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dred years an imperishable monument of Amer-ette on the third of May. About three miles ican energy, ingenuity, and skill. The opening made by the flood, and through which the fleet passed, is sometimes, but rarely, used, by steamers descending the stream, the Red River voyageurs generally preferring a safer channel which has been made by the river washing away about seventy feet of the left or south bank near Alexandria.
Non est ad astra mollis a terris via. For the successful execution of this great work Lieutenant-Colonel Bailey, the Wisconsin farmer, was promoted to the rank of Brigadier-General of volunteers, and received the thanks of Congress; while the officers of the Mississippi squadron testified their high appreciation of his inestimable services to them and the country, by presenting him with an elegant sword and a purse of three thousand dollars, which was transmitted to him with a highly complimentary letter from Admiral Porter..
The officers and regiments who had the honor of assisting Lieutenant-Colonel Bailey, and to whom he expresses in his report his deep sense of obligation, are as follows:
this side of Princeton, our advance guard, under my command, drove in a squad of the enemy's cavalry. Our advance exchanged shots with them every day until we reached Shannon's, which is about seven miles from Dublin, when we were informed that the enemy was in position with the intention of disputing the crossing of Cloyd's Net. General Crook ordered Colonel White's with a portion of Colonel Sickels' brigade, to move across the mountain and through the woods in order to flank the enemy. The remainder of the command was directed to move by the road. General Crook and staff accompanied Colonel White to examine the enemy's position. The route we took to the top of the mountain was exceedingly difficult, steep, and rocky, but from the top we obtained a view of the enemy's position which amply repaid the toil. We found them posted upon the slope of a hill under the edge of a wood, and in a position strong by nature and fortified by rail breastworks. We discovered nine pieces of artillery, apparently waiting impatiently for action. While reconnoitring, a large body of rebel troops, afterward found to be from Morgan's command, moved up and formed a line in rear of the first line of the enemy.
General Crook having satisfied himself, turned to Colonel White, handing him his glass, and at the same time said: "The enemy is in force and in a strong position. They may whip, but I guess not." The remark, uttered so coolly and quietly, as he was giving Colonel White his last instructions, made us all confident of victory.
Colonel James Grant Wilson, of General Banks' staff; Colonel Charles C. Dwight, Inspector-General Nineteenth army corps; LieutenantColonel W. B. Kinsey, One Hundred and Sixtyfirst regiment New York volunteers; LieutenantColonel N. B. Pearsall, Ninety-seventh U. S. C. I.; Major Teutelle, of General Franklin's staff; Captains Harden, Harper, and Morison, of Ninety-seventh regiment U. S. C. I.; Captain Stein, Sixteenth regiment Ohio volunteers; Lieutenant Williamson, of General Franklin's staff; the Pioneer corps of the Thirteeenth army corps; The colonel was directed to move along the Twenty-ninth regiment Maine volunteers; Twen- crest of the mountain and turn the enemy's ty-third and Twenty-ninth Wisconsin volun- right. The portion of the Third brigade with teers; Seventy-seventh and One Hundred and Colonel White was sent to join our column, Thirtieth Illinois volunteers; Nineteenth Ken- which was moving over the mountain by the tucky and Twenty-third Ohio volunteers; Twen-road. As soon as our troops moving up in ty-fourth Iowa and Twenty-seventh Indiana volunteers; Ninety-seventh and Ninety-ninth U. S. C. I.
B. R. Cowen, Adjutant-General, Ohio:
Our forces, consisting of three brigades of infantry, under command of Colonels Hays, White, and Sickels, and two battalions of artillery, left for Fayette on the twenty-eighth of April. The whole command moved from Fay
front were discovered, the enemy opened with artillery, and, though it was served with fearful accuracy, our loss from shells was very trifling. As fast as the column moved up the road it was formed in line of battle in the wood, in order to be concealed from the enemy, and thus to prevent excessive loss from his shells. The First brigade, Colonel Hays, was formed in two lines of battle-the Twenty-third Ohio being in the first, and the Thirty-sixth Ohio and a portion of the Thirty-fourth Ŏhio in the second-and was to charge the enemy's right and centre as soon as Colonel White should commence the action on our left. The Third brigade, Colonel Sickels, was formed on the right of the First, and one regiment of the brigade was sent to gain the enemy's rear, on his extreme left. Our troops were formed in the woods, just beyond rifle range, and in order to move upon the enemy's line must charge across an open field of some fifty rods, then wade a brook, knee-deep, before reaching the foot of the hill upon which the enemy was posted.
While these movements were being made,
under General Crook's personal supervision, amid a terribly severe fire of shells Colonel White moved up, opened the fight just at the moment the order was given for the First and Second brigades to charge, the General himself leading the men. I wish I could describe the action at this moment. The crash of the musketry was terrific, the roar of the artillery deafening. The charge itself was never surpassed in gallantry, and though moving up under a fearful fire, hardly a man flinched. The enemy fought desperately, but not for a single moment was the result doubtful. The enemy gave way utterly routed. The Twelfth Ohio and the Ninth Virginia, of Colonel White's brigade, and the Twenty-third Ohio, of Colonel Hays' command, lost fearfully. The Ninth Virginia, Colonel Duval, took two pieces of artillery, charging over the intrenchments, fighting the rebels hand-to-hand till they fled. The regiment left one hundred and eighty-seven, out of four hundred and fifty, on the battle-field dead or wounded. The Twenty-third Ohio lost one hundred and eight men, and the Twelfth Ohio eighty-seven men. We pursued the enemy about two miles, when we were met by a body of fresh troops from Morgan, but they were routed in a short time and fled in confusion.
HEADQUARTER'S GENERAL CROOK'S COMMAND, Į
This division of the army having returned from its recent expedition and encamped at this place, I was enabled to join it last evening, and to learn, through the kindness of General Crook and the officers of his command, all the particulars of their recent journey into Dixie, and of the success they met there.
First, as to the present condition of the army. It is encamped-one brigade being in Lewisburg, on Meadow Bluffs, fifteen miles north-west of the former place, while the men and horses are resting from the exhausting work of the past three or four weeks.
The whole command bear the marks of their long march through a mountainous country, with but little supplies. Indeed, at one time the rations were exhausted, and for several days they were forced to live upon the country. As soon as thoroughly rested and supplied, we are promised another expedition whose results I hope to report from my own knowledge. You will better appreciate the importance of the expedition, when told that its object is the destruction of the Newbern bridge, which has been attempted several times each campaign of the war, and every time has failed, To General George Crook was left the honor of succeeding where all others before him had failed.
On the second of May, the General and command left the Kanawha valley, to destroy the line of communication over the Virginia and Tennessee Railroad.
We remained over night at Dublin Depot, and the next day fought with artillery across the New River at the railroad bridge. We again drove the enemy from the field, burned the bridge, and also the bridge at Central Station. We destroyed a large amount of quartermaster and ordnance stores. The battle, which is called the battle of Cloyd's Net, was fought on the ninth of May. I escaped without a scratch, The column moved towards the railroad by though under the heaviest fire. Captain Hun-way of Fayette and Princeton-White, to proter, Lieutenant Seaman, of the Twenty-third tect its right; General Averill, with a strong Ohio, Captain Channel, of the Twelfth Ohio, mounted force, marched by Logan Court House, Captain Clark, of the Ninety-first Ohio, Captain intending to strike at Saltville, a branch railWetzel and Lieutenant Jenkins, of the Ninth road, and to destroy it and the main line to Virginia, and Colonel Wolworth, of the Fourth Dublin depot; this latter is the railroad station Pennsylvania, are among the killed. Captain for the town of Newbern. Williams, of the Twelfth Ohio, was severely wounded, and I fear will not recover.
We captured three hundred prisoners. General Jenkins, Lieutenant-Colonels Smith (son of Extra Billy) and Lynches are among the number.
After burning the New River bridge, we crossed the river to Blacksburg, and marching through the counties of Pulaski, Montgomery, Monroe, and Greenbriar, reached Meadow Bluff on the nineteenth of May. In crossing Peter's Rill we captured a train of thirty wagons and a piece of artillery from Jackson, and had he not been very good on the run, would have caught his entire command. Our loss in the battle at Cloyd Net was at least five hundred, and the enemy must have lost at least a third more, in addition to prisoners. We captured six pieces of artillery on the trip, three of which we brought away with us.
To deceive the enemy as to the route, General Crook sent the Fifth Virginia infantry, Colonel A. A. Tomlinson, with Lieutenant Blazer's scouts, on the Lewisburg road; so effectually was this done, that all rebel forces were withdrawn from the Princeton road, and no opposition was met until in the vicinity of Princeton, a small company of cavalry, after a skirmish with our advance, fled precipitately toward Rocky Gap. We entered Princeton May sixth.
So completely were the rebels deceived as to our line of march, that on the evening of the fifth McCausland's brigade had left Princeton for Lewisburg, leaving their tents standing, and the tools with which they had erected a strong fortification. These we destroyed and marched during the next two days to Shannon's bridge, on the north-western slope of Walker's or Cloyd's Mountain, where Colonel J. Holey, Seventh Virginia cavalry, with four hundred mounted men, joined the force. During these
two days straggling bands of guerillas fired occasional shots at the column, doing no damage.; Here the General was informed that the enemy were holding the summit of the mountain; and on the morning of the ninth, with the Second brigade, Colonel C. B. White, and two regiments of the third, he ascended the mountain to the left of the road, but found the enemy posted on a wooded spur of the mountain about threefourths of a mile distant, and opposite to and commanding a point where the road debouched from the mountain. The Second brigade was sent to the left to turn the enemy's right flank, while, with the two regiments, the General joined the main body, by this time descending the slope of the mountain. The enemy all this time kept up a perpetual discharge of artillery whenever our men appeared. The Second brigade having many sharp, wooded ridges and deep gulleys to cross, was very much delayed when getting into position. The First brigade was then sent to the left of the road to form in the edge of the wood and support the right of the Second, while the Third formed on the right of the First. As soon as the Second brigade had fairly engaged the enemy, the other two brigades were ordered to charge. The hill was thickly wooded, steep, and was encircled by a stream of water from two to three feet deep, and was approached through a beautiful meadow five or six hundred yards in width. Across this the First and Third charged through a most galling fire of musketry and artillery. For a moment a part of the Third was thrown into confusion, but they soon rallied and came up in good style. On this meadow the gallant Colonel Wolworth fell.
At the foot of the slope the men plunged through the muddy creek, and crossed where they were under shelter from the enemy's fire. A moment's pause, and once more on hard up the ridge, in places ascending at an angle of sixty degrees, under the same withering fire. At the crest of the bridge the men rushed forward over the enemy's breastworks, the enemy bravely remaining and contesting every inch, the artillery men attempting to retreat when our line was within ten paces. Heaps of their dead lay behind their works, mostly shot in the head. Finally the enemy wavered and gave way before the impetuosity of our men, who followed them as fast as their jaded and wornout condition would permit. Colonel Oley, with his four hundred cavalry men from different regiments, and horses-almost broken down -was ordered in pursuit, and did all that could be possibly done under such circumstances. "Had I but one thousand effective cavalry," says General Crook, "none of the enemy could have escaped." Two pieces of artillery and a great number of small arms were captured on the field. Moving on toward Dublin, we encountered some five hundred or one thousand of Morgan's men, who had just arrived on the cars from Saltville; these were soon driven to a rapid flight after their comrades. At Dublin |
depot we found no enemy, all had filed to the New River bridge.
In the Cloyd's Mountain battle the enemy numbered from four to seven thousand, under the command of General A. G. Jenkins. A rebel Captain, mortally wounded and prisoner, stated that their force outnumbered ours. The prisoners taken were from fourteen different regiments. We buried over two hundred of their dead, and captured two hundred and thirty prisoners, besides the wounded. General A. G. Jenkins and Lieutenant-Colonel Smith fell into our hands, and were paroled to report at Charleston as soon as capable of removal.
Our loss in killed was one hundred and seven; wounded, five hundred; missing, twenty. Most of the latter straggled back to the hospital. Owing to the lack of transportation, it was found necessary to leave two hundred of the most seriously wounded in a hospital near the battle-field, with whom ample supplies and medical attendance were left. Colonel Woolworth, of the Fourth Pennsylvania reserves, fell while leading his men across the meadow. The Ninth Virginia, Colonel J. H. Duvall, lost one-third of its number in killed and wounded while in the same charge.
At Dublin a great amount of rations and cavalry equipments of all kinds fell into our hands, and here the General saw despatches from Richmond stating that Grant had been repulsed and was retreating, with which deceit their leaders had hoped to bolster up the weakened spirits of their men.
On the morning of the tenth the advance reached New River bridge, and found the rebels drawn up in line on the opposite side, having evacuated their works and burned the carriages of two siege guns. After an artillery duel of two hours, they retreated, when the bridge and public property in the vicinity were destroyed. Our loss here was one killed and ten wounded.
On the morning of the eleventh, fifty prisoners arrived from General Averill, with the report that he had been able to reach Saltville, but would strike the railroad at Wytheville. General Crook moved to Blacksburg on this day, and that night heard by courier from General Averill that he had met a large force and could not reach Wytheville, but would be at Dublin that night. Orders were sent to him to destroy the railroad moving towards Lynchburg, which was done for five miles, as far as Christiansburg. Averill rejoined Crook at Union.
Crossing the New River at Pepper's Ferry, the command started for Union through a drenching rain. At the crossing of the road from the Narrows of New River, we met Mudwall Jackson, with fifteen hundred men, who fled toward the Narrows, leaving knapsacks, camp and garrison equipage, etc., in our hands. Owing to the impassable condition of the roads-the mud being hub deep-and the worn out and almost starved condition of the mules, it was found
necessary to destroy part of the loads. The
Such was the expedition-as far as I have been able to learn from the reports of the commanders engaged. It was completely successful in its object, and that was no small one. The supplies destroyed, the line of communications broken, over which troops could be, and have been, hurried either way, to succor either Lee or Johnston; the rebel General Jenkins killed, whose name has been a tower of strength to the cause in West Virginia; the armies broken up and scattered-all unite to render this no small link in the great chain of disasters binding our foe. From its success we augur still greater success for the second, which we hope soon to start. Rest and rations are rapidly restoring the men to their usual vigor and elasticity. Reinforcements have already joined us, and already we feel the flush of certain victory.
The following is a summary of killed and wounded, furnished by Dr. E. M. Kellogg, Chief Division Medical Director of General Crook's command:
The following is an account of General McArthur's late expedition into the Yazoo country. The forces of which this little army are composed consists of about two thousand infantry, five hundred and fifty cavalry, and eight pieces of artillery. They left Vicksburg on the morning of the fourth of May, and took up the line of march for Yazoo City, distant by the land route about seventy-five miles. The men were in excellent spirits and only too glad to exchange the march, with a fair prospect of a fight, for the irksome, monotonous duties of camp. The main objects of this movement were to draw in this direction the attention of the detached bodies of rebels in the north part of the State, and prevent a combination which would hazard our armies in Tennessee, Kentucky, or Georgia.
Part of the marine brigade was to co-operate with the expedition by river, and on the arrival of our forces at Mechanicsburg on the sixth, the marine cavalry boats were found at Satartia. The former is a small town situated about four miles directly back from the latter. The command moved on, and next day encountered the enemy strongly posted near Benton. troops were speedily brought up and placed in position, and a brief skirmish put the rebels to 19 flight, but the nature of the country is such, 23 that a retreating force by the use of artillery can annoy or delay their pursuers very easily, and this they were bold enough to do. Taking advantageous positions, and placing a gun or two in a battery, they could compel a delay to 69 deploy and advance in line, and when closely 62 pressed they would hurry on with their guns, leaving tired" infants" far behind. The rebels were found to be Colonel Mayberry's brigade of mounted infantry, with four pieces of artillery.
The fight here was principally with artillery, 18 and the loss was slight. Pursuit was continued six miles, when the men were recalled, and encamped near Benton. Meanwhile, from despatches captured, General McArthur learned 286 that General Wirt Adams was on his way from 102 Canton to cross the Big Black and join Mayberry with three thousand more men that night.
Confident of his ability to contend with the entire rebel force thus concentrated, General McArthur, with his characteristic imperturbability, awaited to give Adams the chance to cross if he chose at the point he had designated, about twenty-two miles from Benton. General McArthur had taken the very wise precaution to send into Yazoo City-which the marine portion of the expedition were now occupying-a portion of his train, so as not to be encumbered therewith in his movements, preferring, unlike some commanders of expeditions, to use infantry to support his advance cavalry force.
On the twelfth, General McArthur started his little army eastward, in the direction of Vaughan, distant eighteen miles, determined if the enemy were there, as reported, to make them fight or - run. He had gone but a few miles when he came upon the rebels in force, fully displayed upon carefully chosen ground, and apparently determined to resist his march.
or widows, or sweethearts of rebel officers and soldiers, and hence they are thoroughly rebel. There is great destitution throughout this whole region. None of the staple groceries are to be found, even in the houses of the most wealthy. Corn meal, and a wretched quality at that, with garden vegetables and milk, constitute the most extravagant bill of fare the country will afford. All articles of dress are sold at fabulous prices, and the poor are truly in a wretched condition. Every kind of business is entirely suspended, and what little energy is left in the people is concentrated upon the raising of grain; but the negroes having mostly left, there will not be more produced than will be needed for home consumption.
Large numbers of refugees and deserters from the rebel army have come in, some having their families with them, appealing for help to get away. In some instances three deserters have lived for fifteen months in the nearest swamp to their homes, and have been hunted for repeatedly by the scouts and conscript parties with bloodhounds. They desire to take the oath of allegiance, and go where they can live as loyal citizens of the United States undisturbed. Said one who had been a conscript and eslooked for this day; I will take the oath of allegiance and once more become a loyal citizen of the United States, that good old government for which my grandfather fought seven years, and for whose enemies I never did, and never will, fire a gun." Several prisoners fell into our hands, and a few were lost during the marches and fights. A flag a truce was sent out to the rebels in the hope of effecting an exchange, but Adams declined.
He immediately drew up his men and offered battle. For a short time the contest was sharp, but a flank movement skilfully managed and a successful advance of a section of artillery which opened on them an enfilade unexpectedly, threw them into confusion followed by a hasty retreat. Again they were pursued and a run-caped after three months: "Sir, I have long ning fight if the toilsome march of infantry after mounted men can be called running-was kept up all the way to Vaughan. Vaughan is a station on the Mississippi Central Railroad, distant thirty miles from Yazoo City. The railroad crosses the Big Black at a point four miles from Vaughan. That night the troops were camped at the station, and the next day engaged in the destruction of the depot and a portion of the track and most of the tressel work at the crossing. Brigadier-General Ellet had meantime arrived at Yazoo City with some The expedition has returned to Vicksburg, more troops, and assumed direction of affairs marching through in three days. No enemy apthere. Skirmishing was frequent, even near the peared during the march. Adams has retired city, and a detachment of marine cavalry, on with his whole command across the Big Black, its way out to communicate with General Mc-seeking a safer place than the vicinity of McArArthur's command, after following over the route of the fighing, from Benton to Vaughan, had nearly reached the latter place, late at night, when a body of rebels were found picketing the road at a place where it forks, and they were compelled to return. After causing the destruction of the railroad, and being satisfied of the fact that Adams would not fight him, General McArthur moved leisurely back, and arrived in this city on the fifteenth. This part of the Mississippi Central Railroad had been once destroyed before by our army, and was just rebuilt at great cost and labor, and was designed by the rebels to transport supplies from the rich region of the Yazoo, through to the interior, for the use of their army.
This city has suffered but little from the ravages of war, though it has been temporarily occupied by Federal troops three different times, and there has been a severe street fight, marks of shots being plainly visible in many places. Its citizens are, for the most part, females, wives
thur to carry on his military operations. This accounts for his declining the exchange. He wished to keep his movements secret till his command were safely across, and the Big Black between himself and McArthur. The expedition is an entire success, and reflects great credit upon the officers who planned and executed it. The men held up during the long fatiguing march remarkably well, and came into Vicksburg in the same high spirits in which they left.
MAJOR-GENERAL ROSECRANS' ORDER.
General Orders, No. 65:
It having come to the knowledge of the com manding General that combinations exist in the city of St. Louis, having for their object to prevent journeymen mechanics, apprentices, and