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mate and nomadic habits at a very early period, antedating the greatness of the empires of Egypt and Assyria, assumed that peculiar type which characterized the ancient Scythians, and which marks their modern descendants” (p. 211). Without difficulty he solves such problems as have long puzzled scientific men. The views held by the author lead to the conclusion that he had been a devoted reader of Judge Haywood's “ Aborigi: al History of Tennessee." Among the uninformed, Fontaine's work is calculated to do more harm than good.

The best hand book on United States Archæology is “ PreHistoric Races.” 20 By both inclination and education, Dr.

' Foster was fully prepared for his undertaking. Parts of the work indicate haste in the preparation, for here and there errors of fact have crept in, which seem to be unaccountable in one so well informed. The twelve chapters respectively treat of the subject under the following heads : Antiquity of man in Europe ; same in United States; geographical distribution of mound-builders' works; same of shell-banks; mounds and enclosures; mound-builder arts and manufactures ; ancient mining ; crania ; manners and customs; who were the moundbuilders ; unity of the human race, and chronometric measurements as applied to the antiquity of man. Dr. Foster clearly establishes, as others before had done, that the moundbuilders were not Indians, and “ a broad chasm is to be spanned before we can link the mound-builders to the North American Indian."

“ The Antiquities of the Southern Indians” 21 is a monument more enduring to the name of its author than that of marble or metal. Although Col. Jones is somewhat of a voluminous writer, this is his one great work, occupying a neglected field. The work finds a hearty welcome in the library of both the archæologist and the student of American history. It aims at completeness, and however much

20 Pre-Historic Races of the United States of America. By J. W. Foster, LL.D. Third Edition. Chicago: S. C. Griggs & Co. 1874. pp. 415. 72 illustrations.

21 Antiquities of the Southern Indians, Particularly of the Georgia Tribes. By C. C. Jones, Jr. New York: D. Appleton & Co. 1873. pp. 632. 30 plates and 3 woodcuts.

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one may disagree with certain statements, he cannot help but feel that the author fulfilled his expectations, and performed an acceptable service. In all the standard archæological works, it has been conceded that the mound-builders were different from, and in every way superior to, the Indian. Col. Jones dissents from the standard publications, for he declares that he does “not concur in the opinion, so often expressed, that the moud-builders were a race distinct from and superior in art, government and religion, to the Southern Indians of the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries.” In the first nine chapters are admirable descriptions of the various mounds in Georgia. Chapters ten to twenty-two inclusive enumerate and describe the relics found in the graves, mounds, and on the surface. From what has already been stated, it might be well inferred that he does not draw a distinction between the moundbuilder and Indian relics. It is to be regretted that the mechanical skill exhibited in the plates is not in keeping with the book in general. Works of this kind are worthy to be embellished with fine engravings.

The “ Manual of the Antiquity of Man ” 22 was published November, 1875, and, although designed as a ready reference to the evidences of the antiquity of the human race, yet it devotes a chapter to American Antiquities, giving a brief summary of prehistoric discoveries, including the mound-builders. Jeffries Wyman's “ Fresh-Water Shell Mounds of the St.

" John's River, Florida,” appeared December, 1875. It contains 94 pages, and is illustrated with a map and nine plates. It is a valuable contribution, and the record of personal observations on the part of its author. He concludes that the building of the shell-mounds“ extended through very long periods of time, and were the result of very slow accumulation, or that the shells existed formerly in much greater quantities than now.” In the excavations he found but few stone implements, fragments of pottery wanting in the older, but existing in the later mounds.23

22 A Manual of the Antiquity of Man. By J. P. MacLean. Eighth edition. Cincinnati: Robert Clarke & Co. 1879. pp. 159. 19 illustrations. Price $1.00.

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Bancroft's " Native Races," 24 although of very recent publication, is a standard work and a cyclopædia of facts concerning the races of the Pacific coast. The author had unusual advantages in the preparation of his work, and, notwithstanding this fact, it is a little remarkable that one man should have been able to perform so much, even under such farorable circumstances. The work is not devoted to remains in the United States territory, yet the races of Mexico and Central America are so interwoven with those of the North that the study of one has relation to that of the other. Volume II. treats of cirilized nations prior to the advent of the white man, recording the condition of the Nahuas, Aztecs. &c.; volume III. treats of myths and languages together with their religion, while volume IV. is devoted to antiquities, although only two chapters relate to the United States, constituting inquiries into the remains of the Northwest, i. e , those of Colorado, Utalı, Nevada, Oregon and Washington, and California. Chapter thirteen gives a summary of the earth-works of the Middle or Central States, using such illustrations as have frequently appeared in other books. Volume V. considers the Toltec, Chichimec, and Aztec periods. In tracing the affinities or intimate relations between these and the Northern tribes, Mr. Bancroft has furnished material of intrinsic value to the ethnologist.

". The Archæological Collection ” 25 is a descriptive and 23 It should here be noticed that in the American Naturalist for October and November, 1868, Dr. Wyman had a memoir on the same subject which formed the basis of the above contribution. In the same journal for January of the same year, Dr. Wyman has a contribution accompanied by two plates and two wood-cuts, on the shellheaps of Maine and Massachusetts. In the Smithsonian Report, 1864, Dr. Rau gives an account of a shell-heap at Keyport, New Jerser. Brinton reviews artificial shellheaps in Report for 1866. In Report for 1873, Paul Schumaker gives an account of shell-beaps on our Northwest Coast, and in Report for 1874, treats of those of California. Very brief accounts of shell-heaps on Mobile River, and at the mouth of the St. John's are given in Report for 1877. These fugitive articles possess much value, as the literature on shell-heaps in this country is very limited.

24 The Native Races of the Pacific States of North America. By Herbert Howe Bancroft. 5 vols. New York: D. Appleton & Co. 1874-1876. Whole number

pages 4001.

25 The Archæological Collection of the United States National Museum, in charge of the Smithsonian Institution, Washington, D. C. By Charles Rau, Washington City: Published by the Smithsonian Institution. 1876. pp. 104.

340 figures.

illustrated account of prehistoric relics in possession of the Smithsonian Institution. The work is divided into seven parts, respectively treating implements and ornaments of stone ; of copper ; of bone and horn ; of shells ; of clay ; of wood, and the manner of hasting stone and bone implements. The principal value of the contribution consists in naming and pointing out the use of the many varieties of relics.

The Antiquities of Tennessee > gives the results of a very extended investigation, during the years 1868–69, into the ancient remains of that State. The author aimed to give an accurate description of the aboriginal remains, together with a collection and classification of such facts as bore on their obscure history. Burial caves, stone graves, mounds, fortifications and relics from the mounds are fully treated. Learned memoirs of this kind are always welcome ; archæologists will not pass this contribution by, for it creats of a country where the mound-builders are supposed to have sojourned for a considerable length of time.

Part two of the “ Ohio Centennial Report " 27 treats of antiquities within that State. As that State contains so many ruins, the exhibit is very meagre and not what it should have been by any means.

However the illustrations with the accompanying comments form a very valuable addition to our kvowl. edge of American Archæology.

Hayden's “Tenth Annual Report " % is one of great value both to the archæologist and ethnologist. Its illustrations are

. superior. It is rich in facts regarding ancient ruins in Colorado and New Mexico. The part devoted to anthropology is

26 Explorations of the Aboriginal remains of Tennessee. By Joseph Jones, M. D. Washington City: Published by the Smithsonian Institution. 1676. pp. 171. figures.

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27 Final Report of the Ohio State Board of Centennial Managers to the General Agsembly of the State of Ohio. Columbus: Sevins & Myers, State Printers. 1877. pp. 167. Illustra.ions pertaining to antiquities 21. Plates 15.

28 Tenth Annual Report of the United States Geological and Geographical Survey of the Territories, embracing Colorado and parts of adjacent Territories, being a Report of Progress of the Exploration for the year 1876. By F. V. Haydlen, United States Geologist. Conducted under the author ty of the Secretary of the Interior. Washington: Government Printing Office. 1578. pp. relatir g to archæology 96. Plates

One large Map

49.

given in three memoirs. The first is a report on the ruins of Southwestern Colorado, examined, during the summers of 1875 and 1876, by W. H. H. Holmes, the second a report of áncient ruins made by W. H. Jackson in 1875 and 1877, and the last is a report on the Chaco craniun, by Dr. W. J. Hoffnian. The plates illustrate the ancient houses, implements, &c. Dr. Hoffman gives four views of a cranium found near the ruins at Chaco canon.

If this cranium is a fair representative of the Clif-Dwellers, then the hypothesis that these people were the ancestors of the moud-builders falls to the ground. While craniology, comparatively speaking, is in its infancy, yet there is enough divergence here to establish two well marked types of mankind.

" Foot-Prints of Vanished Races” 29 was published during the summer of 1879. The title-page is descriptive of the con tents of the work. It is of more than ordinary value, besides

, occupying a field comparatively new. Facts and theories are here stated well worthy of serious attention. The memoir was first published in a voluminous work entitled, “ The Commonwealth of Missouri,” but the demand for it being so great caused the author to reprint an edition from the original plates.

“ The Mound Builders ” 30 was published Oct. 15th, 1879. This work is wholly devoted to a treatise on the mound-builder's. It is divided into two parts, the first giving all that is known concerning the people who built the ancient monuments together with descriptions of their mounds, enclosures, and works of art. The twelve chapters treat of the following Bulujects : defensive and sacred enclosures, mounds, works of art, mining, advancement in the sciences, tablets, frauds perpetrated, civilization, antiquity, who were, and what became

29 Foot-Prints of Vanished Races in the Mississippi Valley: Being an account of some of the monuments and relics of Pre-Historic Races scattered over its surface, with suggestions as to their origin and uses. By A. J. Conant, A. M. St. Louis : Cnar.ey R. Barnes. 1879. pp. 122. 44 wood-cuts.

80 The Mound-Builders; Peing an Account of a Remarkable People that once inbabited 'the Valleys of the Ohio and Missippi, together with an investigation into the Archæology of Butler County, 0. By J. P. MacLean. Illustrated with over one hundrud figures. Cincinnati: Robert Clarke & Co. 1879. 233 pp. Map. Price, $1.50. NEW EEBIES VOL XVIII

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