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Heth's Division-Archer's Brigade-Thirteenth Alabama Regiment and Fifth Alabama Battalion, and the First, Seventh, and Fourteenth Tennessee Regiments. Pettigrew's Brigade-Eleventh, Twenty-sixth, Forty-seventh, and Fifty-second North Carolina Regiments. Davis' Brigade-Second, Eleventh, and Forty-second Mississippi, and Fifty-fifth North Carolina Regiments. Brockenbrough's Brigade-Fortieth, Forty-seventh, nnd Fifty-fifth Regiments, and the Twenty-second Virginia Battalion.

Pender's Division-Scales' Brigade Thirteenth, Sixteenth, Twenty-second, Thirty-fourth, and Thirty-ninth North Carolina Regiments. Lane's Brigade-Seventh, Eighteenth, Twenty-eighth, Thirty-third and Thirty-seventh North Carolina Regiments.

Archer's was made the directing brigade of the line of battle.


All these troops, numbering not more than 14,000, had, with the exception of Pickett's Division, been heavily engaged in the battle of the first of July. Brockenbrough's and Davis's Brigades, with absolutely no supports on the left or rear, unable to stand the tempest of shot and shell, gave way first. Pettigrew's Brigade dashed on, and, when within a short distance of the stone wall, a flanking column on the left poured in a destructive fire of musketry, causing what was left of the brigade to fall back. Archer's Brigade reached nearly, if not quite, the stone wall. From this point they retired to their former position on Seminary Ridge, passing through in a disorderly mass, and necessarily demoralizing to some extent the brigades of Lane and Scales, which continued to advance, however, some of the men reaching within a few yards of the stone wall; but none of the troops, except Pickett's, passed beyond the wall.

A Federal authority says: "Alexander Hays had several regiments well to the front behind stone walls, and on his extreme right was Woodruff's Battery of light twelves. Whether the fire was closer here, or whether, as some claim, the troops in Pettigrew's command were not as well seasoned to war as Pickett's men, it is certain that the attack on Hays was speedily repulsed. That it was pressed with resolution was attested by the dead and wounded on the field, which were as numerous in Hays's front as on any other part of it."

In the published records it is shown that medals were voted by Congress to Federal soldiers for flags captured from Pettigrew's,

Archer's, and Scales's Brigades, every regiment in Archer's having lost their colors. The devotion and gallantry of the troops forming the left wing of Pickett's charge cannot justly be questioned.


The rear and flank of Pickett's Division was to have been supported by Wilcox and Perry, but there is good reason for supposing that they did not advance until after the attack had been repulsed. From General Wilcox's report we learn that about twenty or thirty minutes after Pickett's advance three different couriers came with orders to advance-one of them from Major-General Anderson, probably a mile distant, to the left. General Wilcox adds: "Not a man of the division that I was ordered to support could I see."

Colonel Lang, commanding Perry's Brigade, says: "Soon after General Pickett's troops retired behind our position General Wilcox began to advance, and, in accordance with previous orders to conform to his movements, I moved forward also."

Colonel Alexander, in an article published since the war, says: "Wilcox's Brigade passed by us, moving to Pickett's support. There was no longer anything to support, and, with the keenest pity at the useless waste of life, I saw them advance. The men as they passed us looked bewildered, as if they wondered what they were expected to do, or why they were there. However, they were soon halted and moved back."

General Anderson, with the remaining brigades of his divisionWright, Posey, and Mahone—was expected to support the left wing of the column of attack. General A. P. Hill, his corps commander, says: "Anderson had been directed to hold his division ready to take advantage of any success which might be gained by the assaulting column, or to support it, if necessary."

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General Anderson says: "I received orders to hold my division in readiness to move up in support, if it should become necessary.' General Longstreet says: "Major-General Anderson's Division was ordered forward to support and assist the wavering columns of Pettigrew and Trimble."

Anderson did not advance for the reason assigned by himself: "At what I supposed to be the proper time I was about to move forward Wright's and Posey's brigades, when Lieutenant-General Longstreet directed me to stop the movement, adding that it was

useless, and would only involve unnecessary loss, the assault having failed."


Who was responsible for the defective formation will probably never be known. General Pickett's report was suppressed in compliance with the suggestion contained in the following letter:

General George E. Pickett, Commanding, &c.:

GENERAL,-You and your men have crowned yourselves with glory; but we have the enemy to fight, and must carefully, at this critical moment, guard against dissensions, which the reflections in your report would create. I will therefore suggest that you destroy both copy and original, substituting one confined to casualties merely. I hope all will yet be well. I am, with respect,

Your obedient servant,

R. E. LEE, General.

Colonel Walter Harrison, assistant adjutant and inspector-general of Pickett's Division, in "Pickett's Men," published in 1870, says that "the two other divisions (Heth and Pender) were to move simultaneously in support, charging in second and third lines." This indicates that there was some idea of a triple line at Pickett's headquarters, though Colonel Harrison's narrative of the battle in this and other respects is somewhat faulty.


General Pettigrew was killed a few days after the battle, and made no report of his division. The reasonable inference is that the orders were misunderstood. The fact still remains, however, that five brigades did not advance to the support of the attacking column, and the left of Pettigrew's line was wholly unsupported.

But there were other and most essential supports ordered to accompany Pickett's advance. General Lee's report, as before quoted, says: "The batteries were directed to be pushed forward as the infantry progressed, protect their flanks, and support their attacks closely."

General Longstreet says: "I gave orders for the batteries to refill their ammunition-chests, and to be prepared to follow up the advance of the infantry."

Major Eshleman reports: "It having been understood by a previous arrangement that the artillery should advance with the infantry, I immediately directed Captain Miller to advance his and Lieutenant Battle's batteries. Captain Miller, having suffered severely from the loss of men and horses, could move forward only three pieces of his own battery and one of Lieutenant Battle's section. Then, with one piece of Major Henry's battalion, under the direction of Major Haskell, he took position 400 or 500 yards to the front, and opened with deadly effect upon the enemy. With the exception of these five guns no others advanced."


The chief of artillery, General W. N. Pendleton, gives this explanation of the failure of the artillery to support the attacking column:

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Proceeding again to the right, to see about the anticipated advance of the artillery, delayed beyond expectation, I found, among other difficulties, many batteries getting out or low in ammunition, and the all-important question of supply received my earnest attention.

"Frequent shell endangering the first corps ordnance-train in the convenient locality I had assigned it, it had been removed farther back. This necessitated longer time for refilling caissons. What was worse, the train itself was very limited, so that its stock was soon exhausted, rendering requisite demands upon the reserve-train, farther off. The whole amount was thus being rapidly reduced. With our means to keep up supply at the rate required for such a conflict, proved practically impossible. There had to be, therefore, some relaxation of the protracted fire, and some lack of support for the deferred and attempted advance."


This statement is relieved of its ambiguity by General Lee, who tells the result as follows:

"The troops moved steadily on, under a heavy fire of musketry and artillery, the main attack being directed against the enemy's left centre. His batteries reopened as soon as they appeared. Our own having nearly exhausted their ammunition in the protracted

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cannonade that preceded the infantry, were unable to reply, or render the necessary support to the attacking party. Owing to this fact, which was unknown to me when the assault took place, the enemy was enabled to throw a strong force of infantry against our left, already wavering under a concentrated fire of artillery from the ridge in front, and from Cemetery Hill on the left. It finally gave way, and the right, after penetrating the enemy's lines, entering his advance works, and capturing some of his artillery, was attacked simultaneously in front and on both flanks, and driven back with heavy loss."

There is no obscurity in the language of General Lee. The artillery did not render the necessary support, and, in consequence of this fact, the assault was a disastrous failure. This must be regarded as a complete vindication of the infantry. No blame can be attached to the officers and men of the artillery service participating in this fearful battle. They did their work nobly.


Taking into consideration the facts referred to in this paper, nearly all of which are from the official records, it will be seen that it was no vain boast of General Lee when he said of "Pickett's charge": "If they had been supported, as they were to have been, we would have held the position, and the day would have been ours.'

It is perfectly apparent that General Lee attributed the defeat of Pickett solely to the failure of the batteries to advance as ordered; aud it is equally certain that had the General been informed of the fact that the supply of ammunition was exhaused, the advance would not have been made at all.

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