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CHARACTER OF FREE NEGROES.

GOV. WOOD'S EXPERIENCE. We copy as follows from Results of Eman- “Ex-Gov. Wood, of Ohio, who paid a visit to Jamaica

in 1853, and who is no friend to slavery, says: cipation, before alluded to:

“Since the blacks have been liberated, they have be"In Lewis' West Indies, written seventeen years before

come indolent, insolent, degraded, and dishonest. They emancipation, it is remarked:--'As to free blacks, 'they

are a rude, beastly set of vagabonds, lying naked about are unfortunately lazy and improvident; most of them

the streets, as filthy as the Hottentots, and I believe worse. half starved, and only anxious to live from hand to mouth.

On getting to the wharf of Kingston, the first thing Even those who profess to be tailors, carpenters or coop

the blacks of both sexes, perfectly naked, came swarming ers, are, for the most part, careless, drunken and dissipa

about the boat, and would dive for small pieces of coin, ted, and never take pains sufficient to attain to any dex

that were thrown by the passengers. On entering the terity in their trades, As for a free negro hiring himself city, the stranger is annoyed to death by black beggars, at out for plantation labor, no instance of such a thing was

every step, and you must often show them your pistol, or ever known in Jamaica! Earl GREY said in the House of

an uplifted cane, to rid yourself of their importunities.' Lords, June 18, 1852, "That it was established by statistical facts that the negroes were idle, and falling back in

SEWELL'S VIEWS OF KINGSTON--A GOD-FORcivilization; that relieved from the coercion to which

SAKEN PLACE. they were freely subjected, and a couple of days labor giving them enough food for a fortnight, the climate ren

Sewell, in his work on the Ordeal of Free Labor, in dering clothing and fuel not necessary to life, they had no

which he defends emancipation, and pleads for still more earthly motive to give a greater amount of service than extended privileges to the blacks, says of Kingston: for mere subsistance.'

56. There is not a house in decent repair; not a wharf in good order; no pavement, no sidewalk, no drainage, and

scanty water; no light. There is nothing like work done. MORE TESTIMONY.

Wreck and ruin, devastation and neglect. The inhabi"Sir H. LIGHT and Gov. BARKLEY have both shown

tants, taken en masse, are steeped to the eyelids in imalso, that the majority of the free negroes of the West In

morality. The population shows a natural decrease. Ildies are living in idleness, and the French colonies, accord

legitimacy exceeds legitimacy. Nothing is replaced that ing to a work from M. VACHEROT, published a few years

time destroys. If a brick tumbles from a house to the ago, at Paris, demonstrate the same ruinous result under

street it remains there. If a spout is loosened by the wind, the emancipation act.

it hangs by a thread, till it falls. If furniture is accidently broken, the idea of having it mended is not entertained.

Å God-forsaken place, without life or energy. Old, dilapCAPTAIN HAMILTON'S STATEMÈNT.

idated, sickly, filthy, cast away from the anchorage of sound morality, of reason and common sense.

Yet this “Capt. HAMILTON, on his examination as a witness be

wretched hulk is the Capital of an Island-an Island, the fore a select committee of Parliament, stated that 'Ja

most fertile in the world. It is blessed with a climate the maica, without any exaggeration had' become a desert most glorious; it lies rotting in a shadow of mountains that

can be cultivated from summit to base with every product of DIR. BIGELOW'S VIEWS. " the tropic and temperate regions. It is the mistress of a

harbor wherein a thousand line-of-battle ships can ride “In 1850, Mr. JOHN BIGELOW, then one of the editors of safely at anchor.' the New York Evening Post, paid a visit to Jamaica, and wrote a book thereon. As the testimony of an anti

AMERICAN MISSIONARY ON JAMAICA slavery man, his statements are given. Mr. BIGELOW says

MORALITY. that the land of that island.is as prolific as any in the world. It can be bought for $5 to $10 per acre, and five “ We might fill a volume with such quotations, showing acres confer the right of voting, and eligibility to public

the steady decline of the Island, but it is well to note the offices. Planters offer $1,50 per day for labor; sixteen days moral condition of the negro. The American Missionary labor will enable a man to buy land enough to make him

Association, is the strongest kind of Abolition testimony a voter, and the market of Kingston offers a great demand

in regard to the moral condition of the negroes. The for vegetables at all times. These facto

American Missionary, a monthly paper, and organ of the place indepence within the reach of every black. But

Association, for July, 1855, has the following quotation what are the results? There has been no increase in yo

from the letters of one of the Missionaries: ters in twenty years, Lands run wild.

Lands run wild. Kingston gets its "A man here, may be a drunkard, a liar, a Sabbathvegetables from the United States!'

breaker, a profane man, a fornicator, an adulterer, and

such like, and be known to be such, and go to chapel, and MR. BAIRD'S OPINION.

hold up his head there, and feel no disgrace for these

things, because they are so common, as to create a public "But we will accumulate proof-pile it up, if necessary. sentiment in his favor. He may go to the communion Mr. Robert Baird, who is an enthusiastic advocate of the table, and cherish a hope of Heaven, and not have his glorious act of British Emancipation,'on visiting the West hopes disturbed. [A perfect paradise for BEECHER and Indies for his health, could not fail to be struck with the GREELEY.] I might tell of persons guilty of some, if not desolate appearance there.

of all these things, ministering in holy things. "* "That the West Indies,' says Mr. Baird, are always grumbling, is an observation often heard, and no doubt it

FROM REPORT OF AMERICAN ANTI-SLAVERY

LAVE is very true that they are so. But let any one who thinks that the extent and clamor of the complaint exceeds the

SOCIETY. magnitude of the distress which has called it forth, go to the West Indies and judge for himself. Let him see with

"The report of the American and Foreign Anti-Slavery his own eyes the neglected and abandoned estates, the un

Society of 1893, page 170, says of the nego: cultivated fields, fast hurrying back into a state of nature,

6. Their moral condition is very far from being what it with all the

speed of tropical luxuriancethe dismantled ought to be. It is exceedingly dark and distressing, and silent machinery, the crumbling walls and deserted

Licentiousness prevails to a most alarming extent among mansions, which are familiar sights in most of the Brit

the people. The almost universal prevalence of intemperish West Indian colonies! Let him then transport him

ance is another prolific source of moral darkness and degself to the Spanish Islands of Porto Rico and Cuba, and

radation of the people. The masses, among all classes, witness the life and activity which prevail in these slave

from the Governor in his palace to the peasant in his hut colonies. Let him observe for himself the the aotivity of

from the bishop in his gown to the beggar in his ragsthe slaves-- the improvements daily making in the culti

are all slaves to their cups.' vation of the fields, and in the process carried on at the ingenois, or sugar mills-and the general, indescribable THE MARRIAGE RELATION AMONG FREE au f thriving and prosperity which surround the wholeme

BLACKS. and then let him come back to England and say, if he honestly can, that the British West Indian planters and pro- "So much for freedom' elevating the blacks. It is prietors are grumblers, who complain without adequate complained that the marriage relation is not always recause!

garded where 'slavery' exists, but it would seem from this

THE

statement that slavery had done more for the moral im- tion has had no foothold, are in as bad way as provement of the negro in this respect than he was at all disposed to do for himself.

their neighbors, we will permit an Abolitionist "Mr. UNDERHILL endorses the stories of the “crowds of to tell his own story in his own way. Mr. ÜNbastard children' in the Island, and says it is too true.' DERHILL makes this comparison between Ja"Outside the non-conformist communities,' he says, 'neg. maica and Cuba. Of Havana (Cuba) he says:

: lect of marriage is almost universal, One clergyman informed me, that of seventeen infants brought to his church for baptism, fifteen at least would be of illegitimate origin.' It's harbor is one of the finest in the world, and is crowded

"It is the busiest and most prosperous of all the Antilles. In fact, from all the admissions made, it does not appear there is any more marriage in Jamaica thanin Africa. The

with shipping. Its wharves and warehouses are piled with churches, Mr. UNDERHILL' allows, are less attended than merchandise; and the general aspect is one of great comformerly, and there is evidently little of the religious value of nine millions sterling ($45,000,000) and the cus

mercial activity. Its exports nearly reach the annual training of the whites left among the people. The negro,

tomers furnish an annual tribute to the mother country, however, has all the advantages of 'impartial freedom, and 'the highest offices of the state are open to colored

over and above the cost of government and military occumen--they are found (says Mr. U.) in the Assembly, in pation. Eight thousand ships annually resort to the har

bor of Cuba." the Executive, on the bench and at the bar. All colors mix freely. This would be the paradise for SEWARD, PHILLIPS and GREELEY.

CUBA AND JAMAICA COMPARED.

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LOSS OF LABOR AND DECAY OF ESTATES. The following comparison between the ex.

“Mr. UNDERHILL estimates the annual loss of wages to ports of Cuba and Jamaica, at three periodsthe people from the decay of estates, and plantations, can- before and after emancipation in the latternot be less than three hundred thousand pounds, or $1,500,- tells more against the evils of slavery agita000. Negroes who work at all cannot be prevailed upon tion than whole chapters from the most ready

in , rarely five. Mr. U. also states that it has been officially pen: ascertained that two-thirds of the persons employed on sugar estates are women and children; yet, notwithstand- Exports from Cuba and Jamaica Compared. ing all these facts, the anti-slaveryite still adheres to his hobby. He has excuses and palliations for his friend, the Januaica in 1809..

$15, 166,000

Cuba in 1826.. negro. True, Jamaica is ruined, buc still emancipation is

13,809, 388 a success The seasons were poor, the estates were mort

Jamaica in 1854...

4,480, 661

Cuba gaged--the planters have not treated the blacks kindly,

in 1854.

31,683,731 and they have bought patches of ground of their own,

Jamaica in 1859.,

3,679,403 rather than labor for others. Such are some of the ex

Cuba in 1859...

57,455,185 cuses of the friends of the negro, but the facts still stand out in bold relief, despite the assertions of 'negro mis

West India Productions before Emancipation. sionaries,' who are interested in keeping up the delusion. The facts they do admit. They cannot deny or controvert

Years. lbs. Sugar. lbs. Coffee. lbs. cotton them. This is all we ask.

Brit. West Ind's 1807 636,025,643 31,610,764 17,000,0001 We need none of their exIn order to relieve themselves of the odium of Hayti............... 1790 163,318, 810 76,835,219 7,286, 126 having ruined the fairest Island of the Antilles, they will naturally look for reasons not chargeable to themselves,

809,344,453 108,245,983 24,286,126 but figures do not lie. The exports of Jamaica have been

IVest India Products after. Emancipation. gradually decreasing ever since “slavery” in the Island was interfered with, until they have dwindled down to in

Years. lbs. Sugar. lbs. coffee lbs cotton significance, and as the London Times says, there is no Brit. West Indies 1848 313,306,112 6,770,792 427,5291 blinking the truth-the negro will not work for wages,' Hayti ............... 1848 very little. 34, 114,717 1,591, 4543 and hence che tropics are going back to jungle and bush, while white men are taxed double the price they ought to

313,306,112 40,885,509 2,018,983 be for all tropical products."

cuses.

NEGROES ONLY DESIRE TO

BE FREED FROM

COMPARTIVE STATISTICS OF THE UNITED STATES

LABOR.

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We close this part of our subject by a referWe have a vivid illustration of the fact that ence to the comparison between the exports negroes will not work when they can avoid, it, by from the Northern and Southern States of this those set "free in the rebel states, by the ope- | Union, which may be found by consulting the ration of our armies. A correspondent of a census statistics published by act of Congress. New York paper says:

Exports from Free States Exclusively-1860. Their highest idea of freedom is to be freed from labor, and permitted to bask in the sunshine of idleness."

Fisheries,

.$1,156,480 Coal,

731,817 MR. LINCOLN'S TESTIMONY. Ice,

183,134 Mr. LINCOLN in his reply to the Chicago

Total free states,

.$5,071,431 Divines, said:

From Free and Slave States-1860. "And suppose they (the negroes) could be induced by a proclamation from me, to throw themselves upon us, what Products of the forest,

$11,756,060 should we do with them? Gen. BUTLER wrote me a few Products of agriculture,

20,206,265 days since that he was issuing more rations to the slaves

Vegetable food........

25,656,494 who had rushed to him than to all the white troops under Manufactures,....

35,154,644 his command! They eat! eat! and that is all!!"

Raw produce,..

1,355,805

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MR. UNDERHILL ON CUBA.

Total free and slave states,

..$96,826,299 The facts we have given relative to several *Balanza General Del Commercio de la Isla de Orba, of the principal freedomized West India colo- 1859. Habana 1861. nies are true of all, and to the end it may not

41800.

1:1840. be said that tbe islands where abolition agita- 21847.

From Slave States Exclusively-1860.

the following quotation from a letter of a deleCotton,

$191,806,555 gate of the Christian Commission at St. Louis, Tobacco,

15,906,547 | to the New York Tribune: Rosin and Turpentine,

3,734,527 Rice,

2,566,390 "After the departure of Pemberton's army, on the 15th Tar and pitch,

151,095

of July (1862) thousands of these miserable creatures Brown Sugar,

103, 2:44 (contrabands) filled the vacant houses, churches, sheds and Molasses,

44,562

Here they crowded together, sometimes thirty er Hemp,....

8,951 more in a single room, weary, weak and sick from their

long march and abstinence, spiritless and sad, and many of Total slave states...

$214,322,880 them longing to be once more on olul Massa's plantation."

caves.

RECAPITULATION,

Total,

do

low.

EMANCIPATION AND PEONAGE IN MEXICO. Free states exclusively,

$5,071,431 Free and slave states,

96,826, 299 We might fill our entire space with similar Slave states exclusively,

214,322,880 articles, but for want of room we must be con

tent to refer the reader to the thousands of $316,220,610

cases exhibiting the sad results of forced emanThe most careful estimates that have been cipation, to the overburdened columns of the made give the slave states credit for one-third public press. We have barely room for the embraced in the articles under the head of following extract from a correspondence by M. Free and Slave States. If this be correct, LaMonte, from Mexico to a Paris journal, in the result would stand as follows:

1843: Exports from Southern States,

..$246,598,313 "Fourteen years ago Mexico abolished slavery in all her Northern States,

69,622,297 | departments, and the Central American states followed

her example. A worse measure for the slave, as well as Difference., ...

.$176,976,016 | the Republic, could not possibly be imagined. It was

immediately discovered that the freed slaves would not This does not show the greater wealth in work, and the Mexican Congress was forced to pass the the South. It only shows that with one-third act of peonage, a species of slavery the most atrocious that

ever disgraced a civilized nation. Under the old system the entire population of the United States, that

the master was compelled to provide for his slave in sicksection exports nearly $200,000,000 more to

ness, health and old age. In fact, the slave bad all his foreign countries than the Northern States do, temporal wants supplied by force of self-interest and law, and that if we should be so unwise as to Ja

and never troubled himself about a thought of the mor

Under the present system, he is compelled to hire maicaize the Southern States, our "balance himself to some one for such length of time as the employsheet?' with the rest of the world would be slim

er designates, who, with an eye to profits, surveys the indeed.

Jaborer, makes calculation how long he will live as an able

bodied man, and then bires him for that period, stipulatTotal U.S. E.cports for Forty Years--1821 to 1861. ing for wages barely sufficient to subsist the inan's family

in health, The law compels a specific performance of Cotton,

.$2,574,834,991 this contract, and when old age and sickness oomes on the Tobacco,

424, 118,067

poor peon is turned loose to feed upon the scanty pittance Rice,

87,854,511 of reticent charity, or spend the remnant of his days amid Nayal Stores,

110,981, 296 the squalid want and vermin of an almshouse. In all the Food,

1,006,951,335 essential conditions that guarantee ease and happiness, the Gold,...

458,588,615 peon's condition is as much below that of the former Crude articles, manufactures, &c.,..

892,010,457 Slave as a Paris mcrdicant is below a millionaire on

the Boulevard." $5,556,401,272

Mexico abolished slavery in 1829, and had Escports from the South exclusively, for Forty Years.

we room to display her commercial statisCotton,.......

$2,514,834,091 Tobacco,.........

425, 118, 067 tics, in comparison, the disparity would be Rice.....

87,854.511 equally as great as we have shown in regard Naval stores,

110,981, 296 to the West Indies--not that slavery is the One third of food........

335,650, 411

best condition, or that as an original question Forty per cent, gold,*

183,588,615

it would be politic, but having been fastened

$3,718,026,991 on the body politic, it becomes dangerous to The total amount of duty paid during this all classes to suddenly remove it.

We have thus shown from irrefutable hisforty years on imports was $1,191,374,443, of which

tory, the dreadful effects of the enfranchise

ment of the slaves of Rome, by promises from The South paid,

$799,508,378 Roman demagogues and ambitious politicians. The North paid.....

392, 365,065 We have exhibited the terrible consequences Difference,

$407,144,313 of the liberation of the slaves of St. Domingo,

in obedience to the clamors of the Parisian Thus, the financial question to be determined abolitionists. We have brought to public gaze now, is, shall the North kill the goose that has the retrogade and embittered condition of the laid such golden eggs? That these eggs are being broken by our "philanthropists," we

West Indian and the Mexican freedmen."

We have given facts and figures that too vivhave numerous instances of proof. We make idly exhibit the destructive influence of that

*It may be supposed, without reflection, that this esti- Utopian Abolition system which Abolition hismate of one third gold for the South, is too high, but it | torians admit was the primeval cause of Roman must be remembered that California has oniy been supply- suicide, and which not only cost the French ing gold for a few years out of the forty, and that previa nation the Queen of the Antilles, but reduced ous to that time, our gold was principally taken from the Southern states.

that gem of the Ocean"-both master and

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slave-to a condition of meniality for which or can show, has ever wrought any permanent, there is no abolition. We have shown, from lasting good to either the enslaved or the ena long array of unimpeachable evidence, that slavers--an agitation, marked in every stage this same system is fast reducing the French of its animus or progress, from Romish agraand British West Indies from their former rianism, and French Jachbism, down to Amer proud position of opulance and power, to de- ican political Puritanism, by selfishness and gradation, misery and want, without regard ambition, having no parallels, and but few exto caste, condition or color. Have we not ceptions. then, a right to infer from the analysis of his- As before stated, we offer no defense of tory, and the stern development of physical slavery. That is far from our purpose or defacts, that any principle or policy which beg- sign. As an original question, it has, in our gars ourselves and destroys the happiness of estimation, absolutely nothing to recommend all alike-master as well as slave--wkite as it, save, perhaps, some passages of Holy Writ, well as black-is radically wrong, especially to which we by no means appeal--nor do we since the devotees of this Utopian philan- fall back on a common,yet ingenious argument, thropy can point to no living fact within the that any species of servitude is slavery-that the world's bistory where the political agitation of weak and ignorant ever were, and ever will be the slavery qusstion, has been of the least subservient to, and consequently the slaves, in practical good service? And have we not a an essential degree, of the wise, the wealthy right to suppose that the effort to bring all and powerful. We ask no such aids as these, grades of human society to one common level, however well grounded in the logic of philosoas' common partakers of common rights and phy. We freely grant, without equivocation privileges-in short, to do by legislation what or mental reservation, that to our view, legalGod Himself has never seen fit to do, is at ized slavery is an evil, and while from our least one step beyond our prerogatives? stand point of education, moral and religious

training, we revolt when asked to defend the M'KENSIE'S OPINION.

system, as of right, it is our duty, nevertheNor is it our purpose to argue that slavery less, to treat it in all its phases, as a fixed fact, is right or politic. We have nothing to do

as we would any other great evil which the with it as an original question. We must

highest wisdom and holiest purposes of the treat it as a fact fixed by causes long anterior world have failed to overthrow. We must treat to our day, and by analogy to consider the it as a defacto system, having its germ in causes consequences of it's sudden demolition, by beyond the control of the people of this era. means known to have failed in every instance. The present generation is not responsible for

the existence of slavery. Mr. LINCOLN in his "No matter," says McKensie,“ how worthy the motive first annual message insists that the North is as of philanthropists, historical facts stare us in the face, much responsible as the South for the existthat it is wisplaced philanthropy to endeavor to elevate the African to an equality with the Caucassian

ence and continuance of slavery. race. Either the inferior becomes more abject and mise- None but the merest criminal quack would rable, or both, like mixing tar with water, deterioate, cut the throat of his patient to cure a tumor on and superir race cannot exist together on terms of equal- his neck, and the world would decide it crimiity."

nal mal practice to eviscerate one afflicted with Indeed, this was almost the identical lan- to remeve insipient eresipelas.

a cancer in his stomach, or to amputate a limb guage of President Lincoln to the negro dele

Good and wise statesmen from the earliest gation that called upon him in Washington.

period of our history saw this tumor, this cancer and this malady on the body politic.

They grappled with the disease, and treated Are we to read our fate by the light of past the patient according to the best skill and history that sheds its hideous glare around us? science of the age. They dared not apply We are now in the midst of a most gigantic the cauterizing lancet, lest its sudden severrevolution, receiving its main source of nour- ance from the system, and society to which it ishment, and basing its excuses for the obla- had been immemorially attached, should extion of blood that now crimsons the soil of half pire under the operation. Among all the ilthis continent, on the same portentious cloud lustrious statesmen and philosophers that have of agitation, þehind which the sun of Roman adorned the history of our common country, greatness sat to rise no more—the same spe- not one has ever been able to draw from the cies of agitation that for two centuries shook logic of past or present events, or from the the British Empire from centre to circumfer- theories of the future, a satisfactory solution ance, and has resulted in a confirmed failure to this vexed problem. Not one has been able of its objects in her West India possessions to practically dispose of the question, with the same grade of agitation that not only lost safety to the Caucasian and humanity to the to France the “Queen of the Antilles, but African races on this continent. has, to all present appearances, blotted out St. To suddenly transport four millions of bondsDomingoian happiness the same restless, men from a long, immemorial servitude, under meddling, fanatical agitation that forced Mexi- the besetting improvidence, want of care for can slaves from one species of servitude into themselves, ignorance, low vices and indolence, an infinitely more degrading one--an agita- to a condition of freemen, with all the untution, that no truthful pen of history has shown, tored responsibilities of providing against

GENERAL CONCLUSIONS.

CAUSE AND EFFECT ILLUSTRATED.

now.

want, surrounded by the snares of temptation slavery was even the pretext for the present and vice to which the negro character, too free- rebellion, may be safely denied, for it cannot ly yields, without those checks of family po- be supposed any people would 'rebel against lice regulations that have for centuries re- their own chosen institutions, but that the agistrained an inferior race, would inevitably tation of the slavery question gave to the prepropogate miseries untold for both classes, that text for war, its present momentum and its inages could not efface; and, the great question sipient status no one can in truth deny. The is, as it ever has been, Which is the greater argument; based on the assumption that evil, to suddenly force emancipation, or per- "slavery is the cause of the war”--that to put mit God, in His administration of human af- a stop to the effect we must remove the cause, fairs to solve a problem that many nations is fallacious both in fact and theory. As we have, for centuries, been in vain endeavoring proceed, we shall endeavor to show it is not to determine by edicts, codes and Proclama- true in fact, and will endeavor here to exhibit tions, and if it be asked, "Why not try it, as the absurdity of the theory. retributive punishment on the 'cause of the war?)" the answer has already been furnished by the tears and blood of nations that have been poisoned by quaffing from the same

It is asserted, and we believe no one has chalice. We have more to fear from punishing ever questioned the fact, that religion has been ourselves than others, in this matter.

the cause of more wars and bloodshed than all If history has any significance, can we afford other causes combined since the advent of man to repeat the experiment? That is a question on this planet. Shall we argue that therefore now before the nation. The people must be religion should be abolished, to prevent the responsible for their answer. Our duty ends clashing of religious antagonisms? Bread was when we have placed the panorama of veritable the cause of the great bread riot in London, history before them.

in the 16th century. Should bread be abolishGov. DENNISON (Rep.) in his message to the ed to remove the cause of bread riots? Ohio Legislature, in 1861, says:

Banks have been the bcause" of numorous

bank riots. Will bankers consent to the aboli“An act of immediate general emancipation, throwing tion of that “cause?" The conscription act four millions of the colored caste loose on society, North and South, would leave them more enslaved than they are

was the cause of the great anti-conscription Without the intelligence, power, and means of riot in New York, in 1863. Will the radicals master of the superior race, to support them in the com- be sufficiently consistent to admit, that to prepetition of that race, in the business of life, they would

vent such recurring evils in the future, the states, and might do in others, the four millions let loose in conscription act should be abolished? the South, would encounter a war of castes-AWAR OF These illustrations might be almost indefiEXTERMINATION!”

nitely multiplied, but we have given enough to Gov. DENISON had probably been reading the show that an antecedent is not necessarily a history of the West Indies.

'cause," or if it be a cause, the removal of it will not necessarily cure the evil. A cask of powder placed beneath a dweling is perfectly

harmless, until some "agitator” applies the CHAPTER III.

torch, that developes its destructive powers, and so it is with the slavery question. So long

as agitators permitted it to remain where our Slavery not the cause of the War... Illustrations showing fathers placed it, all was prosperity and peace, Slavery not the Cause of the War...Illustrations showing but the moment fanatical agitators applied the Beecher declares the Constitution to be the Cause... Sen- spark, the magazine exploded, and the whole ator Douglas' Testimony...Alex. Stevens' Views...The nation is now writhing in the agony developed Rebel Iverson on the Cause"...Gov. Rhett on ditto ... The Rebel Benjamin, with Republican aid, creates a

by the incendiary's torch. “Cause"... The Constitution the "Cause'... Early Times ... The Three Parties in 1786...Alex. Hamilton's "Strong MR. BEECHER HITS THE "CAUSE." Government”... Early Opposition to the Constitution... Vote close in some of the State Conventions... The Four

We are more than half inclined to believe Rebellions... Shays' Rebellion... South Carolina Rebellion in 1832--The great Abolition Rebellion... The great South- that HENRY. WARD BEECHER was nearer right ern Rebellion of 1861... What the Cause of the War... than that divine usually is, in political mat

ters, when he declared Public Blessing... The object to Destroy the Government ...Know-Nothingism as an Element to Wreck the Goy- 6. The truth is that it is the Constitution itself that is ernment, by placing Power in the hands of its Destroy- the cause of every division. ers...Numerous Extracts in Proof... Treason of the Clergy It has been the fountain and father of all our troubles." in 1814... Treason of the Federals in 1814... Support of the Government “Reprobated" by Federal Reprobates, &c,

Not that this should be, but that demagogues

who have hated our government from the start, IS SLAVERY THE CAUSE OF THE WAR?

have made it so. It is no doubt too true that "Mad, let us grant him then, and now remains

the constitution has been made the 'cause of That we find out the cause of this defect; Or rather say the cause of this defect,

every division," but had it not been for tho For this effect defective comes by cause.

slavery agitation, that "cause" could never

[ Shakespeare. have developed itself. So far as this question can be determined, The Republican press have been in the habit history and facts must sit as umpires. That of quoting the following to show that the South

HISTORY OF CAUSES OF WAR.

Abolition Petitions for Dissolution...A Public Debt a

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