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the Eighth Indiana were brought up, and an advance again made. Major Baird, with two companies of the Fifth Iowa, moving on the left of the road, supported by two companies of the Eighth Indiana, and Colonel Jones, with four companies of the Eighth on the right side. The rebels were met in Major Baird's front and an obstinate fight ensued, but they were pressed back until they finally gained a position in a small ravine running down from the railroad, from which they poured a heavy fire upon our men, who could not advance upon them from the front without heavy loss. Both sides held their positions for some time, until two companies of the Eighth Indiana were sent across from the right side of the railroad, turned the rebels' left and got into their rear, pouring in a murderous fire with their Spencer rifles, while the Fifth Iowa assaulted them in front. The rebels were routed from their position and fled, leaving over forty dead and and a large number of wounded on the field. The Fifth lowa lost one killed and four wounded. Finding that the rebels were in considerable force, and were prepared to make an obstinate defence, and that to drive them completely from the road would require a withdrawal of a portion of the forces engaged in destroying the track, General Rousseau ordered that portion of the command back, the track having in the meantime been destroyed several miles below Notasulga. Returning through Loackepoka, Colonel Hamilton's command was overtaken between Auburn and Opelika, and the whole division bivouacked for the night.
July 19th. In the morning Colonel Harrison, with a part of the Eighth Indiana and the Second Kentucky, continued the work of destruction toward Opelika, and the rest of the command marched by a road leading to the right of the railroad, and reached the Columbus Railroad, a mile or two east of Opelika. This road forms part of a line connecting Macon with the Atlanta and Montgomery Railroad at Opelika. The Ninth Ohio commenced operations on this track, and destroyed it as far as the junction, where they connected with Colonel Harrison, who had moved up the other road.
A detachment under direction of LieutenantColonel Patrick, destroyed the depot buildings, turn-tables, cars, switches, &c., at the junction, and several miles of track toward Atlanta. There were six cars on the track filled with leather, nails, and other supplies, for the rebel army. Thirty boxes of tobacco were also seized and issued to the men. About seventy-five thousand rations of sugar, and thirty thousand of flour and bacon were obtained, and after supplying the command, the remainder was destroved.
The work for which the expedition was sent out was now thoroughly accomplished. It had marched over three hundred miles in nine dayspenetrated one hundred and nine miles in the rear of Johnston's army-destroyed thirty miles of railroad track, with its depot buildings, water
tanks, switches, turn-tables, etc., one locomotive, a number of cars, and large quantities of supplies and material. As a rebel prisoner aptly remarked, it made "a big hole in Johnston's haversack." The rapidity and boldness of the movement struck terror into the heart of rebeldom, and caused such bewilderment that no serious opposition was made to the progress of the expedition.
In the afternoon the work of destruction ceased, and the command took up the line of march to return. Following the railroad for some distance toward West Point, it diverged to the left, moving northwardly to Lafayette, twelve miles from Opelika. Here rumors came in thick and fast of a large force of rebel cavalry approaching from the north, having crossed the Chattahootchee at Franklin to intercept our retreat. At West Point, twelve miles to the right and rear, the rebels were gathering all the forces they could muster, and for a time the prospect of a successful retreat looked rather gloomy. General Rousseau, however, after carefully sifting the rumors, determined to move on in the direction he had started, and fight the way through, if necessary. The march was continued until midnight, and a halt made tv elve miles from Lafayette, without hearing anything of the enemy.
July 20th.-Reveille was sounded at three o'clock, and the march resumed. Misled by a mistake of a guide, a road leading toward West Point was taken, but the error was discovered before much distance was lost, and a road found leading toward Rocky Mills on the route selected. A march of thirty-five miles was made, and about nine o'clock the command went into bivouac for the night. The route during the day was nearly parallel with the Chattahoochee, and with the railroad from West Point to Atlanta, and from ten to twenty miles distant from it. There are many roads running from the railroad and river across to that on which we were moving, and it was expected that the rebels would move across on one or more of these to intercept our retreat or harass our rear; but one after another of these intersecting roads was passed, and still no rebel force made its appearance.
July 21st.-The command marched thirty-six miles, passing through Carrollton and Villa Rica, and bivouacked three miles from the latter place. The advance met a party of about twenty rebels, and captured three of them, who represented themselves as scouts detailed by order of General Johnston, and then on service for General Jackson, commanding a rebel cavalry force. They were taken by surprise at our approach, having had no intimation of our coming. We learned that a small cavalry force from General Sherman's army had been at Carrollton a few days ago, and had returned toward Marietta. General Stoneman's pickets were reported to be near Powder Springs, sixteen miles in advance of us.
July 22d. The expedition reached Powder Springs about eleven o'clock and found a Federal
cavalry picket a mile beyond. They had heard of our approach from scouts, but supposed us to be rebels. Our true character however was discovered before we reached them. A general feeling of relief pervaded the command at being again within our own lines after thirteen days of hard marching in the enemy's country, and the successful result of the expedition and its safe return was a cause of much satisfaction and congratulation.
In regard to the distance penetrated in the enemy's rear, the boldness and rapidity of its movements, the thoroughness of the work accomplished, and its complete success in every respect, this raid perhaps is the most remarkable one of the war. Its success is mainly due to the ability and discretion of its gallant leader, who has been aptly called the Chevalier Bayard of the army, the knight "sans peur et sans reproche." It is no fulsome eulogy to say that he manifested all the qualities which mark a great commander. The result of the expedition itself is an indication of this. One point in his character is particulary worthy of mention, as it had an important bearing on the success of the expedition. General Rousseau has a keen insight into human character, and an instinctive faculty of reading men and sifting the reliable from the false in their statements. This, with his frank and cordial manner of intercourse, enabled him to win the confidenee even of enemies and to obtain information where others would have gained nothing but confusion of ideas. Throughout the whole trip he was thus enabled to pursue his course through the enemy's country with a more definite knowledge of the route,the enemy's forces and movements, etc., than could have been obtained from an elaborate system of scouts and spies. The complete success of the expedition and the directness of all its movements indicates the sagacity and judgment with which it was planned and executed.
General Rousseau is a Kentuckian by birth, but when a young man, entering the profession of law, he emigrated to Indiana, where he was engaged in the practice of law when the Mexican war broke out. He raised a company of volunteers, became its captain, and served with distinguished gallantry during that war. He afterwards returned to Louisville, and was a member of the Kentucky Senate at the time of the outbreak of the rebellion. He opposed the policy of neutrality, and, resigning his seat in the Senate, devoted his energies to the raising of troops for the support of the Government. In June, 1861, he was commissioned Colonel of volunteers, and on the first of October following, was promoted to a Brigadier-Generalship and assigned to the command of the Fourth brigade of the Army of the West, under General Buell. He fought in the battle of Shiloh, where he won the admiration of the army by his gallant conduct. He was afterward placed in command of the Third division, which he led in the battle of Perryville, and was promoted to a Major-Generalship for distinguished gallantry and good ser
vice in that terrific struggle. At the battle of Stone River he again rendered most important service, for which General Rosecrans, in his official report, returned his thanks to "the gallant and ever-ready Major-General Rousseau.” Since the twentieth of November, 1863, he has been in command of the important District of Tennessee, which he has controlled with consumate ability, and from which he was temporarily called to take the leadership of this important and daring raid upon the enemy's rear. On this expedition he penetrated further into the heart of the Confederacy, and struck a more telling blow upon the enemy's communication than any commander on a similar expedition has done during the war.
Colonel T. J. Harrison, of the Eighth Indiana, and Lieutenant-Colonel M. T. Patrick, of the Fifth Iowa, ably seconded General Rousseau throughout the expedition, and by their indefatigable efforts contributed materially to its success. In the fight of Coosa river and Chehaw Station they displayed coolness and courage, and were at all times energetic in the management of their respective brigades.
The different regiments under their command also behaved with the most commendable gallantry. The hardships and privations of the tedious march were endured uncomplainingly, and all were ready and eager at any time for a fight with the enemy. The laborious work of tearing up the railroad was entered into with most hearty good will. Officers and men worked with enthusiasm, feeling that they were accomplished an important service, and forgetting in the excitement the fatigue and weariness which the hard marching and loss of sleep had induced. General Rousseau expressed his gratification of their conduct in the highest terms.
It is making no invidious distinction among the many officers who promptly performed their duties to say that Captain E. M. Rugan, Thirteenth Wisconsin infantry, topographical engineer on General Rousseau's staff, rendered especially important service, by his thorough study of the topography of the country and his activity in obtaining information in regard to roads, etc. He was almost constantly in the advance. His services were acknowledged by the General commanding as almost indispensable. His professionable abilities have been acknowledged by his assignment to duty as Chief Topographical Engineer at department headquarters.
The staff of General Rousseau, during the expedition, was composed as follows: Captain Thomas C. Williams, Nineteenth United States Infantry, A. A. A. G.; Captain E. M. Rugan, Thirteenth Wisconsin infantry, Topographical Engineers; Captain Thomas A. Elkin, Sixth Kentucky cavalry, A. D. C.; Captain S. E. McConnell, Seventy-first Ohio infantry, A. A. J. G.; Surgeon S. D. Waterman, Eighth Indiana cavalry, Medical Director; Captain Alfred Matthias, Fifth Iowa cavalry, Provost Marshal; Lieutenant John Frey, Ninth Ohio, Quartermas
ter; Lieutenant C. A. B. Langdon, Fifth Iowa cavalry, A. D. C.
anxious to follow the Yankees, but the rate of marching was too rapid for them to keep along on foot, and all the horses and mules to be found were needed for remounts for the men whose horses were daily giving out. Nevertheless a number succeeded in making their way. They would trudge along uncomplainingly, riding when they could get an animal, and walking at other times, and if asked where they were going, the invariable answer was, "Gwine wid you all." They knew that they were leaving slavery behind them, and they were willing to risk all for the hope of freedom. About three hundred were with the command when it reached Marietta.
The country along a great portion of the rout traversed is barren and thinly settled, but other portions are rich and fertile, and the plantations gave indications of wealthy owners. But little cotton was seen growing the crops generally being wheat, rye, oats, and corn. The small grain was mostly standing in shooks in the field, and the crops were generally good. The corn crop is fair but rather irregular-some fields or parts of fields just hardening into " roasting ear," while in others the stalks were but two or three feet high. The corn ground generally is not well cultivated-probably from scarcity of labor. On the whole, the appearance of the country and crops does not strengthen the opinion that the rebels are soon to be starved out. Nevertheless there is much destitution and scarcity of food among the poorer classes. The rebel government, with inexorable rigor, seizes all the necessaries of life for the use of the army. Not only is one-tenth of all products taken in the shape of tax, but plantations generally are worked exclusively for the benefit of the government. Their owners are enrolled in the service and then "detailed" to superintend the working of their own farms, the conditions being that all the surplus above what is consumed on the place is to be sold to the Confederate government at prices fixed by the authorities. This makes food difficult to be procured, except through their agents. At one house where a party of officers had dinner prepared for them, the woman was asked to name her price, but refused to do so, saying that if she had the There shall be no straggling under any premoney she could not buy flour with it, but text. Private houses will not be entered by asked that they would furnish her flour from a soldiers on any pretext whatever, being a promill near by, as she could not procure it other-lific cause of straggling. Such entries are genwise. She was the wife of a rebel soldier.
The country was not so completely deprived of stock as has been anticipated, and numbers of horses and mules were obtained along the rout. About three hundred fine mules were brought into our lines by the command.
Many of the citizens fled in terror at the approach of the command, stripping their houses of their furniture and everything they could transport with them. The enormous lies so assiduously circulated by rebel papers and rebel officers as to the barbarous conduct of the Federal troops, even to the murdering of women and children, were really believed by some of the more credulous, and their fright was extreme. Those who remained even felt that they were incurring great risk, and were astonished to find that the dreaded Yankees were so different from what their imaginations had pictured them. General Rousseau's orders were stringent against depredations on private property. The following is an extract from an order issued at Ashville, and printed and distributed to the command:
HEADQUARTERS CAVALRY FORCES, IN THE FIELD, July 13, 1864. *
enerally made by those who maraud and rob. Such acts are denounced as unworthy a soldier, and will be summarily punished.
The Major-General, commanding, tenders his thanks to the command generally, for their good conduct and soldierly bearing, and hopes that such deportment will continue."
By order of
A. A. A. G
Everything is under military control. The conscription law is vigorously enforced. Scarcely an able-bodied man is to be met with. Even the infirm and crippled, who are capable of doing light duty, are enrolled and detailed for such service as they are competent to perform. Owing to the hasty formation of the command, Tanners, millers, and others following occupa- and the nature of the service, discipline could tions of necessity to the army or the commu- not be as strictly enforced as under other cirnity, are also enrolled, and then detailed to pur- cumstances, but every effort was made to sue their business for the benefit of the Gov- protect private property, except such as was ernment. Conscript officers are in every neigh-necessary for the expedition; and it was acborhood, hunting down any who may have knowledged by a number of citizens, at difescaped conscription, or in any way evaded ferent places, that the people suffered less from service. The most iron-heeled despotisme pre- the Yankees than from the rebel soldiers. The vails throughout, and individual rights and free-prisoners taken were also surprised at being dom are utterly trampled under foot. No "subjugation" could be more thorough than that under which the people of the South are placed by the rebel government.
The slaves along the rout were exceedingly
treated like men, and were unanimous in grateful expressions. It was impossible to take prisoners along during the trip, and consequently all were paroled except those captured on the last two or three days before reaching our lines.
General Rousseau has demonstrated by this expedition that bold movements into the enemy's lines can be made and important results achieved against the enemy without the necessity of violating the usages of civilized warfare. His course entitles him to the nation's gratitude, while it will win for him the respect even of the rebels, at the same time that they are inspired with terror at the boldness and success of his movements.
It may be proper to add that a raid of the same general character as that made had been long since suggested by General Rousseau, though not precisely to the points to which this one was made. General Sherman's orders were fully carried out, and he has expressed the highest satisfaction at the result, the work accomplished having been fully up to his anticipations, while the good condition in which the command was brought, and with so slight loss, exceeded the most sanguine expectations.
THE ADDRESS OF THE GENEVAN'S.
TO THE PEOPLE OF THE AMERICAN UNION:
The people of Geneva, in meeting at the Electoral Hall, address to the people of the Union brotherly greeting and testimonials of their lively sympathy.
The events which are happening in the bosom of the Great Republic of the Union have not found the people of Geneva indifferent. It is with painful sentiments that they have witnessed | the violation of the Federal compact by some States. It is with grief they have seen States forget that federative unity is proclaimed by the Constitution; that such unity was recommended and maintained by the first Presidents of the Union-the immortal Washington, twice elected President, 1789, 1793, 1797; Thomas Jefferson, twice elected President, 1801, 1809, &c.
The people of Geneva offer the most hearty prayers that, inspired by patriotic thoughts, the States still in revolt may range themselves ever under the Star Spangled Banner of the Union. The people of Geneva, with all their wishes, forward this movement, because thenceforth liberty will be triumphant without distinction of race, at the North as at the South.
The citizens of Geneva recognize that strict solidarity exists between free people; that one of them cannot suffer without the other experiencing a sad counter blow. Convinced of this truth, in the presence of the civil war which facilitates the projeets of the enemies of the American Republic, they believe it to be their duty to give expression to a fraternal word of encouragement to republicans on the other side of the ocean.
People of the United States, the only Republic of Europe, Helvetia, has had also her moments of intestine strife and attempts at separation. She has come forth triumphantly from these
trials She has come forth stronger, more united than before. Those of our cantons which formerly wished to separate, would now rise with out distinction to uphold the Federal compact. It will be the same with the American Union The Southern States will comprehend that the safeguard of their independence and of their prosperity is to be found in the Constitutionin liberty.
People of the Union! Soldiers of the entirety of the country! Courage and consistency You have our sympathies, because in defending the Union, you also defend liberty. You abolish an odious and crying shame of a part of the United States-Slavery.
The violation of the Federal Constitution by some States of the Union has caused to the people of Geneva a sentiment the more painful because nothing justified that violation. No wrong can be alleged by the Secessionists either against the Federal Government or against other authorities. The determination to destroy the Federal compact of Union is explicable only by the wish to maintain slavery by the determination to make that essential to the form of govern
This scheme, we truly hope, will not be realized, but were it so, we think that only European goverements, and with stronger reason, free Switzerland, would not abase itself by acknowledging a power based upon slavery. People of the Union! the citizens of Geneva assembled in meeting to address to you their felicitations on the aim you pursue to maintain the Constitution inviolate and to destroy slavery.
The struggle has commenced between the two principles-Liberty and Slavery.
The consummation of victory must be the abolition of slavery forever and everywhere. Hail Liberty! Hail Republic of the United States.
Mr. Seward returned the following response:
To the People of Geneva:
I have received from the American Consul who resides at Geneva, and have laid before the President, your fervent, eloquent, and most fraternal address to the people of the United States. By his command, I give you thanks, in the name of all my countrymen, for the timely and appropriate words of sympathy and friendship which you have spoken. Your address adds strength to the already strong claim which binds the first federal republic of America to the oldest and foremost federal republic of Europe. The people of Switzerland may rest assured, whoever else may fail, that it will not be the people of the United States which will betray the republican system to foreign enemies, or surrender it to domestic faction. With ardent prayers for the preservation of the Constitution, the freedom and prosperity of Switzerland, I have the honor to remain, citizens,
Your most obedient and sincere friend, WILLIAM H. SEWARD. State Department, Washington, July 30, 1864.
BATTLES OF TUPELO, MISSISSIPPI.
FOUGHT JULY 13, 14, AND 15, 1864.
LAGRANGE, TENN, July 22, 1861. The expedition was composed of two divisions of infantry-the First and Third of the Sixteenth Army corps. The First commanded by Brigadier-General Joseph H. Mower, the Third by Colonel Moore, of the Twenty-first Missouri, one brigade of cavalry commanded by Brigadier-General Grierson, and one brigade of colored troops, Colonel Bouton, commanding; aggregate strength about thirteen thousand. The whole commanded by Major-General A. J. Smith. The expedition left Lagrange, Tennessee, July fifth, passing south near Salem, through Ripley and New Albany to Pontotoc, where it arrived on the eleventh. At Cherry Creek, six miles north of Pontotoc, on the evening of the tenth, the advance of cavalry encountered the enemy in force of perhaps a brigade, and skirmished with them, killing a few rebels, and having one or two on our side wounded. Before this, on the eighth, the cavalry had a brush with a party of the enemy north of Ripley, in which a Confederate was killed. On the morning of the eleventh, the enemy, a brigade strong, was found in our front, a few miles north of Pontotoc. Our cavalry dismounted and advanced as skirmishers, and two infantry brigades of the First division were deployed in line of battle, but the enemy fell back without any decided resistence. Our army advanced, and at noon occupied Pontotoc. We remained in bivouack at the south end of the town, and out on the Okalona road during the twelfth, our position indicating that we should advance to Okalona.
On the morning of the thirteenth the line of march was resumed, but not as had been expected on the Okalona road, but back through Pontotoc and out on the Tupelo road, which bears a little north of east from Pontotoc.
Colonel Bouton, colored brigade, and Seventh Kansas cavalry, succeeded in protecting the rear of the train and column. In doing this they had frequently to form lines of battle, and may be said to have kept up a running fight the whole eighteen miles' march, but sustained only slight losses.
Two miles out on the Tupelo road Colonel Bouton ambushed with two companies of the Sixty-first, which held their fire until the head of the rebel column was within fifteen yards, when two volleys were poured in that sent them reeling back. Prisoners taken next day said that this fire killed a captain and four men and wounded eight.
About five miles out, the enemy brought forward a battery, and commenced shelling the rear, annoying the negro brigade while crossing a stretch of bottom land. On gaining higher ground beyond the bottom, the negro brigade was formed in line of battle, with battery in position, and the Sixty-eighth regiment in reserve. The enemy advanced cautiously, partly through a corn field, and got quite near our line, when the Fifty-ninth and Sixty-first opened on them, the Sixty-first having an enfilading fire with decided success. The enemy fell back without any persistence of attack.
Thus a succession of attacks, which were invariably repelled, were made on the rear, until the column was within about five miles of Harrisburg, when the enemy got on the flank and opposite the head of our column. supply train had been got forward well towards the head of the column, and was being guarded chiefly by Third brigade, Colonel Wood, of First division.
About three o'clock the enemy's main attack of the first inst. was made on the right flank of the column, and was successfully repelled by the Seventh Minnesota, Colonel Marshall, and the Twelfth Iowa, Colonel Stibbs, of Colonel Wood's brigade. Dr. Smith, of the Seventh Minnesota, who was near the advance of the right, was instantly killed by a shot through the neck. The train was thrown into confusion, a few of the mules killed, and two or three wagons disabled by teamsters abandoning them.
The enemy, we learned, had taken up a strong position, and fortified it, on the Okalona road, six or eight miles from Pontotoc. Two or three brigades, however, were in our immediate front The Seventh Minnesota drove the enemy back at Pontotoc, and so soon as they discovered that partly through an old field, out of range of the we were moving out on the Tupelo road our road, while the Twelfth Iowa, further back, met rear, south of the town, was attacked. Colonel the enemy at close quarters in woods, and reBouton's colored brigade, consisting of the pulsed him. The Sixth Indiana battery fired a Fiftieth, Sixty-first, and Sixty-eighth regiments, few shots. Thus the train was protected until United States African Infantry (commanded it passed this point of attack. The Twelfth respectively by Major Foster, Colonel Ken-Iowa had one man killed. The Seventh Minnedrick, and Colonel Jones), and battery I, Second sota, besides losing Dr. Smith, had fifteen United States light artillery, Captain Smith, four wounded, two dangerously. pieces, was in the rear, charged with covering it. The Seventh Kansas cavalry, Colonel Herrick, was also in rear.
The enemy harrassed our rear during the entire day's march from Pontotoc to Harrisburg, the field of battle proper, which is about a mile and a half west of Tupelo. The distance from Pontotoc to Harrisburg is eighteen miles.
The Fourth brigade, Colonel Ward's, of First division, which was in rear of supply train, participated in this affair-I do not know with what casualties, but not many. Captain O'Donnell, of General Smith's staff, had a horse killed under him while he was giving orders to the Seventh and Twelfth.
A scattered fire from the enemy extended