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the advance, routed him so speedily and completely that he did not delay our march twenty minutes, and this only to pick up prisoners and burn his five wagons, including his headquarter wagons, out of which we got all the brigade and other official papers. We had but a few hours previously captured, with its guard of three men, a small mail bound for Tuscaloosa.
who had destroyed the railroad for twenty miles near and above Okalona.
I do not think General Hood brought across the Tennessee river, at Bainbridge, more than twelve thousand infantry and thirty-five pieces of artillery. I am, very respectfully Your obedient servant, WM. J. PALMER,
S. B. MOE,
About fifty or seventy-five conscripts from both sides of the Tennessee river, that Russel was hustling off to Tuscaloosa, were released by our attack; also eight Indiana soldiers, captured Major and Assistant Adjutant-General. by Russel near Decatur.
We then continued our march unmolested, by way of Mount Hope, towards Leighton; but learning, when within ten miles of that place, that all our troops had returned to Decatur, we came on by easy marches to the same post, reaching it on Friday evening, sixth instant.
The whole distance marched, from the time of leaving Decatur, nine days previously, was two hundred and sixty-five; and about four hundred miles, from the time of leaving Chattanooga, two weeks and three days previous.
My entire command numbered less than six hundred (600) men, consisting of the Fifteenth Pennsylvania (Anderson) cavalry, commanded by Lieutenant-Colonel Charles B. Lamborn, and detachments of the Second Tennessee, and Tenth, Twelfth and Thirteenth Indiana cavalry, commanded by Lieutenant-Colonel William F. Prosser.
To these officers, and all those under them, much credit is due for their gallantry and energy, as well as to all their men, for the dash and courage with which they attacked any enemy that appeared, and for the patient manner in which they bore, on the most scanty rations, the severe fatigue of this expedition.
I desire particularly to recommend for honorable mention in general orders, Sergeant Arthur P. Lyon, of Company A, of the Anderson cavalry, for repeated acts of marked bravery during this short campaign-including the capture of two pieces of artillery, which fell into his hands on the night of December twentyeight, six miles from Decatur, on the Courtland road, by a daring charge of our advanced guard of fifteen men, which he led on this occasion.
We took about one hundred and fifty prisoners after leaving Leighton, including two colonels (one of whom was left in consequence of his wounds), two captains and six lieutenants, and destroyed, in all, between seven hundred and fifty and one thousand stand of arms, and captured a considerable number of pistols.
Our entire loss, one man killed and two wounded-all (of Lieutenant-Colonel Prosser's command) in the charge on Russel's force.
The whole of Forrest's cavalry, except Armstrong's brigade, was at Okalona, Mississippi, within one day's march of us, when the supply train was captured. He had been sent there as soon as he crossed at Bainbridge on Tuesday evening, to repel our cavalry from Memphis,
CAPTAIN OSBORN'S REPORT.
HEADQUARTERS TWENTIETH INDIANA BATTERY, MURFREESBORO, TENNESSEE, December 20, 1864.
Major Moe, Assistant Adjutant-General, District Etowah:
SIR: I have the honor to make the following report of the part taken by the Twentieth Indiana battery, in the engagement near Nashville, Tennessee, on the fifteenth and sixteenth of December, 1864. The battery was engaged from eight o'clock A. M., of the fifteenth instant, throughout the day, both sections having taken position early in the day, within five hundred yards of the enemy's main line of works, the right section operating with Colonel Morgan's U.S. colored brigade and the left section with Colonel Thompson's U. S. colored brigade. The right section changed its position at ten o'clock A. M., and took a position in the open field, within three hundred yards of the enemy's works, and held the position until the infantry, Colonel Morgan's and Colonel Grosvenor's brigades, had passed to the rear and re-formed, in the mean time keeping up a continual fire, which enabled the infantry the more successfully to be withdrawn. This section then retired and took up a position north-east of the Raine's house, immediately behind the skirmish line of Colonel Morgan's brigade, where the section remained, keeping up a continual fire until night. Early on the morning of the sixteenth the two sections of the battery were brought together, and moved, with Colonel Morgan's brigade, across the Nolensville pike, to a position on the left of Colonel Thompson's brigade, I which was then on the left of the Fourth corps, shelling the woods as the column advanced, where the battery participated in the general engagement which then took place, and from this position on the extreme left of the line kept a constant and terribly effective fire on the enemy's artillery in position on the Overton Hill, during the charges which were made by the infantry.
The enemy's artillery being silenced and captured, and our infantry having possession of the work, at about five o'clock P. M. I moved the battery in the general pursuit, with Colonel Morgan's brigade.
The casualties on the fifteenth instant were as follows:
Lieutenants E. D. York, severely wounded, left
arm broken, and T. H. Stevenson, slightly wounded, musket shot; Sergeant I. V. Elder, severely wounded in left side, musket shot; Privates Wm. Campbell, severely wounded in thigh; James Stuard, severely wounded by shell in back; James Evans, seriously wounded in breast, musket shot; I. O. Eversole, slightly wounded by shell; T. E. Stanley, slightly wounded by shell.
Five horses were killed, three by musketry, two by shell; nine horses were wounded, two by shell, seven by musketry.
The following ammunition was expended:
COLONEL C. K. THOMPSON'S REPORT.
MAJOR: I have the honor to transmit the following report of the action of my command during the past campaign:
On the seventh day of December, I reported to Major-General Steedman, in accordance with verbal orders received from department headquarters, and by his directions placed my brigade in line near the city graveyard, the right resting on College street, and the left on the right of Colonel Harrison's brigade, where we threw up two lines of rifle-pits.
Malloy, commanding brigade, provisional division, District of the Etowah, to make a reconnoissance on the east side of the N. and C. railroad, to see if the enemy was still in force in that vicinity. The Thirteenth regiment, United States colored infantry, was deployed as skir mishers, and the Twelfth and One Hundredth regiments, United States colored infantry, were held in reserve in line. We advanced from the Murfreesboro pike, with the skirmishers of Colonel Malloy's brigade connecting with my left, and drove the enemy's picket and reserves to their main line, after a somewhat stubborn resistance on the grounds of Mr. Raines.
The enemy were there in full force, and sharp firing was kept up as long as we remained there, which was until nearly dark.
We retired to our position in line, but not without loss. Captain Robert Headen, of Company E, Twelfth United States colored infantry, was mortally wounded, while on the skirmish line, pushing his company forward under a heavy fire from the enemy's earthworks; several men were also killed and wounded.
On the fifteenth of December, by directions received by the Major-General commanding, I moved my command at six o'clock A. M., to assault the enemy's works between the railroad and the Nolensville pike. So that the movement might be made more rapidly, I moved the two regiments, which were to be in the first line (the Thirteenth and One Hundredth United States colored infantry), under cover of the railroad bank, and placed them in column of company, side by side, and awaited the opening of the battle, which was to be done by Colonel Morgan on the left.
As soon as his guns were heard, I moved across the railroad; the reserve regiment (the Twelfth United States colored infantry) passing in the rear through a culvert, and wheeling into line, charged and took the works in our front. The enemy was evidently expecting us to move to the left of the railroad, as their artillery was moved to meet us there, and was not opened on us until we had gained the works and were comparatively well protected. My orders being to await there the orders of the General commanding, my command was kept in the same position during the day, except making slight changes in the direction of the line, to protect the men from an enfilading fire. Sharp firing was kept up be tween the skirmishers, and considerable artillery ammunition expended.
On the eleventh of December made a reconnoissance by order of the General commanding, to see if enemy were still in our front. Two hundred men, under command of Colonel John A. Hotten- The section of the Twentieth Indiana battery, stein, pressed the enemy's picket line, and re- commanded by Lieutenant York, who was serves to their main line of works, where they wounded, and afterwards by Lieutenant Stevenwere found to be in force. The object of the son, did excellent execution, and drove the reconnoissance having been accomplished, we re-enemy's battery opposing it from the position tired to our position in line by the direction of the Major-General commanding. This was the first time that any of my troops had skirmished with an enemy, and their conduct was entirely satisfactory.
On the thirteenth of December, by order of the General commanding, I reported to Colonel
which it took to operate against us.
During the night we strengthened our rifle pits, and threw up an earthwork for the protec tion of the artillery, which had been much exposed during the day to the fire of the enemy's sharpshooters.
At daylight on the morning of December
sixteenth, indications that the enemy had left our front being apparent, I sent my skirmishers forward and found the rifle pits occupied by the enemy's sharpshooters vacant. By direction of the General commanding, I then sent the skirmishing line to the hill south, and about one mile from the one we had taken the day previous. Finding no enemy there, the whole command was ordered forward.
We marched about one mile and a half towards the south and then moved in a westerly direction, my left connecting with the right of Colonel Morgan's brigade. We halted on the hill east of the T. and A. railroad until the General commanding could communicate with the right of the army.
When this was done I was ordered to move to the east side of the Franklin pike and connect with the left of General Wood's (Fourth) corps. This was done without material damage, though the enemy opened on us from two batteries on Overton Hill. Immediately upon getting my command into position, I reported the fact to General Wood, who said he was about to make a charge, and desired me to support his left.
At about three o'clock P. M. his command started, and after they had proceeded about forty yards, I moved the left regiment. The Twelfth United States colored infantry was obliged to move about eighty yards in column, as there was a dense briar thicket on the left, which it could not penetrate.
After passing this thicket it was my intention to halt the command, until I could see what was on General Wood's left, and how it would be best to charge the works. The deploying of the Twelfth regiment at double quick caused the other regiments to think that a charge had been ordered, and they immediately started at double quick. Being under a heavy fire at the time, I thought it would cause much confusion to rectify this, so I ordered the whole line to charge. The Hundredth regiment was somewhat broken by trees, which had been fallen.
such a fire as veterans dread, and yet, side by side with the veteran's of Stone River, Missionary Ridge and Atlanta, they assaulted probably the strongest work on the entire line, and though not successful they vied with the old warriors in bravery, tenacity, and deeds of noble daring.
The loss in the brigade was over twenty-five per cent. of the number engaged, and the loss was sustained in less than thirty minutes.
While re-organizing my command, the troops on the right had broken the enemy's line, which caused them to retreat from Overton Hill.
The enemy on Overton Hill was considerably reinforced, during the attack, on account of the firmness of the assault, and which naturally weakened the enemy's left and made it easier for our troops to break their line at that point.
Under orders from the General commanding we moved down the Franklin pike and bivouacked on the left of the army.
December seventeenth, we marched to the north bank of the Harpeth river, opposite Franklin, in pursuit of the enemy.
December eighteenth, marched about three miles south of Franklin, where orders reached us to return to Franklin, and from there to move to Murfreesboro. We arrived in Murfreesboro on the twentieth of December at about noon, the men completely worn down, having accomplished by far the hardest march that I ever experienced.
The rain had fallen almost constantly, and every brook had overflown its banks and assumed the proportions of a river. The mud was ankle deep, and when we arrived at Murfreesboro, over fifty per cent. of the command were in need of shoes.
On the twenty-third of December, 1864, moved from Murfreesboro by rail, and on the twentysixth of December disembarked from the cars about nine miles east of Decatur, Alabama, and moved within a mile of the Tennessee river, near the mouth of Flint river. Was placed in command of the Second provisional division, consisting of the First and Second colored bri
The Twelfth regiment United States colored infantry, and the left wing of the Hundredth regi-gades and reserve brigade. ment United States colored infantry, passed to the left of the enemy's works, they making a sharp angle there. This gave the enemy an enfilading and rear fire on this portion of the command. It being impossible to change front under the withering fire, and there being no work in front of them, I gave orders for that portion of the command to move by the left flank to the shelter of a small hill a short distance off, there to re-organize. The right wing of the Hundredth regiment moved forward with the left of the Fourth corps, and was repulsed with them.
On the twenty-seventh, in accordance with orders from the General commanding, I moved my command to the river, and embarked them on transports. We were landed on the opposite shore, and a bridge which had been prepared was thrown across a lagoon (which still separated us from the main shore) by the men of the Eighteenth Ohio volunteer infantry.
The Thirteenth United States colored infantry, which was the second line of my command, pushed forward of the whole line, and some of the men mounted the parapet, but having no support on the right, were forced to retire. These troops were here, for the first time, under
Too much praise cannot be given to this regiment for the skill and energy displayed in the laying of this bridge.
Skirmishers were sent across this lagoon immediately upon landing, and in wading the water was up to their necks.
Before noon the whole command was across, and I pushed it forward, driving the enemy be fore until I reached a point at which been directed to halt and await further orders from the General commanding.
From information received from citizens I was sure that there was not more than two hundred cavalry at Decatur, and so informed the General commanding.
General Cruft, with the First provisional division, having crossed the river and lagoon, came up and joined my right. We then moved forward into Decatur with but little resistance. We moved from Decatur on the twentyeighth of December, with the whole command, and arrived at Courtland on the thirtieth December.
On the thirty-first, in accordance with directions from the General commanding, I started with my division from Courtland to proceed as far as La Grange and Leighton. to support the cavalry under Colonel Palmer, that had gone to destroy the train of the enemy. Moved on this day as far as Town Creek, when we found it necessary to build a bridge, which was done with great dispatch by the Eighteenth Ohio volunteer infantry.
We moved from Town Creek at four o'clock A. M., January first, 1865, and arrived at Leighton at nine o'clock A. M. Sent Colonel John A. Hottenstein, with the Second brigade colored troops, to La Grange, with orders to take post there and find out all he could about Colonel Palmer, and to communicate to me any information that he might receive.
On the second, received orders from the General commanding to move east with my command, and rejoin him at Courtland. I started immediately, but at Town Creek received orders directing me to send one brigade to Leighton, and with the others to remain, when the order reached me, until Colonel Palmer could be heard from.
In compliance with this order I went into bivouac with the First and Second brigades colored troops, and sent the reserve brigade to Leighton.
On the fourth of January, received orders to move to Courtland, as Colonel Palmer had been heard from, and was on his way to Decatur, having destroyed the pontoon and another of the enemy's trains. On arriving at Courtland, found that the General commanding, with the First division, had gone to Decatur, orders having been left for me to follow with my command.
On the fifth, moved to within four miles of Decatur, where I received orders to move with my old command (the Second brigade colored troops) to Nashville, Tennessee.
On the sixth of January, moved to the terminus of the railroad opposite Decatur, and waited transportation.
On the seventh sent the Twelfth regiment off, and on the eighth started for Nashville with the Thirteenth and One Hundredth regiments.
On arriving at Larkinsville, found that the rebel General Lyon had cut the road, and was sent in pursuit of him by General Cruft, who was at Larkinsville.
Moved to Scottsboro on the morning of the
ninth, and found that Lyon had gone towards the Tennessee river. In conjunction with Colonel Malloy's brigade, started in pursuit on Guntersville road.
On the tenth, overtook Mitchell's brigade, and marched to Law's Landing, where, by order of General Cruft, I took post.
On the eleventh, I received orders to return to Larkinsville, as Lyon had escaped across the Tennessee river.
Arrived at Larkinsville on the evening of the twelfth, and loaded troops the next evening (thirteenth), and started for Nashville, at which place we arrived at four o'clock P. M., on the fifteenth day of January, 1865.
The conduct of the troops during the whole campaign was most soldierly and praiseworthy.
Before making the assault on the enemy's works, the knapsacks of the troops comprising the Second brigade were laid aside, and after the works were taken, being ordered to go in pursuit, these were left; and without blankets or any extra clothing, and more than one-half the time without fifty good shoes in the whole brigade, this whole campaign was made with a most cheerful spirit existing. For six days rations were not issued, yet vigorous pursuit was made after the rebel General Lyon.
To Colonel John A. Hottenstein, Thirteenth United States colored infantry, commanding Second brigade colored troops; Colonel Morgan, Fourteenth United States colored infantry, commanding First brigade United States colored troops, and Colonel Felix Pr. Salm, Sixty-eighth New York volunteer infantry, commanding Reserve brigade, my thanks are due, and are warmly given for their promptness to answer every call, and for their great assistance to me in helping to lighten the heavy responsibility that chance had thrown upon me.
Of the officers of my staff, Captain Henry A. Norton, Twelfth United States colored infantry, Acting Assistant Inspector-General; Lieutenant George W. Fish, Twelfth United States colored infantry, Acting Assistant Quartermaster, wounded by the enemy after having been taken prisoner, while taking stores to the command; Lientenant Wm. H. Wildey, Twelfth United States colored infantry, Ordnance Officer; Lieutenant John D. Reilly, Thirteenth United States colored infantry, Acting Aide-de-Camp; Lieutenant Thos. L. Seaton, Twelfth United States colored infantry, Act. Assistant Adjutant-General; Lieutenant D. A. Grosvenor, One Hundredth United States colored infantry, Acting Aide-de-Camp, who, after having been wounded in three places, took the colors of his regiment from close to the enemy's earthworks — the color bearer having been killed; and Lieutenant R. G. Sylvester, Twelfth United States colored infantry, Commissary of Subsistence of the brigade, I cannot speak too highly. Uniting in the performance of their several duties, and on the field anxious to do the cause service in the most dangerous places, they richly deserve the thanks of the country.
To the glorious dead we drop a tear, and
COLONEL FELIX PR. SALM'S REPORT.
HEADQUARTERS U. S. FORCES, BRIDGEPORT, ALABAMA, Jan. 17, 1865. Major-General James B. Steedman, commanding District of the Etowah, Chattanooga, Tennessee:
GENERAL: I have the honor to submit the following report:
while we cannot but deeply regret the great loss, not only we, their companions, but the country, has sustained, we could not wish them more honorable graves. The conscientious, brave, and high-minded Captain Robert Headen, the gallant Lieutenant Dennis Dease, the gentle, but firm and untiring Lieutenant D. Grant Cooke, of the Twelfth United States colored infantry the two former receiving their death wounds On the twenty-ninth December, 1864, after while leading their men against their country's having left Decatur, Alabama, I received reliable and freedom's foe, the latter butchered by the sav-information that a great number of small arms, age enemy while performing his duties as regimental quartermaster, taking supplies to his command-we can never forget as friends, and their positions can hardly be re-filled.
In the death of Lieutenant John M. Woodruff, Lieutenant George Taylor, Lieutenant L. L. Parks, and Lieutenant James A. Isom, of the Thirteenth United States colored infantry, the service has lost brave and efficient officers, the country patriots, and humanity friends. They all fell close to the enemy's works, leading their brave men.
The loss of the brigade is as follows:
ammunition, and other ordnance stores, were concealed in a house a few miles in my rear, near the main road to Tuscumbia, Alabama. I theretwenty men, to proceed to the place to try to fore ordered a party, consisting of one officer and discover the hiding-place of the stores, and to destroy them when found.
On the thirty-first December, 1864, the patrol returned, and the officer in charge reported as follows:
After leaving the brigade he proceeded in the direction of Decatur, following the Tuscambia road. About the distance of six miles, a hundred yards from that road, in the vicinity of a farm known as "Kimball's place," stood the house said to contain arms and ammunition.
The officer found there about one hundred and ten Springfield and Enfield rifles, in good condition; from fifteen to twenty thousand carbine cartridges, English manufacture, India-rubber cases; one hundred to one hundred and 13 twenty rounds of heavy ordnance ammunition; 102 also a great quantity of wrought iron horseshoes, &c.; several hundred sets of artillery 115 harness, evidently condemned; a large bundle of telegraph wire, glass insulators, &c., the whole of which was destroyed, and the building set on fire.
Some more ammunition or powder must have been hidden there, as several explosions took place during the time the house was in flames. 221 It is apparent that the Rebel authorities had established an ordnance store at this place, and that the men in charge left on a stampede, as several muskets and accoutrements were found 121 on the ground outside the house. Most respectfully submitted. FELIX PR. SALM,
Colonel Sixty-eighth Regiment New York Vet. Vols, commanding Post.
S. B. MOE,
Major and Assistant Adjutant-General.
All of which is respectfully submitted.
I have the honor to be,
Your obedient servant,
CHARLES K. THOMPSON,
THE BATTLE OF NASHVILLE.
GENERAL J. T. WOOD'S REPORT.
HEADQUARTERS FOURTH ARMY CORPS,
GENERAL: The Fourth army corps arrived in
Colonel Twelfth U. S. Colored Infantry, commanding Brigade. the vicinity of Nashville, on the retreat from
MAJOR S. B. MOE,
A. A. G., Dist. of the Etowah, Chattanooga, Tennessee.
Pulaski, on the first December ultimo. Major-Gen eral D. S. Stanley, having been wounded in the