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He says, my lords, that Cheit Sing might have resisted, and that if he had not been there, the rajah might have fled with his money; or raised a rebellion for the purpose of avoiding payment. Why then, we ask, did he not send an army? We ask, whether Mr. Markham, with an army under the command of Colonel Popham, or Mr. Fowke, or any other resident, was not much more likely to exact a great sum of money than Mr. Hastings without an army? My lords, the answer must be in the affirmative; it is therefore evident, that no necessity could exist for his presence, and that his presence and conduct occasioned his being defeated in this matter.

We find this man armed with an illegal commission, undertaking an enterprise which he has since said was perilous; which proved to be perilous, and in which, as he has told us himself, the existence of the British empire in India was involved. The talisman, (your lordships will remember his use of the word,) that charm which kept all India in order; which kept mighty and warlike nations under the government of a few Englishmen, would, I verily believe have been broken for ever, if he, or any other governor-general, good or bad, had been killed. Infinite mischiefs would have followed such an event. The situation in which he placed himself, by his own misconduct, was pregnant with danger; and he put himself in the way of that danger, without having any armed force worth mentioning; although he has acknowledged that Cheit Sing had then an immense force. In fact the demand of two thousand cavalry proves that he considered the rajah's army to be formidable: yet, notwithstanding this, with four companies of sepoys, poorly armed and ill-provisioned, he went to invade that fine country, and to force from its sovereign a sum of money, the payment of which he had reason to think would be resisted. He thus rashly hazarded his own being, and the being of all his people.

But, says he, "I did not imagine the rajah intended to go into rebellion, and therefore went unarmed." Why then was his presence necessary? why did he not send an order from

Calcutta for the payment of the money? But what did he do when he got there? "I was alarmed," says he, "for the rajah surrounded my budgerow with two thousand men— that indicated a hostile disposition." Well, if he did So, what precaution did Mr. Hastings take for his own safety? Why none, my lords, none; he must therefore have been either a madman, a fool, or a determined declarer of falsehood. Either he thought there was no danger, and therefore no occasion for providing against it, or he was the worst of governors; the most culpably improvident of his personal safety, of the lives of his officers and men, and of his country's honor.

The demand of £500,000 was a thing likely to irritate the rajah and to create resistance. In fact he confesses this. Mr. Markham and he had a discourse upon that subject, and agreed to arrest the rajah, because they thought the enforcing this demand might drive him to his forts, and excite a rebellion in the country. He therefore knew there was danger to be apprehended from this act of violence; and yet knowing this, he sent one unarmed resident to give the orders, and four unarmed companies of sepoys to support him. He provokes the people; he goads them with every kind of insult, added to every kind of injury, and then rushes into the very jaws of danger, provoking a formidable foe by the display of a puny, insignificant force.

In expectation of danger, he seized the person of the rajah, and he pretends that the rajah suffered no disgrace from his arrest. But, my lords, we have proved, what was stated by the rajah, and was well known to Mr. Hastings, that to imprison a person of elevated station, in that country, is to subject him to the highest dishonor and disgrace; and would make the person so imprisoned utterly unfit to execute the functions of government ever after.

I have now to state to your lordships a transaction, which is worse than his wantonly playing with the safety of the company, worse than his exacting sums of money by fraud and violence. My lords, the history of this transaction must

be prefaced, by describing to your lordships the duty and privileges attached to the office of naib. A naib is an officer well known in India, as the administrator of the affairs of any government, whenever the authority of the regular holder is suspended. But although the naib acts only as a deputy, yet, when the power of the principal is totally superseded, as by imprisonment or otherwise, and that of the naib is substituted, he becomes the actual sovereign, and the principal is reduced to a mere pensioner. I am now to show your lordships whom Mr. Hastings appointed as naib to the government of the country, after he had imprisoned the rajah.

Cheit Sing had given him to understand through Mr. Markham, that he was aware of the design of suspending him, and of placing his government in the hands of a naib whom he greatly dreaded. This person was called Oossaun Sing; he was a remote relation of the family, and an object of their peculiar suspicion and terror. The moment Cheit Sing was arrested, he found that his prophetic soul spoke truly; for Mr. Hastings actually appointed this very man to be his master. And who was this man? We are told by Mr. Markham, in his evidence here, that he was a man who had dishonored his family; he was the disgrace of his house; that he was a person who could not be trusted; and Mr. Hastings, in giving Mr. Markham full power afterwards to appoint naibs, expressly excepted this Oossaun Sing from all trust whatever, as a person totally unworthy of it. Yet this Oossaun Sing, the disgrace and calamity of his family, an incestuous adulterer, and a supposed issue of a guilty connection, was declared naib. Yes, my lords, this degraded, this wicked and flagitious character, the rajah's avowed enemy, was, in order to heighten the rajah's disgrace, to embitter his ruin, to make destruction itself dishonorable as well as destructive, appointed this naib. Thus, when Mr. Hastings had imprisoned the rajah in the face of his subjects, and in the face of all India, without fixing any term for the duration of his imprisonment, he delivered up the country to a

man whom he knew to be utterly undeserving; a man whom he kept in view for the purpose of frightening the rajah, and whom he was obliged to depose on account of his misconduct, almost as soon as he had named him; and to exclude specially from all kind of trust. We have heard of much tyranny, avarice, and insult in the world, but such an instance of tyranny, avarice, and insult combined has never before been exhibited.

We are now come to the last scene of this flagitious transaction. When Mr. Hastings imprisoned the rajah, he did not renew his demand for the £500,000; but he exhibited a regular charge of various pretended delinquencies against him, digested into heads, and he called on him, in a dilatory, irregular way of proceeding, for an answer. The man, under every difficulty and every distress, gave an answer to every particular of the charge, as exact and punctilious as could have been made to articles of impeachment in this House.

I must here request your lordships to consider the order of these proceedings. Mr. Hastings, having determined upon the utter ruin and destruction of this unfortunate prince, endeavored by the arrest of his person, by a contemptuous disregard to his submissive applications, by the appointment of a deputy, who was personally odious to him, and by the terror of still greater insults, he endeavored, I say, to goad him on to the commision of some acts of resistance, sufficient to give a color of justice to that last dreadful extremity, to which he had resolved to carry his malignant rapacity. Failing in this wicked project, and studiously avoiding the declaration of any terms upon which the rajah might redeem himself from these violent proceedings, he next declared his intention of seizing his forts, the depository of his victim's honor, and of the means of his subsistence. He required him to deliver up his accounts and accountants, together with all persons who were acquainted with the particulars of his effects and treasures, for the purpose of transferring those effects to such persons as he (Mr. Hastings) chose to nominate.

It was at this crisis of aggravated insult and brutality, that the indignation, which these proceedings had occasioned in the breasts of the rajah's subjects, burst out into an open flame. The rajah had retired to the last refuge of the afflicted, to offer up prayers to his God and our God, when a vile chubdar or tipstaff came to interrupt and insult him. His alarmed and loyal subjects felt for a beloved sovereign that deep interest which we should all feel if our sovereign were so treated. What man with a spark of loyalty in his breast,—what man regardful of the honor of his country, when he saw his sovereign imprisoned, and so notorious a wretch appointed his deputy, could be a patient witness of such wrongs? The subjects of this unfortunate prince did what we should have done; what all, who love their country, who love their liberty, who love their laws, who love their property, who love their sovereign, would have done on such an occasion. They looked upon him as their sovereign, although degraded. They were unacquainted with any authority superior to his, and the phantom of tyranny, which performed these oppressive acts, was unaccompanied by that force, which justifies submission, by affording the plea of necessity. An unseen tyrant, and four miserable companies of sepoys, executed all the horrible things that we have mentioned. The spirit of the rajah's subjects was roused by their wrongs, and encouraged by the contemptible weakness of their oppressors. The whole country rose up in rebellion, and surely in justifiable rebellion. Every writer on the law of nations ;-every man that has written, thought, or felt upon the affairs of government, must write, know, think, and feel, that a people so cruelly scourged and oppressed, both in the person of their chief and in their own persons, were justified in their resistance. They were roused to vengeance, and a short but most bloody war followed.

We charge the prisoner at your bar with all the consequences of this war. We charge him with the murder of our sepoys, whom he sent unarmed to such a dangerous enter

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