killed, and Lieutenants Pierson, Murray, and Cunningham, wounded, of the Sixty-ninth Ohio.
Eddy's regular brigade about three hundred, including Captain Kellogg, Eighteenth United States, arm; Lieutenant Powell and Captain Burrows, Eighteenth United States, slight; Lieutenant McConnell, Sixteenth United States, slight; Lieutenant Honey and Lieutenant Knapp, Sixteenth, wounded.
Morgan's division, Lum's brigade, three hundred, including Colonel Grover, Seventeenth New York, severe; Major Barnett, Tenth Michigan, killed; Captain Knox, Tenth Michigan, killed, and Captain Turbis, Tenth Michigan, wounded.
Dilworth's brigade, one hundred and seventyfive, including Colonel Dilworth, serious; Captain E. L. Anderson, Dilworth's Adjutant, arm, slight; Captain Charles, One Hundred and Twenty-fifth Illinois, killed; Major Holmes, Fifty-second Ohio, slight; Captain Snodgrass, commanding Twenty-second Indiana, and the following officers of this regiment: Lieutenant Graves, wounded; Lieutenant Neland, wounded; Lieutenant Riggs, wounded; Lieutenant Rennine, wounded; Lieutenant Tinson, killed; Lieutenant Mosier, slight. Major Riker, One Hundred and Twenty-fifth Illinois, severe; Captain Young, Fifty-fifth Illinois, slight; Lieutenant Collins, One Hundred and Tenth Illinois,
Mitchell's Ohio brigade, one hundred and fifty, including Adjutant Reeves, Ninety-seventh Ohio, killed; Captain Black, Seventy-eighth Illinois, wounded; Lieutenant Long, Seventyeighth Illinois, killed; Major Green, Seventyeighth Illinois, wounded; Lieutenant Fuller, Thirty-fourth Illinois, wounded; Lieutenant Garver, Ninety-eighth Ohio, wounded.
Este's brigade, which relieved the regular brigade, lost a few. Our loss in the Fourteenth corps will, therefore, be about one thousand one hundred and twenty-five, a very small proportion of whom were killed.
Morgan and Carlin handled their commands with consummate skill, and deserve to share with the brave fighter, Davis, a share of the honor of this most decisive and gallant charge. This is Davis' first fight as a corps commander, and as such he has proved himself equal to the task. It is a victory that will hand him and his corps down to posterity.
I have but briefly and inadequately sketched the general charge, and leave details to a more convenient moment when the corps halts, and I can make more complete memoranda.
During the fight, the Army of the Tennessee made strong diversions along their lines. The Seventeenth corps moved to the extreme right, and supported by the Sixteenth corps, made strong demonstrations on the enemy's left, in favor of the Fourteenth corps.
September 2-6 A. M.-The enemy have gone. The toils were drawing around them too closely, and no salvation remained save in precipitate retreat. In the gray of dawn this morning, their withdrawal was discovered. A detach ment of the Army of the Tennessee started immediately in pursuit, passing through the dilapidated town of Jonesboro'. What a situation for a General who has vaunted his power to foil any further flanking movements. Two thirds of his army, shattered by battle, is falling back hastily to the south, while the remainder has not only been compelled to leave the defences of Atlanta without a direct blow, but is circuitously marching for dear life to form a junction with the humbled, ruined corps of Lee and Hardee, trembling at every gunshot. The enemy at this moment cannot tell, when a collision at any point occurs, whether we are striking at him with a squad of troopers or with our whole army.
Many stragglers are coming in, mainly from S. D. Lee's corps. They report with unanimity that Hardee retreated south last night as far as the McDonough road. Upon reaching that they marched east to the main road running south from Atlanta through McDonough. S. D. Lee's corps in advance, turned north, and at last accounts were marching in that direction, endeavoring to form a junction with a portion of the army left at Atlanta-which is presumed to be retreating, and is undoubtedly doing so, if Hood has any military sagacity.
10 A. M.-In Jonesboro', and watching one of the most imposing sights of the war. Our army is marching through the village, in double columns, corps after corps, all with flags flying, and brass and field bands playing with unwonted nerve. The men cheer joyously. Their burdens of musket, knapsack, and intrenching tools are feathers, evidently. Everything is allegro with them this morning. The campaign for Atlanta is at an end, and they are headed southward for the new campaign. For the first time the whole South-west is open to them, bread and meat permitting.
The captured battle-flags are trailed overhead by the regiments who wrested them from the enemy over his trenches.
Jonesboro' contains about forty scattered houses. From several of them white flags are thrust out, and I observe that in all the jeers called out by these unnecessary symbols of submission, the name of Vallandigham is very pervasive. A few dirt-colored inhabitants remain, and have taken their station at front gates to gape at the solid columns of Yankees sweeping down the road. They say that for the last two days the village has been visited by a great many shells, and that the inhabitants took refuge in caves and cellars. They describe the retreat of the enemy, last night, as very confused and hasty. Darkness had barely fallen when it began, the wagons moving first, running hither and thither to escape the rain of shells from our batteries. The infantry passed through in heavy, straggling masses, having every appearance of being thoroughly whipped and disheartened. By three A. M. their rear guard evacuated Jonesboro', and we find them flown-just as we anticipated. As we lay enveloping Jonesboro' last night, girdling their discomfited army, our six corps closed compactly on three sides of the opposing two corps, the thought came to many like an electric thrill: Shall we capture them? Those familiar with war and its chances, thrust the flattering thought aside resolutely, but it insisted on dancing back again seductively. I have heard several say querously, this morning, that we should have bagged the entire rebel command had such and such corps closed up and attacked while daylight lasted. Doubtful, very. But such is human nature. We have divided the rebel army, whipped it in detail, shattered it beyond speedy repair, and probably captured a great city, yet there are to be found those who have their regrets that something large has not been accomplished.
11 A. M.-Atlanta has fallen. A few moments since General Thomas received a despatch stating that the Twentieth corps occupies the city. The infinite labor and bloodshed of four long, wearisome, sleepless months has received a reward even richer than we hoped for. The siege of the Gate City is over. We were certain it must fall, but there is something intensely grateful in saying it has fallen. Cheering has broken out in the marching columns with redoubled violence-not a battle-cheer, but a round, rich, glorious volume, heroic in intonation, and containing, somehow, a music deeper and grander than the mellowest and most inspiring diapason of a dozen organs, such as they drown discord with in Boston.
Communication with the rear has hitherto been by the way of Sandtown on the Chattahoochee, and it now becomes a question of vast interest to correspondents to know the shortest safe route to the North, where we may spread before a gladdened nation the rich oil and wine that we hope to express from our ripening notebooks. By the road running directly north we are but twenty miles from Atlanta; by the route in use since the movement commenced we are more than double that distance. The first has