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THE

ANNUAL CYCLOPÆDIA.

A AFRICA. The French Government were when it appeared in the form of a letter to disappointed in their expectation that the in- Marshal McMahon. It concluded as follows: surrection of some of the native tribes in Al- “I would turn to account the valor of the geria was effectually subdued at the close of the Arabs rather than bear hardly upon their povyear 1864. New outbreaks occurred during erty; render the colonists rich and prosperous the year 1865, and at its close the most forini- rather than establish settlements of emigrants, dable of the insurgent chiefs, Si Lala, was still and maintain our soldiers in healthy situations in the field. Very alarming rumors that Si rather than to expose them to the wasting Lala

, at the head of 50,000 men, held the whole climate of the desert. By the realization of south of Algeria, circulated in Paris, in No- this programme we shall appease passions and vember; but the Moniteur denied their correct satisfy interests; then Algeria will be to us no ness, and asserted that, on October 19th, he longer a burden, but a new element of strength. had only made his appearance in the southern The Arabs, restrained and conciliated, will give districts of Algeria with 2,000 horsemen and us what they can best give, namely, soldiers, 1,400 soldiers on foot. According to the and the colony, become flourishing by the deMoniteur de l'Algérie of November 12, Si Lala, velopment of its territorial riches, will create a finding his efforts to be fruitless, his resources commercial movement eminently favorable to exhausted, and his cavalry fatiguing themselves the mother country.” in vain, decided upon retreating rapidly toward In accordance with the views of the Emthe southwest, and was actively pursued by the peror, the French Government, on June 22d, French forces. Gen. Lacretelle, marching from brought forward the draft of a decree respectDaya, overtook and defeated, on November 8th, ing Algeria. It provides that the native at Oud-bon-Lerdjem, to the west of Maia-Chott, Mussulman be considered a Frenchman.

He the Hamian tribes and the fractions of the will, nevertheless, continue subject to the MusDjembas and Chafas who had joined Si Lala. sulman laws of the country, but can, on apOfficial news from Algeria reached Paris on De- plication, be admitted to the rights of French tember 15th, which stated that Col. Colomb, re- citizenship. The native Israelite also is to be enforced by the tribes recently subjected, had on considered a Frenchman. He will continuo several occasions beaten the tribes still in insur- to be governed according to the peculiar statrection, who were seeking refuge in the desert of utes of the Hebrew race, but, on application, Sahara, that the tribes who had been defeated can enjoy the rights of a French citizen. Forhad asked for pardon, and Col. Sonis had cut eigners, upon proving three years' residence in off the retreat toward the east of Si Lala. In the country, are entitled to the rights of citizenMay the Emperor Louis Napoleon visited Al- ship. An administrative regulation will degeria, where he received an enthusiastic recep- termine the conditions of admission to the pubtion on the part of many chiefs and tribes, and lic service and of advancement in the army for was met by special ambassadors from Tunis and native Mussulmans and Israelites, and also the Moroeco. On his return to France, it became offices to which they can attain. This draft known that the Emperor was preparing a was adopted by the Senate without important pamphlet on French colonization in Algeria, modifications. "In July, Mr. P. H. Rathbone, but its issue was delayed until November 3d, the President of the Liverpool Chamber of

VOL. 7.-1 A

Commerce, on returning from a visit to North The accoants given by the Rev. Mr. Ellis, the Africa, presented an interesting report on the pioneer missionary, were more favorable. He commerce of Algeria. Mr. Rathbone is of stated in a public address delivered in England, opinion that Algeria might rapidly be developed that the Government of Madagascar upheld reinto a "paying " colony if ruled by France on ligious toleration, that Christianity was spread. more sound economic principles, and if the col. ing very rapidly, not only in the capital, but in onists were pot, as at present, subordinate to the most remote parts of the country, and that the army, and the colony to Marseilles. Mr. there was reason to hope that the next generaRathbone also advocates the opening of the tion would be predoininantly Christian, and ports and the establishment of regular steam witness the extinction of Paganism. communication with Great Britain. The Arabs South Africa was throughout the year the he denounces as dishonest and lazy, and en- scene of hostilities between the Orange Free couraged by the laxity of the Bureau Arabe to State and the Basutos, which sometimes threatcheat Europeans, particularly in the sale of wool. oned the peace of the frontier of the English The Kabyles, he says, are both industrious and Colony of Natal. In reply to representations honest. With more business freedom, Algeria, from the Governor of the Cape Colony, Moshe thinks, would easily produce immense quan- hesh, the chief of the Basutos, stated that he had tities of good wool, cotton, wine, oil, and corn, met the demand of the Natal Government for as well as useful grass, called crin végétal, invading their frontier. He also urged the much used by apholsterers in place of horse- governor to take possession of his country and hair.

people, alleging that they were desirous of beIn Morocco, a fresh insurrection broke out coming British subjects. The governor declined in the neighborhood of Rabat, in May, but it to take steps at the present juncture, and doubtwas soon quelled. In July, the Emperor of ed the sincerity of Moshesh, but lamented the Morocco issued an important edict commanding war, which, he said, if continued much longer, that no person, poor or rich, should be punished would cause much misery and destitution among contrary to law, and prohibiting the exaction the Basutos, and largely increase their cattle of any fines except as prescribed by law. It thieving. also forbids people to present money or other The Government of the Cape Colony proposed gifts to any governor or employé; and if any to the Colonial Parliament the annexation of governor imposes fines contrary to imperial de- British Kaffraria to the colony, and curried the crees, the people have the liberty of appeal to measure, although considerable opposition was bis Majesty, who promises complete satisfac- made to it. tion. The Emperor also appointed a day in AGRICULTURE. The year 1865 was, on each week for receiving and determining the the whole, a favorable one for agricultural prod, complaints of his poor subjects.

ucts, though the extreme moisture of May and The Suez Canal has made sufficient progress June in some sections affected the earlier grain to enable light boats to pass from the Medi- crops, and the extraordinary drought of the terranean to the Red Sea. The completion of autumn in New England and portions of New the work, and its opening for navigation, the York, affected the late crops, and especially the company expects to take place by the 1st of fruits, unfavorably. So vast is the extent of the July, 1868. (See Suez, CANAL OF.)

country, however, and so varied its climate, The English Government had not, at the that with our abundant and constantly mulclose of the year, obtained from the Emperor tiplying means of communication, a deficiency of Abyssinia the release of Consul Cameron of a particular crop in one section is readily and other British subjects who have been kept made up by its excess, or at least abundance, in in prison nearly two years. A parliamentary another. paper issued by the Government on June 20th, Of the cereal grains, the wheat crop is smaller contains full and interesting information re- both in the number of bushels and the weight specting the relations of the Emperor Theodore of the grain than in any year since 1860. The of Abyssinia with England and France. following are the crops of this grain, according

The Island of Madagascar continued to be to the estimates of the Agricultural Departagitated by internal convulsions. In October, ment during six years past, omitting the crop the French Government received despatches of 1861. stating that Raharia, governor of Tarnatava, persisted in his refusal to pay to the commander

.182,984,782 busbels. of the French squadron on the station the sum

.179,404,036 due to the French Government as an indem

.160,695,823

.148,522,829 nity. His refusal was approved by the Queen, and a reënforcement of 1,000 men was sent to By this table it appears that there has been him to guard the house where the money was & decrease in the amount of the wheat crop deposited, thus raising the force stationed there each year since 1862, when it attained its mas. to 3,000 men. The Government of the Hovas imum, and that this decrease in 1865, as commoreover resolved to burn the treaties in the pared with the crop of 1862, was nearly $3 public square of Tamatava between King Ra- millions of bushels, being a little more than 13 dama and the agent of the French Government. millions of bushels less than the crop of 1864

.181,188,089

6

1860. 1862 1868. 1864. 1865.

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Bushels.

Bushels

Ohio. Indians. Illinois.

1862. 1863. 1864. 1865.

This redaction in the amount of this important that of 1862, nearly 54,000,000 bushels. ID crop was not, however, uniform throughout the this crop New York takes the lead, its producTheat-growing States; Vermont, Connecticut, tion being 48,675,090 bushels, and Pennsylvania Michigan, Iowa, Minnesota, and Nebraska pro- follows with 46,571,661 bashels. The other daced larger crops than in any previous year principal oat-growing States are, in the order since 1860, and Maine, New Hampshire, New of their production, Illinois, Ohio, Wisconsin, York, and Wisconsin, reported a larger yield Iowa, Indiana, Michigan, New Jersey, Marythan in 1864. The principal falling off was in land, Kentucky, Vermont, Minnesota, Missouri, Ohio, Indiana, and TŪinois, and the loss in these Connecticut, and Maine. three States as compared with 1862 and 1864, The Hay crop was also very large, excoedwill appear from the following table :

ing by nearly 5,500,000 tons the crop of

1864, and by more than 3,000,000 that of any 1862. 1864. 1865. preceding year, as the following table will Bushela

show : 80,796,082 20,407,503

.18,728,022 tons. 17,601,472

Hay crop of 1860. 20,292,160 22,821,376 18,020,803

..20, 257,968 " 82, 218,500

19,736,847 " 83,871,178 25, 266, 745

18,116,751 Tatals of three States $3,801,692 76,100,052 55,889,020

.28,588,740

In this crop New York leads largely, producing The reduction it will be observed in these considerably more than one-fifth of the entire three States is about 27,500,000 bushels froin crop. Illinois, Pennsylvania, and Ohio come the crop of 1862, and of over 20,000,000 from next, and Maine, Indiana, Michigan, Wisconsin, the crop of 1864. Illinois is still the leading Iowa, Vermont, Massachusetts, New Hampshire, wheat-growing State, but Wisconsin has passed Connecticut, Missouri

, and New Jersey, follow all its other competitors and ranks second in in order. The production of hay by the other the list

, while Ohio ranks third, and Michigan States is comparatively small. fourth.

The Corn crop of the Northern States was a The Rye crop, a far less iinportant one than very large one, 22.7 per cent above the average. the wheat, is a trifle and but a trifle below that The amount raised in the Southern States was of last year. Its range during the past six also large, but its amount is not readily ascerFears has been limited, as the following table tained. The following statistics show the amount

of this crop in twenty-two States and territories, Eye erop in 1860

.18,798,198 busbels,

the States lately in rebellion and those on the 21,289,451

Pacific coast not being given for want of com20,782,782

plete statistics. .19,872,975

The crop of 1865 is estimated :19,543,905

from the returns to the Agricultural Depart

ment: The principal rye-growing States, in the order of their production, are, Pennsylvania, New

Corn crop in 1862...

.686,226,805 bushels.

451,967,959 York, New Jersey, Wisconsin, Minois, Connec

..580.581,403 ticut, and Ohio. No other States produced in

642,729,247 1865 a half million of bushels.

In this crop Illinois takes the lead, producing The Barley crop is not a large one, but com- nearly one-fourth of the entire crop; Indiana pares favorably with that of former years, having follows, and then in their order, Ohio, Iowa, been exceeded only in 1862, and then only Kentucky, Missouri, Pennsylvania, New York, about 1,100,000 bushels. The following table Michigan, Maryland, Wisconsin, and New Jershows the production of the past few years : sey. Adding the crop in the Southern States, Barley erop in 1860..

.10,926,765 bushels. and the aggregate production of corn for the

year cannot fall much, if at all, short of 900,..11,868.155 10,682,178

000,000 bushels. 11,891,286

The Cotton crop of 1865 was larger than Fearly two-fifths of the whole barley crop is that of 1863 or 1864, though in some sections produced in the State of New York, while the and much of it was planted very late owing to

it was materially affected by the rain and worms, peater part of the remainder is raised in Ohio, the continuance of the war in the early months Illinois

, Wisconsin, Maine, Pennsylvania, and of the year, and the necessity of the corn crop The Out crop of 1865 was largely in excess

for the subsistence of the people. The amount of any former year, as will appear from the given can as yet be only approximately ascerfollowing table:

tained, but probably falls but little short of one

million bales. Eleven or twelve hundred thouOats produced in 1860 .151,290.980 bushels. sand bales of the crops of former years also

,171,463,405 1863. .178,800,575

remained over, so that the supply of cotton in .176,690,064

the country at the beginning of 1866, was about 1865..........285,232,295

one-half the amount of the crops of 1860, or The excess over the crop 1864, it will be of 1859. Mel, is about 48,500,000 bushels, and over The Tobacco crop was a fair average, except

will show:

1862 1863 1864 1865.

1863.
1864..
1865

12,498,022

1862 1863. 1864. 1865.

lowa

1562

1864

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in Kentucky, where there was a falling off of wet weather of June and July. In the regio about 13 per cent. The amount planted was lying in the vicinity of the lakes and in the not quite as large as usual in some of the to- belt visited by the trade winds, as California, bacco-producing States, in consequence of the Nevada, Utah, Colorado, Kansas, and Nebraska, apprehension of a tax upon the unmanufactured the crop was excellent both in quality and leaf.

quantity. The Potato crop is slightly above the yield The Wool crop has been constantly increasof the preceding year. The rot prevailed to ing in magnitude during the last five years. some extent, but not sufficiently to excite serious The attention of many agriculturists has been fears in regard to the crop.

turned toward the raising of sheep, which has The Sorghum crop, now becoming a very im- been rendered extraordinarily profitable both portant product in the West and South, where by the large demand for wool and its consethe syrup or molasses has, to a large extent, quent high price, and the increasing use of taken the place of the molasses from the sugar mutton for the table. In 1860, the whole numcane, was, owing to the lateness of the frosts, ber of sheep in the United States, according to gathered in excellent condition, and the yield the census, was 22,471,275, and in the twentywas, as a whole, very satisfactory.

three States and territories, from which alone The Buckwheat crop was also a trifle larger during the war returns could be obtained, than the crop of 1864, and of excellent quality. 15,104,272. In 1864, the number of sheep in The crop of Hops was poor, being in many dis- these states had risen to 24,346,391, and in tricts, especially in Central New York (which 1865, to 28,647,269. In 1860, the wool-clip of produces about nine-tenths of the entire amount the whole United States was 60,264,913 pounds, raised), seriously injured by the lice, which for and of the twenty three States already named, the last three years have made great havoc with 47,900,862 pounds. In 1864, owing not only the hop yards. The ravages of these insects to the great increase in the number of sheep, during the year 1865, were singular in their but to the improvement in the breeds, it was character. Yards which the previous season 97,385,564 pounds, or more than double the had been so thoroughly ruined by them that yield of 1860; in 1865, it had further increased the hop-growers had been tempted to root up to 114,589,076 pounds, and is still rapidly on the plants and cultivate other crops, were this the increase, as it should be, for the demand year entirely free from the pest, and those for wool still causes a considerable importation which had escaped the previous year were sub- from Great Britain and Canada as well as from jected to its ravages. The crop of 1865 was Germany, the South of Europe, South Africa, probably about 7,000,000 pounds against 10,- and South America. California will probably 991,996, in 1864.

soon supply the grade of wool hitherto imThe Root crops were never better than in ported from South America. The importation 1865. The yield was more than ten per cent. of 1864 was in round numbers 75,000,000 in advance of 1864, though that had been a pounds. Owing to the increased tariff on forremarkable year.

eign wools the importation of 1865 pould The larger autumnal fruits, apples, pears, probably not much exceed 30,000,000 pounds, quinces, &c., were very abundant in the States but there is very little of this which might bordering upon the great lakes in Central and not be grown to advantage on our own terWestern New York, Ohio, Michigan, Wiscon- ritory. sin, Iowa, and Northern Indiana and Illinois ; The Pork crop was, in the number of hoge but in New England, Pennsylvania, New Jersey, slaughtered, about ten per cent. below that of and the region bordering on the Ohio River, 1864, but the hogs were much better fattened the crop was almost a total failure. In New though generally of smaller size than the pre England, the drought, severe and long continued, vious year. The number of hogs packed in prevented their coming to maturity; in the the winter of 1863-'64, is stated by the Cin central district, especially along the Ohio River cinnati Price Current as 3,328,884 ; in the and its tributaries, the severe frosts of the winter of 1864–65, as 2,422,779; while the winter of 1863–64 had killed the taproot of the number for the winter of 1865–66 is estimated apple trees, and probably rendered them per- at 2,180,000. manently barren.

With the exception of sheep, and milch Peaches were very abundant in Delaware, cows,* all classes of live stock have materially New Jersey, and Pennsylvania, but there diminished during the war. The followin were very few in the region bordering on the tables show this conclusively, while they als lakes.

give the present valuation and the averag Of the small fruits, strawberries of the later price of each description of stock. The dimi varieties were abundant, while the early sorts nution of number, is of course due to the extra were in small quantity and not of the usual ordinary demand for horses and mules fo quality. The other summer fruits were in about army purposes, and for beef and pork for com the samo quantity.

missary supplies. The Grape crop suffered severely in the States on the Atlantic coast, and those bordering on

* Taking the whole country through, these, too, have pret

ably diminished, though they have nearly or quite held the the Ohio River, from rot, the result of the very own in the loyal States east of the Rocky Mountains.

Table, showing the total numbers of Live Stock for 1864 and 1865, the increase and decrease thereof, the general

average price of each kind, the value of each, and the total value, in twenty-three loyal States and Terri. tories east of the Rocky Mountains.

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Namber,

Av. Price.

Total Value.

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Naaber, geerage price, and total value for January, The following table, extracted from the 1865.

monthly reports of the Agricultural Department, is of importance, as giving the coinpara

tive exports of farm produce in 1864 and 1865, 8,740,983 $80 84 $302,425,499 and the prices ruling at New York and Chicago Vales..

247,553 102 08 25,041,488 Cattle and Oxen.. 7,072,591 26 17 185,090,087

at the beginning and close of the year. 5,768,130 86 70 211,718,270 It will be observed that in most articles 28,647,269 5 40 154,807,466

there was a decided falling off in prices, though 13,070,887 8 55 111,796,318

not to an extent commensurate with the fall

$990,879,128 of gold. Ezports from New York of the leading agricultural products from January 1, 1865, to December 19, compared

with those for the same time in 1864, and their prices in New York and Chicago. ARTICLES 1864. 1865. At New York

At Chicago. Prices, December 19, Prices, December 13,
Jan. 25, 1865.
Jan. 25, 1865.
New York.

Chicago.
Wheat Floor, bbls.... 1,374,503 1,899,999 $9 20 a $11 60 $700 a $10 00 $700 a $9 85 $9 75 a $11 00
Eye Flaar, bbls.
2,618 2.840 8 00 9 00 6 85 a 7 00

4 50 a 5 00 Cara Meal, bbls. 125,549 103,446 8 80

9 00

4 65 What, bush 2,860,460 12,165,343 2 05 2 88 1 20 a

1 47 1 68 2 40 87} a 1 43 Carr, bash. 4,321,674 841,297 1 77 1 87 78 a 83

95

43

45 Bys, besh

184,495 698
1 60 60 1 65 984 a 1 01

40 Rules, besh..

150
1 80 1 40 1 00

40 1 80 Outs, bash..

71,894
41.775 1 01
1 04 58

62
60

62 221 a 27 Peas, bush. 86,089 184,433 2 80 a

2 85 Cotton, bales.

200,432 26,744
5 85 a 6 00

50

52 Hay, bales..

85,280
89,257 1 70 1 85

1 00

70
85 50

60 Hops, bales.

13,658
23,073 22

50 83

55
20
65 45

60 Laf Tobseco, hhds. 84,517 89,639 9 a 85

8 221 78,342 69,774 Manel. Tobaceo, lbs. 3,968,239 4,948,476

65 1 85 Petroleum, galls... 13,706,466 21,278,439 63

64

65

67 Pork, mees, bols.. 115,728 129,421 85 50 88 00 81 00

a 84 00 23 00 a 28 00 26 60

a 27 00 Beef, mess, bbls...

88,352 86,061 19 00 24 00 14 00 @ 18 00 14 00 a 17 00 12 00 a 17 00

49,054 49,299 Cut Meats, lbs. 83,543,574 93,578,155 17

20 15

18
11
16
10

16 Batter, Ibs.. 9,628,885 14,151,875 824 0 60

23

20

88 40,517,193 49,490,881

237
15 181 20

23 Land, Ibs. 22,468,941 53,070,467 18+ a

224 20
21

19

18 Tallo, lbs.....

187 15,598,745 31,938,576 151 a 16 14

151 13 a 14

12

18 Food, leece, Ibs..

55 a 68

50 Sorghum Molasses,gals!

50

60 In the ANNUAL CYCLOPÆDIA for 1864, the varieties of grapes of the South of Europe grow ealtore of the grape was discussed at consid- freely in the open air there and are readily erable length, and the various wine districts of acclimated, render it the future wine-producing the country described. The experience of 1865 region of the continent. There are probably indicates that in the districts near the Atlantic not less than 10,000,000 vines which have coast, or on the Ohio and Mississippi Rivers, been set within the past ten years, of which the frequent occurrence of wet seasons makes one-half were set in 1864 and 1865. The wine the wine crop an uncertain one, both as to product of 1864 exceeded 4,000,000 gallons, quality and quantity. The same difficulty is although the extreme drought diminished it Experienced in most of the wine districts of somewhat. While the production of wine in Europe, where of late years bardly one year in that State is still comparatively in its infancy, Eve proves a "good wine year.” În the region and every year increases the amount and imlying on Lake Erie, and embracing the southern proves the quality, we may ere long expect to islands of that lake in Western Missouri and receive from thence wines which shall compete Kansas, and probably also in Texas, there is successfully with the best products of the best les difficulty experienced in making wine. vintages of Europe, for with the choicest vaBat California is preēminently the wine region rieties of wine grapes they have also the most of the United States. Its dry climate, semi- skilful wine makers of Europe, tropical in its character, its deep, rich, and aro- The culture of the hop though restricted to matic soil, and the fact that all the tenderest comparatively small tracts of co:intry, and more

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