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ALEXANDER STEPHENS SPURNS THE SLAVERY
had nothing real to complain of. It will an- LINCOLN. This was circulated all over the swer our end quite as well for another purpose, North under the franks of Republican members and that is to show, just what we are consider- of Congress, and when BENJAMIN had succeeding, that there has long existed a.party in this ed in electing LINCOLN he seized the event as country bent on the dissolution of the Union. a warrantable pretext to dissolve the Union. The abolitionists furnished them with the He knew that with DOGLAS as Presdient he slavery agitation, which answered their pur- could not use the slavery question as a pretext, pose as a pretext, and that was all they wanted. hence the effort to create a causus beli, and
then take advantage of it. DOUGLAS ON THE "CAUSE."
THE "CAUSE" DATES FROM THE BEGINNING. Said Senator Douglas in the last speech he.
From the beginning there has been a powe ever made:
erful party opposed to our form of government. " I ask you to reflect, and then point out any act that has if the reader will consult Elliott's Debates, been done, any duty that has been omitted to be done of and the "Madison Papers," and make himself which any of these disunionists can justly complain. Yet we are told simply because one party has succeeded in a familiar with the tone of opinion that prevailed Presidential election, therefore they choose to consider that in the National and State Conventions that their liberties are not safe, and therefore they break up formed and adopted our present Constitution,
he will perceive that a powerful minority ex
isted in those days against the principles de*CAUSE."
clared by our Constitution. Mr. Mason was
in favor of "a President for life, his successor ALEXANDER H. STEPHENS, the Vice Presi- being chosen at the same time a Senate for dent over the Southern Confederacy, said, life, &c. Various were the objections to the when the question of Secession was pending Constitution, but most of them arose from local before the people of Georgia:
prejudices and interests. Some members of "What right has the North assailed? What justice has the South Carolina Convention objected to a been demanded? and what claim founded in justice and Union under the Constitution, because it gave right has been withheld? Can either of you name to-day too much commercial advantage to the Northone single act of wrong, deliberately and purposely done by the Governmeut at Washington, of which the South
ern States, while members of the New Eng. can complain. I challenge the answer.
land Conventions were equally opposed because
of certain Southern advantages, among which THE REBEL IVERSON ON THE CAUSE."
was the Fugitive clause, and the three-fifths During the debates in the last Congress be- representation, &c., and in all the debates of fore the several states, except South Carolina, those times the student of history will find a had seceded, Mr. IVERSON, a distinguished marked coincidence between the reasons adSenator from Georgia, in the Senate Chamber, vanced against adopting the Constitution, and said:
those of latter-day politicians against its en“Sir, before the 4th of March, before you inaugurate forcement. It was predicted at the time, by your President, there will be certainly five states, if not those in favor of a strong government," that eight of them, that will be out of the Union and have it would he, just what Beecher says it is, the formed a constitution and form of Government for themYou talk about repealing the per
ófather of troubles." sonal liberty bills as a concession to the South! Repeal them all to-morrow, sir, and it would not stop this revo
THE THREE PARTIES TIIAT FORMED THE CON** Nor do we suppose there will be any overt acts on the part of Mr. Lincoln. For one, I do not dread these overt acts. I do not propose to wait for Mr. CAREY, in his Olive Branch, a work of
* Now, sir, we intend to go out of some 450 pages, published in 1815, says there this Union. I speak what I believe upon this floor, that
were three classes in the National Convenbefore the 4th of March, five of the Southern states, at least, will have declared their independence; and I am
tion that formed our Constitution--the purely 'satisfied that three others of the cotton states that are now Democratic, who had a constant dread of Fedmoving in this matter are not doing it without due con- eral encroachments, and were for gaguing the consideration, We have looked over the field.
power of the General Government to the lowest TRE ELECTION OF LINCOLN NO GCAUSE " scale; a Democratic Republican party, that
desired to invest the Federal Government with Gov. RHETT, in the South Carolina secession just enough power to make it efficient, and no convention, in December, 1860—just after the more; and the Monarchists, "a small but active Presidential election---said:
division,” who utterly repudiated, a Republi"The election of Lincoln was not the cause of secession.
can form of government. This faction ultiDisunion has been a cherished project for the last thirty mately attached themselves to the Federal years."
party Senator TOOMBS, in his Georgia speech, HAMILTON'S "STRONG GOVERNMENT." brought up the old original grievance about Northern commercial advantages.
ALEXANDER HAMILTON, a leading Federal
ist of that day, under date of New York, SepTHE REBEL BENJAMIN TRIED TO CREATE A
tember 16, 1803, in a letter to TIMOTHY PICK'CAUSE."
ERING, Esq., defined his idea of government, Early in 1860 Senator BENJAMIN made a
from which we select the following: speech denouncing DOUGLAS, and eulogizing “ The highest toned propositions which I made in the
Convention were for a President, Senate and Judges during | Massachusetts, in 1786-7, at the very time our good behaviour, though I would have enlarged the legis fathers were deliberating on bringing forth (as lative power of the General Government,
Mr. LINCOLN: said at Gettysburg) the new CAREY pronounces equivalent to "a President for life.-Olive Branch, p. 88.
Government. The pretext for this rebellion
was alledged to be the oppressions of GovEARLY OPPOSITION TO THE CONSTITUTION.
ernment." (All rebellions have their pretexts.) Unfortunately. we have not the full proceed
The Rebellion of 1832. ings of all the conventions that adopted the Constitution, yet we have sufficient to show, by
2d. The South Carolina Rebellion of 1832, speech and vote, that it encountered a gigantic when the oppressive tariff laws? (called by opposition, and, as Mr. MADISON often re
South Carolina, before the constitution, Northmarked, in his voluminous correspondence on
ern commercial advantages) were made to figthe subject, its fate was shrouded in doubt until | ure as the pretext.
ure as the pretext. This Rebellion, though the last moment.
formidable, and enlisting the bitte est passions Rhode Island was ever attached to the mon
of that portion of the South, was principally archial form of government, and refused to confined to the hot-spurs of South Carolina, accredit delegates to the national convention. whose ancestors had opposed the constitution, North Carolina held back for a long while, and and hated our form of government, and who in every State a most determined opposition longed for an opportunity to put in operation was manifest, but at last the Democratic spirit their cherished system of Aristocracy, similar prevailed, and for a time the factious "Charter to that of England, and who held, with the ists” yielded assent. Then, as now, the op- same class hailing from New England, that "a ponents of the constitution opposed it for national debt was a national blessing But, diverse reasons, according to location, but they failing to use this pretext with sufficient success acted together as one man, for the same pur
to arouse armed resistance, the excitement was pose, each granting to the other the right to finally quelled, partly by Old Hickory's firmuse pretexts the most popular in the several sec
ness, and partiy. by Mr. CLAY's compromise tions to which they belonged. The opponents tariff of 1833, and partly, from the. want of a in New England sought the pretext of slavery, disloyal peasantry to back up the malcontents. . and other localized popular ideas, while those
The Great Abolition Rebellion. equally opposed in the South, used the commercial pretext for their opposition, and this
3d. The great Northern rebellion, which parallel of mutual opposition for different and particularly manifested itself in public laws, local reasons, has been kept up to this hour.
(personal liberty bills) inflamatory declama tions and resolves by leading men, which appealed to the people on the pretexts of slavery
aggression,” to resist the laws of Congress and The following shows the test votes on adopt the mandates of the Supreme Court of the U. ing the constitution in the several States S. [ See Charles Sumner's speech at Worcesnamed. We have not the record of the other ter, Aug. 7, 1854, and Wisconsin conspiracy.] States:
This rebellion was formidable and threatening
Yeas. Nays. Ab. to the worst degree. The wealth of the North South Carolina, Massachusetts,
was poured out, free as water, to set in moNew York,
tion a train of circumstances that should "fire Virginia,....
the Northern heart” to resistance, vi et armis, Maryland resolved not to take a vote, and
as was the case in many instances, particularvoted to suppress the records of ayes and noes, but encouraged by their partizans in office and
, and then immediately adjourned. RANDOLPH and Mason, of Virginia, and GERRY, of Mas- out of office, forcibly, and for a long time sucsachusetts, refused to sign the constitution, as
cessfully resisted the laws of Congress and the members of the National Convention; the
decisions of the Court of last resort. [The former, however, finally favored it, and was proofs of these outrages will appear under the charged by PATRICK HENRY with what was
head of "Revolutionary spirit of Republicanakin to bribery.
ism.] This rebellion partially developed itself This opposition to our government has never
between the periods of 1854 and 1860, in which ceased from that day to this, and to weld all
the Sharp's Rifle raid in Kansas, the HELPER
"crisis" and the JOHN BROWN raid formed no the links of our historical chain, we will consider
inconsiderable parts of the general conspiracy. All these and their kindred plots had their
germ in revolutionary guilt, occasionallycropThese, we can but briefly notice, as it is es- ping out in the role of monster petitions to sential to a proper appreciation of the details Congress from the New England states, praythat are in various ways their cotemporaries ing for a dissolution of the government. The and causes, as we shall show in the progress of pretext for this, not altogether bloodless revoluthis work.
tion, was the slavery question, but the gist of Shays) Rebellion.
the indictment goes back of the Constitution. 1st. The SHAY's Rebellion, which broke forth
The Great Rebellion of 1861. with armed resistance to the Government, in 4th. The great Southern rebellion of 1861,
THE VOTE A CLOSE THING.
73 168 29 78
THE FOUR REBELLIONS..
the disasters of which are too fresh and pain- | existed, North as well as South, in favor of a ful to be recited here. The ipretext for this dissolution of the Union, as the feeling existed rebellion was the slavery question, and he who at the close of the 18th century against the reads may learn, without a tutor, that this system of Government we did adopt. The old pretext was used only because it was the most embers of dissolution were still alive, and only convenient to arouse the Southern fears and required an excitement to fun them into a blaze. prejudices and to "fire the Southern heart?' to Two things, motive and opportunity are nethe pitch of armed resistance to what South- cessary for the perpetration of any wrong:-ern demagogues had educated the people to The motive for dissolution consisted in the believe, was danger and destruction to their original desire, patented for heirs and successdomestic happiness. Thus did Prætonean cun- ors, to have what HAMILTON and his friends. ning: inaugurate Macedonian strité, and the re- termed a "strong government," generally unsult is a worse than Carthagenian war.
derstood to mean an aristocracy, similar to that Having thus briefly and historically sketch- of England, with such modifications as might ed antecedent events down to the advent of our be adapted to the occasion. Among the objects present troubles, let us enquire,
to be attained was a large standing army and a
heavy public debt, owned by the favored few, WHAT IS THE CAUSE OF THIS WAR? to whom the masses should pay tribute, under As we have seen, the real, long slumber- the guise of interest that the main public offiing 'cause or motive for this war existed not so
ces should be held by the rich and noble for much in hatred of slavery as in the hatred for long periods, or for life, &c. These, among the Constitution, which manifested itself long other things, were the motives for dissolution, before the adoption of that instrument, and and a separation between the Northern and was confined to no section. The Northern Ab-Southern states. The aristocrats of each secblitionists and the Southern nullifiers, while tion desired a monopoly in these and sundry they used antipodeal means, were banded to
other franchises, but the original weakness of gether to accomplish the overthrow of the gov- the colonies, and the fear of foreign powers, ernment, for the proof of which "let facts be together with the will of the Democratic masssubmitted to a candid world."
es, prevented dissolution in 1787–9. Still,
the motive existed, and the only thing wanting J. &. ADAMS PRESENTS A PETITION FOR DISSO- was the occasion. The argument was often LUTION.
and vigorously advanced, that a great naOn the 24th of February, 1842, John Quincy tional debt would be a national blessing?? Adams presented a petition in the House of even as late as 1840 this was a leading arguRepresentatives, signed by a large number of ment, and the various propositions to distribute citizens of Haverhill
, Mass., fór a peaceable the proceeds of the sales of the public lands, dissolution of the Union, "assigning as one of and to engage in a general system National the reasons, the inequality of benefits confer: Improvements—the establishment of a monster red upon the different sections: [See Biake's National Bank, &c.--all had their germ in the History of Slavery, p. 524.
desire to create a great national debt. Prohibitory tariffs, under the specious guise of "protection to American industry,” were also to
play their part in clipping the amount received This caused great excitement in Congress, from customs, and thus to swell the national and although ostensibly aimed at slavery, Mr. debt, but the laboring masses saw in all these Adams found many of its warmest defenders efforts to create a heavy national debt, the among slaveholders at the South. In the foundation for their enslavement, to sweat out course of the debate, Mr: Botts of Vai warmly: taxes to pay the interest. The West saw that defended Mr."Adam's, and considered the pre- Wall street, State street, and the monetary sentation of this petition a bagatelle, compared marts of the East would act as sponges for all with the open advocacy for dissolution by Mr. time to suck up the entire revenue of its indusUpsher, the then Secretary of the Navy.-- try, and they put a veto on all those measures. [See p. 527.
MR. ADAMS DEFENDED BY SOUTHERNERS.
GIDDINGS PRESENTS A PETITION FOR DISSO.
OBJECT OF THE KNOW NOTHING ORGANIZA
On the 28th of February, 1842, Mr. Gid- Though the motive still existed in its origiDINGS presented a petition from a large num- nal power, the occasion had not yet arrived, ber of abolitionists of Austinburg, in his dis- and it was feared never would so long as the
Dimecratio from aristocratic and pauperized and a separation of the slave from the free states... Mr. TRIPLETT, of Kentucky, consid- Europe, were permitted to vote, and the occaering the petition disrespectful to both houses, sion was sought in the abridgment of the elecmoved that it be not received. Ayes, -24; (for tive franchise, so as to exclude this powerful reception) noes, 116.-[ See Ibid, p. 529. influx of voters from the polls, through the
mystic operations of the Know Nothing order. FACTIONS OF BOTH SECTIONS DESIRED DISSO: This object, although successful in most of the
New England States, utterly failed in the MidThese two simple facts show that the feeling | dle and Western States. The Cleveland Her.
ald, a sheet that has always opposed the Dem- “It is our opinion, as our readers well know, that no
man of foreign birth should be admitted to the exercise of ocratic party, said:
the political rights of an American citizen.”---Albany 1.“We unhesitatingly aver that seven-tenths of the for- Daily Advertiser. eigners in our land, who bow in obedience to the Pope of
“We could not find any other remedy against the Rome, are not as inteitigent as the full blooded Africans threatning danger, than a repeal of all naturalization of oua state--we will not include the part bloods.?!
laws."--Col. Webb, of New York. CHICAGO TRIBUNE ON "VOTING CATTLE." 6 All naturalization laws should be instantly repealed,
and the term preceding the enjoyment of civil rights exThe following, from the Chicago Tribune, tended twenty-five years.”-Mr. Clark, Whig Mayor of
New York, though out of chronological order, will equally illustrate our point, that the opponents of De- All the leading Know-Nothings of the counmocracy have deemed it necessary to their pur- try, who have not seriously relented their herepose to browbeat the foreign voters into silence. sies against foreigners, are to-day members ef În alluding to the monster torchlight proces- the Republican or “Union?' party. sion that turned out to welcome Douglas to We could fill volumes with similar extracts, Chicago, October 5, 1860, the Tribune said: but the foregoing must suffice. “Taken altogether, the squatter reception, last evening,
Still, the occasion had not ripened. The fell below what had been promised, but furnished an in- spirit was willing, but the flesh was weak.stance of what a few determined wire pullers can do with
The "strong government party could not get a few hundred voting cattle’--(alluding to the Irish and
all the machinery of our Government into their Germans.)
hands. They came very near it under the KNOW NOTHINGISM ILLUSTRATED. Elder ADAMS, and attempted to circumscribe
the elective franchise, or rather to mould it In a Republican meeting in Putnam coun
more to their purposes, by the Alien law, and ty, Illinois, in 1860; Mr. ELIJAH W. GREEN
to hush up the Democratic sentiment of the delivered himself as follows:
country, by the Sedition law, but the spirit of “MR. CHAIRMAN:--It is claimed by some here to-day, the people was too strong, and the effort was that it is not policy to nominate a full ticket, on account | abandoned. of the Dutch. Some suppose we should not nominate a man against ROTHEMAN, I say, Mr. Chairman, we don't TREASON OF THE FEDERAL CLERGY. want to favor the Dutch; we don't want to borrow any Dutch votes, nor trade them any white votes. If they The next effort was to weaken this Governdon't want to vote our ticket, let them go to hell!! We have white votes enough, and can do without them.-
ment in its struggles with Great Britain in Neither do we want the Irish Catholics in our party. We 1812–15, to the end that the world might see have white men in our party, and don't want the Irish or Democracy in America was a failure, and then Dutch."
would come the millenium of the "strong government."
Then, as ever since, many of the A Republican candidate for the Senate, in leading clergy were with them. The Rev. Mr. Rock Island county Ill., in 1860, said:
GARDNER preached an anti-war, sermon in
Trinity Church, Boston, (1814) in which he “Suppose I were to tell you that I despise the Pope and said: hate the Papists, and detest, the Irish Catholic voting cattle, who swarm around our polls at election times!-
The Union has been long since virtually dissolved, and * * The Douglasites depend upon the faithfulness
it is full time that this part of the United States should and ignorance of their Irish Catholic allies. We expect
take care of itself." nothing from the Catholic element in the next election. All that was worth having of New York Americanism and
The Rev. Dr. PARISH said: Know Nothingism joined the Republican party weeks
“How will the supporters of this anti-Christian war enago.'
dure the sentence--endure their own reflection--endure FEDERAL KNOWNOTHINGISMI.
the fire that forever burns--the worm which never dies
the hozannas of heaven, while the smoke of their tor“The real cause of the war must be traced to the influ- ments ascends forever and ever." ence of worthless foreigners over the press and the deliberations of the Government in all its branches.--Response Said the Rev. DAVID OSGOOD: to the Message of Gov. Strong, of Mass., by the Assembly, June, 1814.
"Each man whu volunteers his services in such a cause,
or loans his money for its support, or by his conversation, GEN. SCOTT'S VIEWS.
his writings, or in any other mode of influence, encour
ages its prosecution, that man is an accomplice in the "1 now hesitate between extending the period of resi- wickedness, loads his conscience with the blackest crimes, dence before naturalization, and a total repeal of all acts brings the guilt of blood upon his soul, and in the sight of of Congress on the subject--my mind inclines to the lat- God and His law is a murderer." te..”—General Scott in his celebrated Native American Leiter,
The Olive Branch, a work of that day, said: And, at another time he continued
"To sum up the whole, Massachusetts was energetic,
bold, firm, daring and decisive in a contest with the Gen“Concurring fully in the principles of the Phil udelphia eral Government, she would not abate an inch. She dared movement."
it to the conflict. She seized it by the throat and deter
mined to strangle it." Which movement; was started for his benefit by the Native American party, in 1852.
TREASON OF THE FEDERAL PRESS., "If I had the power, I would erect a gallows at every The Boston Gazette, the New England orlanding place in the city of New York, and suspend every gan of the Federalists, said: cursed Irishman as soon as the steps upon our shore.”Remarks of Mathew L. Davis on receiving the news of 'Any Federalist who lends money to the Government, the Democratic triumph in New York, in 1852.
must go and shake hands with JAMES MADISON, and claim
MORE KNOW NOTHINGISM.
fellowship with FELIX GRUNDY. Let him no more call him- the Army of the United States."Niles' Register, 1815, self a Federalist, and friend to his country! He will be vol. 8, p. 13. called by others infamous."
A NEW ENGLAND CONFEDERACY. SUPPORT OF THE GOVERNMENT REPROBATED."
On the 8th of October, 1814, a committee of In the Boston Centinel, Feb. 14, 1817, we
the Massachusetts Legislature submitted a refind a long Federal address, which was written" port by Mr. Otis, chairman, in favor of calling (probably by Josiah QUINCY) in reply to a a convention of the New England States with Democratic Address of a previous date, and in the end and object of forming a New England answering a certain paragraph, this Federal Confederacy. This measure passed and the Address proceeds to declare
Hartford Convention was its progney. “There is, however, one feature in this address at once
THE DEMOCRATS PROTEST. so unprincipled, and so mischievous that it seems impossible for any inan of the most common honesty or patriot- On the 15th of the same month a protest was ism to notice it without reprobation. We allude to that entered by thirteen Senators and by seventypart of it in which Massachusetts is called upon to re
five members against this treason and insipient linquish her opposition to the General Government. Fellow citizens, (cotinues the Federal Address) in what
secession. ever point of view we consider this appeal (that is to de
“ Ambition has destroyed every other Republic on earth," sist in opposition to the General Government) whether as intended to influence the electors in Massachusetts, or as a faithful representation of the principles which govern say the Senate protestants. The House proour rulers, in the General Government, nothing can be
test concludes as follows: more shameless or degrading!"
“The reasoning of the report is supported by the alarm. In 1817, the Boston Centinel's main objec- ing assumption that the Constitution has failed in its tion to General DEARBORN, Democratic candi-objects; and the people of Massachusetts are absolved in
their allegiance, and adopt another. In debate it has date for Governor of Massachusets was, that been reiterated that the Constitution is no longer to be rehe was
a friend of THOMAS JEFFERSON."-spected [just what is reiterated through the redical press Boston Centinel, March 8, 1817.
and speeches to-day and the resolution is not to be deprecated. The bond of our political union is thus attempt
ed to be severed, and in a state of war and common danger, THE FIRST PROPOSITION IN CONGRESS TO DIS
we are advised to the mad experiment of abandoning the SOLVE THE UNION.
combined energies of the nation might afford, for the self
ish enjoyment of our present, though partial resources.--JOSIAH QUINCY, who was then on the Fed. The resolutions of the Legislature, it is to be feared, will eral ticket for State Senator, and has never
be viewed by other States as productive of this conse
quence, that Massachusetts shall govern the Administrachanged his politics to the present hour, but tion, or the Government shall not be administered in has of late been an ardent “Republican," Massachusetts. [Precisely what South Carolina done in made a speech in Congress, on the 14th of 1832 and 1861.] Jealousy and contention will ensue.
The Constitution, hitherto respected as the character of fanuary, 1811, in which he declared that the
national liberty and consecrated as the ark of our political purchase of Louisiana and admission of the safety, will be violated and destroyed, and in civil dissenState into the Union, would be a
tions and convulsions, our independence will be annihilat
ed, our country reduced to the condition of vanquished « Virtual dissolution of the bonds of the Union
and tributary colonies, to a haughty and implacable forrendering it the right of all, as it would become the duty eign foe.--LEVI LINCOLN, JR., and seventy-five others." of some, to prepare definitely for separation--amicably, - Niles Register, vol. 1, p. 155. if they might--forcibly if they must.”-Hildreth's History U. S., Vol. 4, p. 226.
MASSACHUSET IS "SET UP' FOR HERSELF. And to be more explicit Mr. Quincy reduced The same legislature that passed these rehis threat to writing and sent it to the Clerk, solves voted to raise an army for state dewhereupon Mr. POINDEXTER rose. to his feet fence” of 10,000 strong, &c., and actually made and declared it as the
all the necessary preparations to go out of the “ First time that on this floor a threat had been made to Union, as much so as South Carolina did in dissolve the Union,"
1861, except the going. Massachusetts also
appointed a "Board of War," and was thus WHAT RHODE ISLAND DID FOR THE WAR. preparing to become an independent nation."Rhode Island did actually order out and put upon
Niles' Ragister, vol. 7, p. 147. duty an army of fifteen men, after having duly consulted
GOV. STRONG ON THE BOARD OF WAR. on the matter with the Council of War'-Gov. MARTIN
. and CHRISTOPIER FOWLER, Eiq. It was not, however, In Gov. Strong's message to the legislature, thought, (in the language of the Governor) that this guard was capable of resisting an invading foe of any dated the 16th of January, 1816, he refers to considerable magnitude.""-Seehis Message, vol. 14, p. 169. the resolve of the year previous, which required Niles' Register, 1815, vol. 8, p. 39.
the "Board of War" to close accounts of this
commonwealth with the United States, and file QUALIFICATIONS AND DISQUALIFICATIONS FOR
the same in the Secretary's office," which was MEMBEBS OF MASS. LEGISLATURE.
done.--Niles? Register, v. 9, p. 416. During the last War with Great Britain, Massachusetts took the following action: 1st. That a member of that body was not disqualified
At a dinner in honor of Washington's birthto hold his seat on account of having taken an oath not to day, in Philadelphia, Feb. 18, 1815, the followbear arms, &c., against the enemy!
ing toast was drank: 2d. The House of Representatives resolved that a Rev. erned member of this body was disqualified to hold his “The Hartford Convention, the dignified apostles of the seat therein, because he had been appointed a Chaplain in true politicai faith."--Niles' Register, v. 8, P. 14.
FEDERAIS TOAST THE HARTFORD CONVENTION