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APPLICATION OF THE LOGIC OF HISTORY.

virtuous actions from the oblivion to which a want of re

CHAPTER I.

burning on the ruins of their historical altars.

The history of those nations--their rise, proEFFECTS OF ANCIENT SLAVERY AGITATION, ETC.

gress and melancholy downfull, is full of warnApplication of the “Logic of History"_Effect of Earlying to us. The First, Second, Third, Fourth

Slavery Agitation-Slavery in Ancient Times--Slavery and Fifth, speak to the Nineteenth century Agitation in Rome-Its Terrible Effects: Agitation the in no dead or equivocal language. Rome, and her Dependencies Destroyed by Slavery Agitation from her gory grave of national oblivion, speaks The Agitation in France-Bloody Effects of , in St. Do- in thunder tones to America.

The once mingo-BRISSOT, and other French Abolitionists, stir up proud, erudite and far famed, though now althe “ Irrepressible Conflict”-A Servile Insurrection

most fossilized Athens, hails us through the Ensues--Napoleon Issues a “Proclamation of Freedom” -Terrible Disasters follow the same-A French Army loud trumpet of history, and bids us beware Destroyed--Servile Insurrection in St. Domingo-GIB- the breakers on which ambition wrecked her BON, the Historian, on the Character of the Negro: their greatness and glory. Heroic, historic and lean, on the “Cause" in the West Indies–Statistics of gendary Greece, warns us from her grave of St. Domingo-The Sublime Teachings of History. woe, to beware of Macedonian and Pelopo

nessian strifes. The chivalrous Cato, from the

suicide's sepulchre, will act our monitor against “WE CANNOT ESCAPE HISTORY."- Message of A. Lincoln.

the insidious agitations of Abolition GRACOH

USES, CRASSUSES and EUNUSES. The arts This I hold to be the chief office of history:-To rescue

and sciences, now locked in the secret hecacords would consign them, and that men should feel a dread tombs of early oriental greatness, all admonish of being considered infamous in the opinions of posterity, us to study and profit by the teachings and logfor their depraved expressions and base actions.-- Tacitus. ic of history.

It is said that history is like a lantern placed The writer hereof, having devoted much time at the stern of a ship to show the course it has for many years to the culling out and filing pursued, whereas it should be placed at the away, such scraps of history as prophetic calbow to indicate the track it is pursuing, and to

and to culation (so to speak) induced him to believe shed the light of its rays on the rocks on which would sooner or later be useful in'a crisis, that others have been wrecked. And herein all na

the least observing must have known years ago tions of every age have failed to profit by the would inevitably overtake our people, will relight of past history. They place that light at gard himself amply compensated for the time the wrong end of the ship of State. It will be which the within historical collation has rethe object of this publication to place the light quired, if the same shall in the least degree of history where it should be, as a beacon of serve to direct popular attention to a long train warning on our onward course, through the of evils now threatening the life of this nation, dangerous Archipelago of the living present, and which are so ineffacably chisseled in the and by a proper analogy to guide our tempest- milestones that mark the great highway of natossed barque so as to shun the dangers of the tions, that he who runs may read, and he who unknown future.

reads without criminal prejudice, may learn a Happily, we are not confined to the immedi- lesson of more value than the gold of Eldorado. ate past for analogies to illustraté our present THE SLAVERY AGITATION-ITS CONSEQUENCES condition, as a nation, but we are permitted to read our most probable fate by the light which

Mr. LINCOLN tells us that we cannot escape ancient Greece, Athens and Rome, have left history. This shows that he has at least read

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EFFECT OF EARLY SLAVERY AGITATION.

SLAVERY AGITATION IN ROME.

enough of the history of ancient and modern Rome,.

20,000,000

20,000,000 nations to learn one fact; that as no nation France,

Germany,

22,000,000 ever did escape its own history, ours will cling Hungary,

4,000,000 to us with equal tenacity: In this, and the italy,

10,000,000 subsequent chapters, it will not be so much our

Spain and Portugal,

8,000,000 Great Britain,

8,000,000 object to present original propositions as it will

European Russia,

12,000,000 be to collate and spread out before our readers | Poland,

6,000,000 the logic and argument of history, and we shall

Greece and Turkey

6,000,000

Sweeden,.. endeavor to avoid all verbiage except so far Denmark and Norway,

4,000,000

3,000,000 as may be necessary to present the various facts, | Low Countries,

4,000,000 sayings, doings and historical reminiscenses, [ Sve Voltaire de Histoire Generale. in such manner as to present the aims and pur

In those days white men were held as slaves, poses of the vast array of witnesses we shall and not till long after were Ethiopeans brought place on their voir dire.

to Roman servitude. The Roman law regulaIt has of late been a stereotyped phrase that ting slavery was in a great measure borrowed slavery is the cause of this war, " but such from the Hebrew code, modified to suit the

spirit of the age. It gave power to the master tators. So far as our observation and belief

over the life and limb of his slaves, and the go, such is in no sense the truth of history.- utmost rigor prevailed. The Romans and their The agitation of the slavery question is no neighbors were continually at war, “nor did doubt the principal pretext, and without ques. they agree to cartels for the exchange of pristion has furnished the main pabulum on which

All prisoners became slaves by the intreason has fed and waxed strong, but as we

exorable laws of war, and were held either by proceed it will be seen that the real cause has

the state under the system of Roman helotry, or more to feed it than slavery, or even its agita, by citizens who purchased from the state. Not tion; but before we proceed to that "count” unfrequently citizens, as under the old Levitilet us take observation of the

cal law, voluntarily surrendered themselves as slaves, to escape the consequences of want and

destitution. It will be neither our purpose to show that slavery is, or ever was, right or wrong. but barely to present the light of historical facts, leaving the reader to form his own conclusions.

Slavery was no doubt a monster political

-a thousand from the remotest periods of sacred and pro- nations of the present age. Romans, Grecians Slavery has existed, under various phases, evil in the Roman Commonwealth

fold more so than any system known to civilized fane history. In the 17th chap. of Genesis, v. 12, 13, 23 and 27, the fact that Abraham bought and Athenians enslaved their equals, and fremen with his money is four times recognized. quently their intellectual superiors; and at one Verse 12 is represented to be in the language time, history tells us, every twelfth person in of God, Himself, speaking to ABRAHAM, viz.:

the realm either was, or had been a slave.

The evil, great as it was, could no doubt have And he that is eight days old shall be circumcised | been borne, until God, in his own way, should among you, every man child in your generations; he that is born in the house, or bought with money of any

have wrought its extinction or amelioration, stranger, which is not of thy seed.

far better than the dreadful consequences that

followed in the wake of its political agitation. In the 24th chap. 35th v., man and maid ser.

In those days, philanthropy, whether propvants are mentioned among the blessings which erly or improperly directed, as it has been God had bestowed upon ABRAHAM:

ever since, tried to force its growth by hot-bed And the Lord hath blessed my master (ABRAHAM) stimulants, and while good men, no doubt, greatly, and he is become great, and He has given him Hocks and herds, and silver and gold, and man servants, just and pure motives, yet it requires a very

were prompted to assail the institution from and maid servants, and camels and asses.

little attention to the logic of history" to see From the 14th chap. and 14th verse it ap- that the moment the agitation became popular, pears that ABRAHAM had three hundred and

as it did under the insipient agitations of eighteen "trained servants, born in his house. Gracchus, by which he was called to the TriThe 21st chap. of Exodus, the 25th chap. of Le bunate, it attracted the legions of political viticus and the 25th chap. of Deuteromony re- demagogues and vampyres, who, from no better cognize slavery and the buying of slaves, &c. motive than to obtain power and plunder, conSlavery is also recognized by PAUL in 1st Co- trive to float upon the surface of any move that rinthians, and in the 6th chap. of the Ephe promises popular favor. tians, the 6th chap. 'of PAUL'S 1st Epistle to GRACCHUS was no doubt originally governed TIMOTHY, in the 3d and 4th chapters of his by philanthropic motives. He struck at the Epistles to the Collossians, in chap. 24 of his evil in its national capacity, and at first urged Epistle to TITUS, in the 1st Epistle of PETER, measures of a humane and national character. the Epistle of Paul to PHILEMON, &c.

He neither denounced individual slave-holdSLAVERY IN TIE TIME OF CLAUDIUS.

ers as guilty of the "sum of all villainy," nor

threatened to confiscate their property. Hence, The following table exhibits the great num- although standing forth as the avowed enemy ber of slaves held in an early period :

of the system, he became the favorite of the

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The laws of GRACCHUS cut the Patricians with a double

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slaveholders, who elected him Chief of the sons were butchered in this 65 worse than CarTribunes. But the moment he had a taste of thagenian war.' EUNUS failed in his abolition power, he inaugurated a political agitation-purposes, and the slaves, whom he had promisthreatened to "force emancipation, speedily ed liberty they were not prepared to enjoy, in and without recourse”-and called around the language of the same author, “committed him some of the best talent, yet most ambitious one universal suicide!") men of Rome. GRACCHUS was to Rome what The tragic sequel of this Sicilian insurrecCHARLES SUMNER is to America-an eloquent tion did not deter others from embarking in the agitator of the slavery question. APPIUS A bolition crusade. TIBERIUS, brother of the CLAUDIUS, his father-in-law, MUTIUS SCÆVO-Tribunate GRACCHUS, organized the Abolition LA, the most famous lawyer of Rome, and party anew, and carried on the contest, he and CRASSUS, the leader of the priesthood, and his successors, until all-masters, helots and the wealthiest man in the Commonwealth, slaves, perished in the general wreck of the were associated with GRACCHUS. Those influ- Empire. ential abolitionists agitated the slavery ques- That the agitation of the slavery question, tion, until it entered into all the petty political and the blending that issue with Roman poliquestions of the day, and until their proselytes tics for the benefit of Roman demagogues, and were counted by legions, and on the scum of to the disparagement of Roman Statesmen, was the excitement floated a large class of dema- the primeval cause of the downfall of that Gov-' gogues and political hucksters, who scrupledernment—that once stretched its power from not at any means to obtain place and power. the Tiber to the Adriatic, is a fact too well auThese selfish plebians and patricians organized thenticated by history to require other accumufor offensive raids on the public exchequer, lative evidence than the admission of Mr. and carried their vile purposes with them to BLAKE himself, who on page 59 of his work such ill extent, that all classes were aroused says: to the highest degree of excitement. An "Irrepressible Conflict' ensued, wbich not only edge. Their fortunes consisted in lands and slaves; it destroyed Rome, and blotted her out from the

questioned their title to the public land, and tended to map of the world, as a nation of power and force emancipation (See American parallel in Lincoln's vitality, but forever blasted the hopes, the hap- Proclamation), by making their slaves a burden. piness and the liberties of slaves, helots and king away the soil (see the parallel of the radical idea of

reducing the states to territories, &c.] it took away the people.

power that kept their live machinery in inotion. The hot blood of party was aroused to a fear- moment was a crisis in the affairs of Rome--such a crisis ful temper, and from that moment Rome began

as hardly occurs to a nation in the progress of many cen

turies (see parallel in the American crisis. ] Men are in to totter to her final fall. GRACCHUS was a the habit of proscribing JULIUS CAESAR as the destroyer of candidate for re-election, on the platform of the Commonwealth. The civil wars, the revolutions of confiscation and emancipation. The excite- | CAESAR, the miserable vicissitudes of the Roman Empe

rors--the avarice of the Nobles and the rabble, the crimes ment is represented as intense. Appeals were of the forum and the palace--all have their germ in the ill made to passions and fanatica! prejudices, and on the day of the election, the phrenzied multitude beat GRACCHUS to death and threw his Here, then, is the admission of the principal body into the Tiber. Three hundred of his abolition historian of this country, that Rome followers perished on the same day.*

was destroyed by the "ill successes of the Many of the measures of GRACCHUS were no slavery agitation. Have we no fear for a like doubt wise and beneficent, and had he not com- result from the same cause on this continent ? mitted the fatal error of linking them with po

President HARRISON, in his inaugural adlitical Abolitionism and Agrarianism, he would dress, in censuring the interference of the nonwithout question have not only saved Rome, slaveholding states, said: but secured lasting fame as a man of good im

It was the ambition of the leading states of Greece, to pulses and great genius.

control the domestic concerns of others, that the destruction Áfter the death of GRACCHUS his followers of that celebrated confederacy, and subsequently of all its canonized him as a “martyr to a glorious members, is mainly to be attributed. cause." Eunus, one of his disciples, undertook the spread of political Abolitionism into Italy and the Island of Sicily. He collected what force he could from the Plebian ranks

France, also, had her abolition societies and distilled the vain hope of sudden freedom into agitators, and the result of the agitation of the ears of the common slaves and the helots, dent of history. We offer no apology for the

this ill omened subject is familiar to the stuas to army of 200,000, armed with scythes, pitch- following copious extracts from ALLISON'S forks, &c., and marched forth, proud in the be- History,

which was written long before the ad

vent of our present troubles, and with no poslief that he was to occupy a high niche in the Pantheon, as the deliverer of the slaves of sible view to aid political ideas or dogmas. Italy and Sicily. Mr. BLAKE, who wrote the For the purpose of the better exhibition of the

parallels with the chain of history! we are “History of Slavery,”? containing 832 pages, a work especially designed for abolition use'in making, and which Mr. LINCOLN truly says we this country, informs us that a million of per- dents in semi-dramatic order, in four acts.

cannot escape, we present the facts and inci* See Blake's History of Slavery.

The period lies between 1791 and 1802:

success of the reform of GRACCHUS.

SLAVERY AGITATION IN FRANCE.

MANDED.

ACT IS THE ABOLITIONISTS AGITATI AND STIR eing the greatest sugar plantation in the world, the

island has been reduced to the necessity of iniporting that UP DISCORD.

valuable produce; and the inhabitants, naked and volup

tuous, are fast receding into the state of nature from The Jacobin abolitionists, in 1791, began the which their ancestors were toru, two centuries ago, by the agitation of the slavery question in the Constit- rapacity of Christian avarice.” uent Assembly. This proved to be a firebrand

ACT II.-MORE FREEDOM TO THE NIGGERS DEas it has been in our Congress. We quote as follows: [ See Allison's Hist. of Europe, vol. i. pp. 120–1.]

As we have seen what came of the effort to ierin "The second catastrophe, more extensive in its opera

free the negroes from bondage, so let us look at tion, yet more terrible in its details, was the revolt of St.

the effect of the Abolition effort to enfranchize Domingo. The slaves in that flourishing colony, agitated the ignorant blacks . We quote from the same by the intelligence which they received of the leveling | history, vol. II, p. 241:: principles of the Constituent Assembly, had early manifested symptoms of insubordination. The Assembly, di- By a decree on March 8, 1790, the Constituent Assembly vided between the desire of enfranchising so large a lody | had empowered each colony belonging to the Republic to of men, and the evident dangers of such a step, had long make known its wishes on the subject of a Constitution, hesitated on the course they should adopt, and were in- and that these wishes should be expressed by colonial asclined to support the rights of the planters. But the pas- semblies, freely elected and recognized by their citizens. sions of the negroes were excited by the efforts of a society This privilege cxcited the most ruinous divisions among styled 'The Society of Friends of Blacks,' (same as our the inhabitants of European descent, already sufficiently Abolitionists,] of which BRISSOT was the leading member ; menaced by the ideas fermenting in the negro population. and the mullattoes were induced, by their injudicious ad- The whites claimed the exclusive right of voting for the vice, to organize an insurrection. They trusted that they election of menībers of this important assembly, while tho would be able to control the ferocity of the slaves even mulattóes strenuously asserted their title to an equal share during the heats of a revolt; they little knew the dissim

in the representation; and the blacks, intoxicated with ulation and cruelty of the savage character. A universal the novel doctrines so keenly discussed by all classes of sorevolt was planned and organized, without the slightest | ciety, secretly formed the project of ridding themselves of suspicion on the part of the planters, and the same night both. This decree of the National Assembly was brought fixed on for its breaking out over the whole island.

out to the island by Lieutenant Colonel OGE, a mulatto “At length, at midnight, on the 30th October, the in- officer in the service of France, who openly proclaimed the surrection broke forth. In an instant twelve hundred opinion of the parent Legislature, that the half-caste and coffee and two hundred sugar plantations were in flames; free negroes were entitled to their full share in the election the buildings, the machinery, the farm offices, reduced to of the representatives. The jealousy of the planters was ashes; the unfortunate proprietors hunted down, murder- immediately excited. They refused to acknowledge the ed or thrown into the flames by the infuriated negroes.- decree of the Assembly,constituted themselves into a sepaThe horrors of a servile war universally appeared. The rate Legislature, and having seized Oge in the Spanish terunchained African signalized his ingenuity by the discov- ritory, put him to death by the torture of the wheel, unery of new and unheard-of modes of torture. An unhap- der circumstances of atrocious cruelty. py planter was sawed asunder between two boards; the “This unpardonable proceeding, as is usually the case horrors inflicted on the women exceeded anything known with such acts of barbarity, aggravated instead of stifling even in the annals of Christian ferocity. The indulgent the prevailing discontents, and the heats of the colony soon master young and old, rich and poor, tho wrongs of an became so vehement that the Constituent Assembly felt oppressed race were indiscriminately wreaked. Crowds the necessity of taking some steps to allay the ferment. of slaves traversed the country with the heads of the The moderate and violent parties in that body took differwhite children affixed on their pikes; they served as the ent sides, and all Europe looked on with anxiety upon a standards of these furious assemblages. Our abolitionists debate so novel in its kind, and fraught with such momenhave endeavored to incite similar outrages in the south.] tous consequences to a large portion of the human race. In a few instances only, the humanity of the negro char- Barnave Målouet, Alexander Lameth, and Clermont Tonacter resisted the savage contagion of the time;. and some nerre strongly argued that men long accustomed to servifaithful slaves, at the hazard of their own lives, fed in tude could not receive the perilous gift of liberty with safem caves their masters or their children, whom they had res- ty either to themselves or others, but by slow degrees, and cued from destruction.

that the effect of suddenly admitting that bright light upon “ The intelligence of these disasters excited an angry a benighted population would be to throw them into inevitdiscussion in the Assembly. Brissot, the most vehement able and fatal convulsions. But Mirabeau, the masteropponent of slavery, ascribed them all to the refusal of the spirit of the Assembly, and the only one of its leaders who blessings of frecdom to the negroes; [precisely as our combined popular principles with a just appreciation of abolitionists ascribe every evil the war and all-to sla- the danger of pushing them to excess, was no more, and very;] the moderato members, to the inflammatory ad- the declamations of Brissot and the Girondists prevailed dresses circulated among them by the Anti-Slavery Soci- over these statesman-like ideas. By a decree on the 15th ety of Paris; [precisely as our abolitionists have ever done, of May, 1791, the privileges of equality were conferred inand are now doing.] At length it was agreed to concede discriminately on all persons of color, born of a free father the political rights for which they contended to the men and mother, of color; and, in consequence of that resolution, St. Do- “Far fron appreciating the hourly increasing dangers mingo obtained the nominal blessings of freedom. ["At of their situation, and endeavoring to form with the new length” came Lincoln's proclamation-a perfect historical citizens an organized body to check the further progress parallel.] But it is not thus that the great changes of of leveling principles, the planters openly endeavored to nature are conducted; a child does not acquire the strength resist this rash decree. Civil war was preparing in this of manhood in an hour, or a tree the consistency of the once peaceful and beautiful colony; arms were collecting; hardy denizens of the forest in a season. The hasty phi- the soldiers, caressed and seduced by both parties, were lanthropists who conferred upon an ignorant slave popu- wavering between their old feelings of legal allegiance lation the precipitate gift of freedoni, did them a greater and the modern influence of intoxicating principles, when injury than their worst enemies. [And our "hasty phi- a new and terrible enemy arose, who speedily extinguished lanthropists, who clamor for immediate abolition, will in blood the discord of his oppressors. On the night of do the slaves here ''more harm than their worst enemies.”] | the 22d of August, the negro revolt, long and secretiy orThe black population remain to this day, in St. Domingo, ganized, at once broke forth, and wrapped the whole a memorable example of the ruinous effect of precipitate Northern part of the colony in flames. JEAN FRANCOIS, a emancipation. Without the steady habits of civilized so- slave of vast, penetrative, firm character, and violent ciety; ignorant of the wants which reconcile to a life of passions, not unmingled with generosity, was the leader *labor; destitute of the support which to a regular govern- of the conspiracy ; his lieutenants were BIASSON and ment might have afforded, they have brought to the du- TOUSSAINT. The former, of gigantic stature, Herculean ties of cultivation the habits of savage life. To the indo- strength and indomitable ferocity, was well fitted to aslence of the negro character they have joined the vices of sert that superiority which such qualities seldom fail to European corruption; profligate, idle, and disorderly, they command in savage times; the latter, gifted with rare inhave declined both in numbers and in happiness; from | telligence, profound dissimulation, boundless ambition,

the waves.

and heroic firmpess, was fitted to become at once the ance which had been accumulating for centuries in the Numa and the Romulus of the sable Republic in the African breast. Neither uge nor sex were spared; the Southern Hemisphere.

young were cut down in striving to defend their houses, the {"This vast conspiracy, productive in the end of calami- aged in the churches where they had fled to implore protecties unparalleled even in the long catalogue of European tion; virgins were immolated on the altar; weeping infants atrocity, had for its objects the total extirpation of the

hurled into the fires. Amid the sbrieks of the sufferers whites, and the establishment of an independent black gov- and the shouts of the victor, the finest city in the West In. errimeat over the whole island."

dies was reduced to ashes; its splendid churches, its state

ly palaces, were wrapped in flames; thirty thousand hu. (Beware of liberty to the blacks, and "ex- man beings perished in the massacre, and the wretched tirpation " of the whites ]

fugitives who had escaped from this scene of horror on board

the ships, were guided in their passage over the deep by We quote as follows from the same Act, the prodigious light which arose from their burning habitathough in a different scene, p. 243-3 (1801): tions. They almost all took refuge in the United States,

where they were received with the

most generous hospital“Meanwhile the legislative assembly, which had succed

ity; but the frigate La Fine foundered on the passage, and ed the constituent, a step farther advanced in revolution

five hundred of the survivors from the flanxes perished in ary violence, were preparing ulterior measures of the most frantic character. Irritated at the colonial legisla.

"Thus fell the Queen of the Antilles: the most stately ture for not having followed out their intention, and in

monument of European opulence that had yet arisen in the

New World. Nothing deterred, however, by this unparstigated at the populace, whom the offorts of Brissot and the Society at Paris, des Amis des Sorris had roused to a

alleled calamity, the commissioners of the Republic purperfect phrensy on the subject, they revoked the decree

sued their frantic career, and, amid the smoking ruins of on the 24th of September preceding, wbich had conferred

the Capital, published a decree, which proclaimed the

freedom of all the blacks (what could more perfectly repsuch ample powers on the colonial legislature, dissolved the assembly at Cape Town, and dispatched three new

resent this case than the President's proclamation, while commissioners, Arthanx, Santionax, and Polverel, with

the rebel armies were thundering at our capital?] who

should enroll themselves under the standards of the Re. unlimited powers to settle the affairs of the colony. In vain Barnaves and the remnant of the constitutional party public; a measure which was 'equivalent to the instant abin the assembly strove to moderate these extravagant pro

olition of slavery over the whole island. Farther resistance ceedings; the violence of the Jacobins bore down ail op

was now hopeless; the Republican authorisies became the position. "Don't talk to us of danger,' said Brissot; 'let

most ardent persecutors of the planters; pursued alike by the colonies perish rather than one principle be abandon

Jacobin phrensy and African vengeance, they fled in deed.' [Don't talk to us, say our Abolition Brissots-let the

spair. Polveral proclaimed the liberty of the blacks in the Union perish rather than abandon our platform. )

West, and Montbrun gave free vent to his hatred of the The proceedings of the new commissioners spoedily colonists, by compelling them to leave Port au Prince, brought matters to a crisis. They arrived first at Port an

which had not yet fallen into the hands of the negroes. Prince, and in conformity with the secret instructions of Everywhere the triumph of the slaves was coinplete, and the government, which were to dislodge the whites from

the authority of the planters forever destroyed. that stronghold, they sent off to France the soldiers of the “But, aithough the liberation of the negroes was affectregiment of Artois, established a Jacobin club, transported ed, the independence of the island was not established. to France or America thirty of the leading planters, and issued a proclamation [aye, aye, a bóproclamation'] in ACT III.NAPOLEON ISSUES AN ABOLITION which they exhorted the colonists "to lay aside at last the

PROCLAMATION. prejudices of color;" Having thus laid the revolutionary train at Port au Prince, they embarked for Cape Town,

In 1801, NAPOLEON, urged on by the Abowhere they arrived in the middle of June. Matters had by this time reached such a height there as indicated the litionists, issued his proclamation abolishing immediate approach of a crisis. The intelligence of the slavery in the Island of St. Domingo, in which executive of the King, and proclamation of a Republic, he called on the brave blacks to remember had roused to the very highest pitch the Democratic passions of all the inferior classes. The planters, with too that France alone had recognized their freegood reason, apprehended that the convention which had dom,' and on November 22, 1801, having apsucceeded the legislative assembly would soon outstrip pointed LE CLERC, his brother-in-law, to the them in violence and put the finishing stroke to their manifold calamities, by at once proclaiming the liberty of the

command of the army about to visit St. Dominslaves, and so destroying the remnant of property which go in order to reduce the recusant TOUSSAINT they still possessed. But their destruction was nearer at to obedience, he issued the following "proclahand than they supposed. On the 20th of June a quarrel (mation" [See p. 245]: accidentally arose between a French naval captain and a mulatto officer in the service of the collonial government; the commissioners ordered them both into their presence,

At St. Domingo, systematic acts have disturbed the po

litical horizon. Únder equivocal appearances, the govwithout regard to the distinction of color, and this excited

ernment has wished to see only the ignorance which conthe highest indignation in the officers of the marine, who landed with their crews to take vengeance for the

indignity obey; but a fleet and an army, which are preparing in the

founds names and things, which usurps when it seeks to done to one of their members. The colonists loudly applauded their conduct, and invoked their aid as the savior

harbours of Europe, will soon dissipate these clouds, and of St. Domingo; the exiles brought from Port au Prince

St. Domingo will be reduced, in whole, to the government fomented the discord as the only

means of effecting their

of the Republic." In the proclamation addressed to the liberation; a civil war speedily ensued in the blockaded blacks, it was announced by the same authority, "Whatcapital, and for two days blood flower in torents in these

ever may be your origin or your colour, you are Frenchinsane contests, between the sailors of the fleet and the

men, and all alike free and equal before God and the Remulatto population.

public. At St. Domingo and Guadaloupe slavery no long"The negro chiefs, secretly informed of all these disor

ger exists-all are free-all shall remain free. At Martinders, resolved to profit by the opportunity of finally de

ique different principles must be observed." stroying the whites thus afforded to them. Three thousand insurgents penetrated through the works stripped of Now here seems on almost exact identity betheir defenders during the general tumult, and making tween NAPOLEON's and Old Abe's proclamastraight for the prisons, delivered a large body of slaves tions, especially the liberating the slaves in who were therein chains. Instantly the liberated captives spread themselves over the town, set it on fire in every

some localities and not in others. quarter, and massacred the unhappy whites when seeking to escape from the conflagration. A scene of matchless horror ensued: twenty thousand negroes broke into the city, and, with the torch in one hand and the sword in the

Here we have the tragedy, with our parallel other spread slaughter and devastation around. Hardly had the strife of the Europeans with each other subsided, close on its heels. when they found themselves overwhelmed by the venge- To show from British abolition sources what

ACT IV.

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