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menced or preparations made as aforesaid; and in all cases where such hostilities shall be commenced or treaty made, the said governor-general and council shall, by the most expeditious means they can devise, communicate the same unto the said court of directors, together with a full state of the information and intelligence upon which they shall have commenced such hostilities or made such treaties, and their motives and reasons for the same at large."

It is the first act of the kind that ever was made in this kingdom, the first statute, I believe, that ever was made by the legislature of any nation upon the subject, and it was made solely upon the resolutions to which we had come against the violent, intemperate, unjust, and perfidious acts of this man at your lordships' bar, and which acts are now produced before your lordships as merits.

To show further to your lordships, how necessary this act was, here is a part of his own correspondence, the last thing I shall beg to read to your lordships, and upon which I shall make no other comment, than that you will learn from it how well British faith was kept by this man; and that it was the violation of British faith, which prevented our having the most advantageous peace, and brought on all the calamities of war.

It is part of a letter from the minister of the rajah of Berar, a man called Beneram Pundit, with whom Mr. Hastings was at the time treating for a peace; and he tells him why he might have had peace at that time, and why he had it not; and that the cause of it was his own ridiculous and even buffoonish perfidiousness, which exposed him to the ridicule of all the princes of India, and with him the whole British nation.

"But afterwards reflecting that it was not advisable for me to be in such haste, before I had understood all the contents of the papers; I opened them in the presence of the Maha rajah, when all the Kharetas letter, copies, and treaties,

were perused with the greatest attention and care. First, they convinced us of your great truth and sincerity, and that you never, from the beginning to this time, were inclined to the present disputes and hostilities; and next, that you have not included in the articles of the treaty, any of your wishes or inclinations, and, in short, the garden of the treaty appeared to us, in all its parts, green and flourishing. But though the fruits of it were excellent, yet they appeared different from those of Colonel Upton's treaty, (the particulars of which have frequently written to you,) and upon tasting them, proved to be bitter and very different, when compared to the former articles. How can any of the old and established obligations be omitted, and new matters agreed to, which it is plain that they will produce and damage? Some points which you have mentioned, under the plea of the faith and observance of treaties, are of such a nature, that the Poonah ministers can never assent to them; in all engagements and important transactions, in which the words but, and although, and besides, and whereas, and why, and other such words of doubt are introduced, it gives an opening to disputes and misunderstandings. A treaty is meant for the entire removal of all differences, not for the increase of them. My departure for Poonah has therefore been delayed." My lords, consider to what ironies and insults this nation was exposed, and how necessary it was for us to originate that bill, which your lordships passed into an act of parliament, with his majesty's assent; the words but, although, besides, whereas, and why, and such like are introduced to give an opening, and so on. Then he desires him to send another treaty, fit for him to sign.

"I have therefore kept the treaty with the greatest care and caution in my possession, and have taken a copy of it; I have added to each article another, which appeared to me proper and advisable; and without any loss or disadvantage to the English, or any thing more in favor of the Pundit

This I

Purdhaun than was contained in the former treaties.
have sent to you, and hope that you will prepare and send a
treaty conformable to that, without any besides, or if, or why,
or but, and whereas, that as soon as it arrives, I may depart
for Poonah, and having united with me Row Mahadajee
Scindia, and having brought over the nabob, Nizam ul Dow-
lah, to this business, I may settle and adjust all matters which
are in this bad situation. As soon as I have received my
dismission from thence, I would set off for Calcutta, and rep-
resent to you every thing, which for a long while I have had
in my mind, and by this transaction erect to the view of all
the world the standard of the greatness and goodness of the
English, and of my masters, and extinguish the flames of
war with the waters of friendship. The compassing all
those advantages and happy prospects depends entirely upon
your will and consent; and the power of bringing them to
an issue is in your hands alone."

My lords, you may here see the necessity there was for passing the act of parliament, which I have just read to you, in order to prevent in future the recurrence of that want of faith, of which Mr. Hastings had been so notoriously guilty, and by which he had not only united all India against us, and had hindered us from making, for a long time, any peace at all, but had exposed the British character to the irony, scorn, derision, and insult of the whole people of that vast continent.

My lords, in the progress of this impeachment, you have heard our charges; you have heard the prisoner's plea of merits; you have heard our observations on them. In the progress of this impeachment, you have seen the condition in which Mr. Hastings received Benares; you have seen the condition in which Mr. Hastings received the country of the Rohillas; you have seen the condition in which he received the country of Oude; you have seen the condition in which he received the provinces of Bengal; you have seen the

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condition of the country when the native government was succeeded by that of Mr. Hastings; you have seen the happiness and prosperity of all its inhabitants, from those of the highest to those of the lowest rank. My lords, you have seen the very reverse of all this under the government of Mr. Hastings; the country itself, all its beauty and glory ending in a jungle for wild beasts. You have seen flourishing families reduced to implore that pity, which the poorest man and the meanest situation might very well call for. You have seen whole nations in the mass reduced to a condition of the same distress. These things in his government at home abroad, scorn, contempt, and derision cast upon and covering the British name; war stirred up, and dishonorable treaties of peace made, by the total prostitution of British faith. Now take, my lords, together all the multiplied delinquencies which we have proved, from the highest degree of tyranny to the lowest degree of sharping and cheating, and then judge, my lords, whether the House of Commons could rest for one moment, without bringing these matters, which have baffled all legislation at various times, before you, to try at last what judgment will do. Judgment is what gives force, effect, and vigor to laws; laws without judgment are contemptible and ridiculous; we had better have no laws, than laws not enforced by judgments, and suitable penalties upon delinquents. Revert, my lords, to all the sentences which have heretofore been passed by this high court. Look at the sentence passed upon Lord Bacon; look at the sentence passed upon Lord Macclesfield, and then compare the sentences, which your ancestors have given, with the delinquencies which were then before them, and you have the measure to be taken in your sentence upon the delinquent now before you. Your sentence, I say, will be measured according to that rule which ought to direct the judgment of all courts in like cases, lessening it for a lesser offence, and aggravating it for a greater, until the measure of justice is completely full.

My lords, I have done; the part of the Commons is concluded. With a trembling solicitude we consign this product of our long, long labors, to your charge. Take it !-take it! It is a sacred trust. Never before was a cause of such magnitude submitted to any human tribunal.

My lords, at this awful close, in the name of the Commons, and surrounded by them, I attest the retiring, I attest the advancing generations, between which, as a link in the great chain of eternal order, we stand.-We call this nation, we call the world to witness, that the Commons have shrunk from no labor; that we have been guilty of no prevarication ; that we have made no compromise with crime; that we have not feared any odium whatsoever, in the long warfare which we have carried on with the crimes-with the vices-with the exorbitant wealth-with the enormous and overpowering influence of Eastern corruption. This war, my lords, we have waged for twenty-two years, and the conflict has been fought at your lordships' bar for the last seven years. My lords, twenty-two years is a great space in the scale of the life of man; it is no inconsiderable space in the history of a great nation. A business, which has so long occupied the councils and the tribunals of Great Britain, cannot possibly be huddled over in the course of vulgar, trite, and transitory events. Nothing but some of those great revolutions, that break the traditionary chain of human memory, and alter the very face of nature itself, can possibly obscure it. My lords, we are all elevated to a degree of importance by it; the meanest of us will, by means of it, more or less, become the concern of posterity; if we are yet to hope for such a thing in the present state of the world, as a recording, retrospective, civilized posterity; but this is in the hands of the great Disposer of events; it is not ours to settle how it shall be. My lords, your House yet stands; it stands as a great edifice; but let me say, that it stands in the midst of ruins; in the midst of the ruins, that have been made by the greatest moral earthquake that ever convulsed and shat

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