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of sophistry cannot make white appear black, , in prison, and keep him there so long as it nor transform a substantive,ponderable reality shall suit his pleasure; or he may order the into a chimera or imponderable phantom. seizure of his property and the scattering it to Those that have eyes, not totally blinded by the four winds. He may order any man or any passion, by prejudice, or by self-interest can number of men, though as innocent as the unsee; those that have ears may hearand hear- born infant, to be shot and quartered, and ing and seeing give evidence against a world of there is no power to punish him or to call him scepticism.
to account. If he or the officers under him are We complain not of those measures of force prosecuted for malicious arrest, and imprisonnecessary to meet and subdue force, when and ment, all that is necessary is, to plead that the where it shall be criminally exerted against act was done by order of the President or by the government. We grant that the laws of one acting under his order. That ends the case. war should govern where war exists. We would
But says one, that law is unconstitutional, withhold no necessary power to arrest and and can never stand the test of judicial scrupunish treason wherever it raised its guilty tiny. We grant it. Any Constitution that head. We have heard, in fact, no one com- could tolerate the exercise of such power in plain of the existence of martial law when- peaceful communities, would be nothing but a ever and wherever a hostile force is too power- charter of despotism. But how are you to get ful for the civil law.
before the proper tribunal to determine the unBut we do complain, with fear that amounts constitutionality of that act? You cannot do almost to despair, of the striking down the it; for the same act authorizes the President to great "writ of innocence” in states that are suspend the writ of habeas corpus, a license he loyal, and where no hostile force menaces the has exercised to the fullest extent; so that no courts, or interferes with their peaceful func- civil powers can have effect. tions. We know there is no "necessity” for And this was the very object of that law. No this.
human being can see any necessity for susWe do complain at the exercise of that pow. pending the privilege of the writ of habeas corer which seizes any citizen without pro- pus, where the courts are free to act--no reacess or legal charges, and immures him in son has been given, and none can be given, some bastile, or deports him beyond the reach except the one reason that despotism always of our laws, while our courts are free to try all finds a means to accomplish its ends. crimes and have power to punish all offences.
Our government is undergoing a revolution We complain of this because we know there is at the North as well as at the South. The no "necessity” for it. We do most seriously party in power, as we have fully shown in the complain of military interference in elections, foregoing pages, have put themselves on record because there is not only no necessity” for in favor of a different government from that of it, but such interference is despotism. It is
our fathers. They spit upon and deride the using the terror of the bayonet to prevent the Constitution. But they knew they could not people from choosing representatives opposed change this government to that of a military to the policy of those in power—a feat that the despotism, except by and through the means of Emperor Napoleon III has not dared to perform, military power. Hence, they have stricken for it was but a few weeks since th: people of down the civil and erected the military standParis-right at the very throne of power- ard. We are now virtually under martial law. elected representatives opposed to the Empe- We can exercise no civil functions that do not ror, by over six thousand majority. If abso- suit the pleasure of the Military Dictator. lute monarchs suffer a people to poll a free This is the land-mark we have reached to-day. ballot, it seems that it might be tolerated in No man can deny this fact, and if this power this land, under the forms of Republicanism. is not exercised in every particular, it only
The Indemnity Act which we publish in an- shows that the historian was correct when he other portion of this work, is the cap shief of asserted as a general maxim that despotism. Under that act the President has unlimited, absolute power over the life and New born despotism is both timid and cau
tious, and seldom reaches its altitude at one liberty of his "subjects.” He may order one bound, but chooses rather to approach it by of his appointees to seize any man and put him | slow but sure degrees."
EDUCATING THE ARMY TO THE NEW ROLE,
POLITICS TO THE SOLDIERS.
It is a shrewd policy to allow the people for a try to his brother in the Legislature of 1863, while some of their rights, lest a counter rev. which was published in the Wisconsin Patriot. olution might be inconvenient and troublesome. "Some of our officers got together last Sun
day and passed a number of resolutions, which I presume you have seen before this, for they
were sent to the State Journal* to be publishLook to our army. Has it been only the
Some of the resolutions were object of the 'powers,” to educate that army voted on by some of the soldiers, and some in the arts and sciences of war, and to make were strongly opposed to them, but they have it efficient as against the foe? By no means.
since come to consider on the political object That from the first, that army has been tamper- to keep them longer a fighting for the negro,
of the resolutions, and that the real purpose is ed with, and more pains has been taken in without one ray of hope for the Union, and certain quarters to bring it up to the required all to give certain officers a certain share of standard of political discipline, than to make ths spoils of cotton and other trophies, and efficient in military acquirements cannot be boys of the regiment, I believed that if called
from a pretty general conversation with the doubted. Let us cite & few facts from the upon to-day to vote on those resolutions, that scores we have in store.
not five of the rank and file in the whole regi
ment would vote for them, though from the ADJUTANT GENERAL THOMAS PREACHING reign of terror which prevails over the soldier
who is not much better in the eyes of the offi
cers than a nigger, they would remain passive, In 1862, Adjutant General Thomas was sent
as many of them do, when called upon by out to the West, ostensibly to look after con- shoulder straps to aid political schemes or coto trabands, and organize negro regiments; but ton forays. his real object seems to have been to make diers—the 'boys,' I mean, dared to speak their
"We are all under ban here, but if the sol political speeches to the soldiers, and to re- honest sentiments, there would be a hot rowin quire of them unequivocal recognition of the camp. * I would not dare to speak my political policy of the Administration.
sentiments here, as I now write them to you, About the time when he first made his ap- punished by some picked guard, I should be
for if I were not immediately locked up and pearance in the army of the West, the celebrat- subject to extra-hazardous services, and in one ed "anti-copperhead resolutions'i began to way or another be made to pay dearly for wripour forth from the army, deluging the whole ting what I know to be true, ' &c. North, with the most blood-thirty denunciations We have hundreds of such articles before and threats against a majority of the people at us, but this must suffice as a sample, which home, threatening that as soon as the army demonstrates the fact that the army is being should return they would exterminate the "cop- used to propogate political ideas and dogmas. perheads” (meaning Democrats,) with fire and After Adjutant General THOMAS had suca sword. These epistles and resolves, it is be- ceeded in getti.. g a series of threatening resolieved were instigated by this Adjutant Gener- lutions issued from each camp, he took to har, al THOMAS, who set that bail in motion to ef- ranguing the soldiers, to get expressions from fect the Northern elections. But, although them direct in favor of the political policy of many of those bloodthirsty resolves were repre- the Administration, punishing such as refused sented to have been passed by a unanimous vote to hurra for such measures. Startle not, readin most instances, yet it is in proof, and as soon er, for we shall let as we dare publish a long array of private correspondence, and not subject good brave soldiers to the severe punishments that would fol
After Adjutant General Thomas returned low their exposure, we shall give to the world to Washington, he rendered his own account in evidence that in most cases the soldiers either his own way, of his acts in the West: silently permitted those diabolical resolutions "I was compelled to speak to the troops;. to pass, without protest (for fear of the conse- [who "compelled” him, except it was the Prese quences) or by their silence were claimed as ing in one day some seven or eight times.
ident, his superior?] along the route-speakhaving assented.
During my tour I met an Irish Regiment, the: 90th Illinois, from Chicago-men who read the
Chicago Times. After talking to them awhileg. Below we give an extract from a letter writ
*This paper had published he resolutions as having ten by a member of the 12th Wisconsin Infan- | beon unanimously passed.
GEN. THOMAS SPEAK FOR HIMSELF.
HOW THE SOLDIERS VIEW IT.
I proposed three cheers for the President of what more ought to be required of them? But the United States. These were given heartily, no, this will not do. The Administration has Three cheers were then proposed for the settled
a purpose in view. No one can be so foolish policy of the United States, [the Administration] in regard to negroes. This was met by and illogical as to believe the "powers” care a 'cries of 'NO!' 'No!'
fig for the private opinions of soldiers so long "The Colonel was absent, and the Lieut.
as they do not come in contact with the purColonel was in command. I enquired what such conduct meant? The Lieut. Colonel en pose of said "powers.” But, suppose we are deavored to excuse the men by saying that they correct in awarding motives of despotic dominhad no opportunity to look over the matter: ion in the radical leaders, whould we not look I replied "you are not telling the truth, sir! I for just such measures?' A despotism could know that they have been discussing this question for a week past. I know the fact if you not be consummated without the aid of the do not. The Officer was coniderably morti- army. That army must be moulded to the fied. [It is well for Adjutant Gen. Thomas very purpose in view. All conservatism must that he did not provoke that kind of "mortifi- be forced out of the army by the pressure of "cation" which an Old Hickory would have manifested.]
discipline, so that when the time for action "I ordered those who were opposed to this shall come, that army can be relied on, in policy of the government, to step forward, and said I knew the regiment 'had seen considerble every emergency. If it should become necesservice and fought well! but I also knew there sary to march into the North and murder the was but little discipline observed among them "copperheads” (the Democrats) the soldiers --that I wanted a distinct recognition of this must be first prepared for it. Henc: the "andoctrine that was the first with me. stepped forward. They were instantly seized ti-copperhead resolutions," committing the and sent to the guard-house.
army by threats to this very thing. Hence, ''I then left the regiment, telling them I the bloodthirsty epistles of Secretary STANTON would give them a week to consider what they to the Cooper Institute meeting, and the bloodwould do. At the next Station I met the Col. of the regiment, who begged that I would leave thirsty speeches of Senators WILSON, LANE, the matter in his hands, and he would see that and others--hence, the bloodthirsty and inthe
more complied with the request." Such is the confession (we use the term in
The Republicans had a meeting in Union its legitimate sense) of this political avant Square, in April, 1863. A great number of courier-this man, who supported the traitor Abolition celebrities were there, who threw BRECKINRIDGE en the platform that the con
out bloody threats and hints. Gen. HALLECK stitution carried slavery everywhere, and pro- was not present, but he wrote a letter from tected it. This is the man who attempted to which we select the following Robesperrian abolitionize the army, and what he lacked in
threat: offers of promotion he made up in "military
"We have already made immense progress discipline,'' threats and punishment.
in this war-a greater progress than was ever Now, let us enquire what right has the Ad- before made under similar circumstances. Our ministration to own and control the private armies are still advancing, and if sustained by
the voice of the patriotic millions at home, they opinions of those who fight the battles of the will ere long crush the rebellion in the south, country? This political Ajax admits they and then place their heels upon the heads of fought well-no complaint ever rested against sneeking traitors in the North. them for any dereliction of military duty--but
"Very respectfully, your ob't serv't
"W. H. TALLECK, General-in-Chief," they were "instantly seized and placed in the guard house," and for what? Because they threat against two millions of voters in the
Not content with uttering this bloodthirsty could not forswear their manhood-deny their political principles-as sacred to them as their north, as Mr HALLECK, but he adds the weight religiún, and acknowledge what they believed of his high office, as "General-in-Chief." to be a lie. Who will have the courage to face posterity
Mr. SEWARD also wrote a letter in which he in the mirror of history, and say this was remarked, in his most grandiloquent eloright? If soldiers fight well” and obey all
quence: the lawful military commands of their superi
"Let us ask each other no questions about ors, in the name of God and their country, | how the nation shall govern itself," or "who
GEN. HALLECK ASA TUTOR.
OTHER SENTIMENTS AND THREATS.
shall preside in its councils in the great fu- of despotism. If this is not the legitimate ture," &c.
meaning, aim and purpose of such acts as we This is the same syren song, under the nar- have here recorded, then we confess to a lacotic and "piatic' influence of which Greece, mentable incapacity to read men's intentions Rome and Athens went to sleep, to wake no by the light of their conduct.
THE CONSCRIPTION BILL.
Mr. Chase in speaking of slavery to the same meeting said:
This act by the last Congress was an unnec"What matter now how it dies? Whether as
essary violation of the Constitution, for the a consequnce or as an object of the war-what
same objects could have been obtained strictly matter,"
in occordance with the Constitution. But that Mr. Post Master General BLAIR also spoke would not suit the purposes of despotism. The at that meeting, and illustrated the Ada Constitution of the United States clearly ministration's new definition of "treason;" places the militia under the control of the spoke of the
states, until called into actual service by the "Creatures in the Free States *
* * spared United States. by the clemency of the Administration, that call themselves Democrats. But these men in
Section 2, of Art. II., of the Constitution of the North are only so many men on gibbets." the United States, declares that the President
THE CASE OF LIEUT, EDGERLEY.
"SPECIAL ORDER NO. 119.
"Commander-in-Chief of the army and navy of As exhibiting further the object of the Ad- the United States, and of the militia of the ministration to compel the army through fear several States, when called into the actual sera
vice of the United States." of punishment to succumb to the political schemes and purposes of the Administration,
By this it would seem that the militià bewe place before the reader the following exo longs to the States, and is exclusively under tract from
State control, until actually called into the service of the United States.
Subdivisions 14 and 15 of Sec. 8, Art. I., «WAR DERARTMENAJ ARCYCAN MIGESERS, 1865FICE;} also make similar provisions,
6633. By direction of the President, the But, the Conscription Act ignores the consti. following officers are hereby dismissed the ser- tution entirely, (so decided by the Supreme vice of the United States. Lieut. A. Court of Pennsylvania) because it calls upon for circulating Copperhead." tickets, and doing the people, and enrols : them as the United all in his power to promote the rebel cause States militia, without reference to the States. (meaning the Democratic ticket] in his state. This is just what one would expect from those "By order of the Secretary of War. "L. THOMAS, Adjutant General.
who intended to establish a despotism, for if "To the Governor of New Hampshire.'
the soldiers were called for by the mode preWe hardly know how to command language scribed in the fundamental law, and it turned adequate to express the official turpitude of out that they were actually being used for desthis transaction. Here, the only charge that potic purposes, the States might refuse to grant was brought against the Lieutenant, was vo- them, and thus the purposes of despotism ting the Democratic ticket. For that is just might be thwarted. But as it is--if the conwhat it amounts to. It is the first time in the scription act can be fully carried out, troops history of this or any other government, that may be obtained to any number without asking the vile nicknames of party have been used in their consent of the States. official orders emanating from the high officers When the conscription bill was on its passage of Government. It shows the revolutionary in the House of Representativesspirit of those in power, and the act itself,
"Mr. Wickliffe offered an amendment that demonstrates beyond a cavail, that it is the in- | the men thus called into service shall be by the tention of the powers that be to use what Governors of the States organized into compower they have to compel the army to become panies and regiments, with officers to command the agent, when the decisive hour shall arrive, them, appointed by the authority of each to crush out the last remnant of liberty, and stitution of the United States. Rejected, ayes to throw a wall of bayonets around the throne ' 55, noes 103.?'
WHAT SENATOR WILSON SAID.
A LEAF FROM HISTORY.
This clearly demonstrates the real purpose and this reminds us of the answer of the Engof the radicals--to place the militia of the lish Bishop to the question: States at the unlimited command of the Presi
"Pray, my lord, is it not difficult to trace dent, for any and whatever purposes he chooses the exact line between orthodoxy and hetero
doxy?" to employ them. We have already alluded to the despotic pow
To which the more honest than discreet dier by which a Democratic convention was
vine replied: broken up in Kentucky-how the Kentucky "Not at all, nothing can be more simple. election was controlled under martial law Orthodoxy is my doxy, and heterodoxy is any
other man's doxy'.' how the sword controlled the elections in Mary,
This illustrates the intolerent arrogance of land, Delaware, Missouri, &c. These out
Abolitionism: rages were thus avowed and excused by the organ of Gov. ANDREW and CHAS, SUNNER: "The Thirty-eighth Congress is about to as
In a speech he made during the Maine cansemble. The Senate will have a large admin- vass at Brunswick in that state, just preceding tration majority, and the House one sufficiently the election, he declared: large to elect the caucus nomination for Speaker, Clerk, and other officers. We say this with- "We shall subjugate the rebel states; that's out having carefully examined the tables, for the word-subjugation! And we will conquer we assume that the administration would not the rebellion in New York. Forty-five regiments have e resorted to its somewhat extraordinary are there to do it, every soldier of which, as I means of carrying elections in the Border told you before, would sooner shoot a copperStates, unless it had been sure that these | head than a rebel soldier." means, successfully used, would give it a working majority. We do not find fault with the machinery used to carry Maryland and The following extracts are from Allison's Delaware. Having nearly lost the control of the House by its blunders in the conduct of the History of Europe, vol. 1, chap. 14, should be war from March, 1861, to the fall of 1862, the read to be appreciated, by the light of the administration owed it to the country to recov- VALLANDIGHAM trial, and such diatribes as er that control somehow. To recover it regu
we have quoted from Senators WILSON, LANE, larly was impossible; so irregularity had to be resorted to. Popular institutions will not suf
HALLECK, &c.: fer, for the copperhead element will have a
"In pursuance of these views, St. Just made much larger number of members in both a labored report to the general police of the branches than it is entitled to by its popular commonwealth, in which recapitulated all the vote. Ohio, with its ninety thousand Republi- stories of conspiracies against the Republic, can majority, will be represented by five Re-explaining them as efforts of every species of publicans and a dozen or more copperheads.- vice against the austere rule of the people, and It is fitting that this misrepresentation of pop- concluding with holding out the the necessity ular sentiment in the great state of the West of the government striking without intermisshould be offset, if necessary, by a loyal dele- |sion till it had cut off all those whose corrupgation from Maryland and Delaware, won even tion opposed itself to the establishment of virat the expense of military interference. If laws tue. "The foundation of all great instituare silent amid the clank of arms, we must take tions," said he, “is terror. Where would now care that the aggregate public opinion of the have been an indulgent Republic? We have country obtains recognition, somehow or other." opposed the sword to the sword, and its power Boston Commonwealth.
is in consequence established. It has emerged That is a pretty bold defense of villainy.- the earth out of the confusion of chaos, and
from the storm, and its origin is like that of The Commonwealth is an organ of the Gov. of man who weeps in the hour of nativity." ANDREW negro school of politics, and he open- As a consequence of these principles, he proly advocates the use of the bayonet against the against all the nobles, as the irreconcilable op
posed a general measure of proscription ballot. We suppose those who advocate giving ponents of the Revolution: “You will never, Mr. LINCOLN "all the men and all the money said he, "satisfy the enemies of the people till he wants," will be highly delighted with this you have re-established tyranny in all its hor
rors. They can never be at peace with you; use made of them!
you do not speak the same language; you will Such despotic acts committed by any other never understand each other. Banish them party would be denounced with the most re- by, an inexorable law; the universe may re
ceive them, and the public safety is our justihement howlings, but being committed by the fication." He then proposed a decree which "loyal" party, they are considered all right, banished all the ex-nobles, all strangers from