Page images





land, that the Union inust and shall be pre- | States, the relation established or recognized served! (Great cheering.)

by the laws thereof touching persons bound to "Your friend and fellow citizen, labor or involuntary service in the District of SEDWARD EVERETT." Columbia, without the consent of Maryland,

and without the consent of the owners, or

making the owners who do not consent just LORD BROUGHAM ON COERCION.

compensation; nor the power to interfere with The venerable Lord BROUGHAM, one of the or prohibit representatives and others from wisest and most conservative men of England, bringing with them to the city of Washington,

retaining and taking away, persons so bound thus wrote on the 19th of March, ?61-a just to labor or service, nor the power to interfere rebuke to those who would sustain something with or abolish involuntary service in places they have dubbed a Platform, and make ship- States within those states and territories where

under the exclusive jurisdiction of the United wreck of the Constitution and Union:

the same is established or organized; nor the “The alarm felt by all the friends of human power to prohibit the removal or transportation improvement at the risk of disunion in Ameri: in any state or territory of the United States

persons held to labor or involuntary service ca, are naturally uppermost in one's mind at the present time. How much it is to be wished it is established or recognized by law or usage;

to any other state or territory thereof, where that the contending parties in both Italy and and the right, during transportation by sea or America wonld take a leaf out of our books, river, of touching at ports, shores and landings, and learn the wisdom as well as virtue of com

but not for sale or traffic, shall exist; nor shall promise and mutual concession."

Congress have power to authorize any higher

rate of taxation on persons held to labor or OF ADJUSTMENT" ADOPTED

service than on land. The bringing into the District of Columbia of persons Eeld to labor

or service for sale, or placing them in depots "Sec. 1. In all the prosent territory of the to be afterwards transferred to other places United States, north of the parallel of thirty- for sale as merchandize, is prohibited, and the six degrees thirty minutes of north latitude, right of transit through any state or territory involuntary servitude, except in punishment against its dissent, is prohibited. of crime, is prohibited. In all the present "Sec. 4. The third paragrah of the second territory south of that line the status of per- section of the fourth article of the constitution sons held to service or labor, as it now exists, shall not be construed to prevent any of the shall not be changed. Nor shall any law be states, by appropriate legislation, and through passed by Congress or the territorial legisla- the action of their judicial and ministerial offiture to hinder or prevent the taking of such cers, from enforcing the delivery of fugitives persons from any of the States of this: Union from labor to the person to whom such service to said territory, nor to impair the rights aris- or labor is due. ing from said relation. But the same shall be “Sec. 5. The foreign slave trade is hereby subject to judicial cognizance in the Federal forever prohibited, and it shall be the duty of courts according to the common law. When Congress to pass laws to prevent the importaany territory north or south of said line, with tion of slaves, coolies or persons held to sersuch boundary line as Congress may prescribe vice or labor, into the United States, and the shall contain a population equal to that re- Territories from places beyond the limits quired for a member of Congress, it shall, if thereof. its form of government be republican, be ad- "Sec. 6. The first, third and fifth sections, mitted into the Union on an equal footing with together with this section six of these amendthe original States, with or without involun- ments, and the third paragraph of the second tary servitude, as the constitution of such State section of the first article of the constitution, may provide.

and third paragraph of the second section of Sec. 2. No territory shall be aquired by the fourth article thereof, shall not be amendthe United States except by discovery and for ed or abolished without the consent of all the naval and commercial stations, depots, and states. transit routes, without the concurrence of a "Sec. 7. Congress shall provide by law that majority of all the Senators from the States the United States shall pay to the owner the full which allow involuntary servitude, and a maj- value of his fugitives from labor, in all cases ority of all the Senators from States which where the Marshal or other officer whose duty prohibit that relation ; nor shall territory, be it was to arrest such fugitive, was prevented acquired by treaty, unless the votes of a maj- from so doing by violence or intimidation from ority of the Senators from each class of States mobs or riotous assemblages, or when, after arhereinbefore mentioned be cast as a part of rest, such fugitive was rescued by like violence - the two-third majority necessary to the ratifi- or intimidation, and the owner thereby precation of such treaty

vented and obstructed in the pursuit of his "Sec. 3. Neither the constitution nor any remedy for the recovery of such fugitive. Conamendment thereta, shall be construed to give gress shall provide by law for securing to the Congress power to regulate, abolish or control, citizens of each state the privileges and immunwithin any state or territory of the United lities of the several states."?

[ocr errors]



tion whether John Doe or Richard Roe shall

possess a certain ten dollar bill. The RepubThe substitute offered in the Peace Confer. | lican party obtained power in the recent Presence by Mr. FRANKLIN, of Pennsylvania, for idential contest by professing certain clearly the first article of the Guthrie Basis, and which in the territories. Being about to assume the

defined principles upon the subject of slavery was adopted by the vote of all the states rep- seals of office, eminent men, of whom it had a resented, except Virginia, North Carolina, right to expect better things, counsel that it Tennessee, Delaware and Missouri, is as fol- repudiate : its platform of principles, confess

itself a common cheat, turn its back upon those lows:

who elevated it to place, and convict itself of Art. 1. In all the present territory of the having either been a rank hypocrite before the United States, not embraced in the Cherokee election, or of being a skulking craven now. Treaty, North of the parallel of thirty-six de- Such counselors should know that men and grees and thity minutes of North latitude, in parties which attain power by professing one voluntary servitude, except in punishment of set of principles, and then, when in office, saccrime, is prohibited. In all the present terri- rifice them, and carry out another set, always tory South of that line, the status of persons break down and go to perdition, amid the jeers held to service or labor, as it now exists, shall of the foes whom they beat in the contest, and not be changed by law, nor shall the rights the execrations of the friends whom they af

rising from said relation be impaired; butterwards betrayed. And yet this sort of grand the same shall be subject to judicial cognizance larceny, this stealing into power by false toin the Federal Courts, according to the comkens, this playing the confidence game on mon law. When any territory North or South the broad theatre of a nation, is sometimes of said line within such boundary as Congress called statesmanship! The Republican party may prescribe, shall contain a population equal can better afford to lose than keep the authors to that required for a member of Congress, it of such statesmanship in its ranks. Let them shall, if its form of government be republican, go!'' be admitted into the Union on an equal footing

The Tribune, followed this up by declaring with the original states, with or without involuntary servitude, as the Constitution of such the right of secession. On the 2d of March, state may provide.?!

'61, it said:

“We have repeatedly said, and we once more

insist, that the great principle embodied by The failure of Wisconsin, says the Milwau- | Jefferson in the Declaration of Independence, kee Sentinel, to appoint commissioners is likely that governments derive their just powers from to have a decidedly opposite effect from what the consent of the governed, is sound and just;

and that, if the slave states, the cotton states, the opponents of such action have intended.

or the Gulf states only, choose to form an inThe N. Y. Post says:

dependent nation, they have a moral right to "In the conference four strongly Republican

do so!?) states remain unrepresented. Michigan, Wis

We might fill a dozen volumes with corelative consin, Minnesota and Kansas have neglected or refused to send commissioners. Of the testimony, all going to show that the Republitwenty states represented, three of the free, cans were determined that no compromise Rhode Island, New Jersey and Pennsylvania, should be affected. Most of their leading will join the seven slave states in any propositions which the latter desire. Thus, should the presses and orators treated all who favored slave states unite for Guthrie's plan, the vote compromise as little, if any better than traiwould probably be a tie, ten to ten. The four tors. free states not represented in the Peace Conference owe it to the country to repair their

Little did they think that compromise is writneglect and authorize the attendahce of com

ten on the face of nature itself, and that their missioners."

very existence is the result of compromise.

The yielding and compensating principles

between heat and cold, wet and dry, earth and The following appeared in the New York air, attraction and repulsion, positive and negTribune while the peace negociations were ative, in the mental and physical, good and bad, pending. It was designed to frighten off the in the moral and political, wise and unwise partizans:

principles in the material world, are all the re"For a man or a party to win a Presiden-, sult of compromise. Without this accommotial election under false pretences, is an of- dating principle, or virtue of yielding partially fënse as much more heinous: than obtaining to opposing forces, to secure results otherwise money under false prétenses, as the administration of the affairs of a great nation is of unattainable, no human government could be more consequence to the world than the ques- formed, no laws could be enacted, no laws ex




ecuted, no society maintained, and even no poubt of its intent. We submit the following family happiness secured.

testimony: No compromise, said the Republicans, and as they looked upon their Wide-Awake battal

The Cincinnati Commercial (Rep.) says: ions, "panting for the fray," they bid defiance to conciliation, and looking to the South as "Our new and supremely idiotic Tariff is a Cæsar viewed the Persians across the Helles- great lever placed in the 'hands of the Seces

sionists, and they are employing it with trepont, like Shakespeare's hero they exclaimed: mendous effect to pry off the border slave states "Let them come!

from the Union. It is vastly more efficient than They come like sacrifices in their train,

the negro question. The negro cry had lost its And to the fire-eyed maid of smoky war,

effect in the border states, for it was plain that All hot and bleeding, we will offer them! The mailed Mars shall on his altar sit,

the negro interest was better off within than it Up to his ears in blood!”

would be without the Union. But the cry of But, happy for them, if in the sequel they for the benefit of special interests, and that

oppressive revenue laws in the North, enacted do not feel in'clined, in the language of Henry there is more freedom of trade in the South, VI. to. exclaim:

will convince multitudes that they would im

prove their condition by going out of the Union. "Ah! vain Republicans, these days are dangerous! Virtue is choked with foul ambition,

There is no necessity so pressing and exacting And charity chased hence by rancor's hand

as the repeal of the Tariff abomination. It was Foul subordination is predominant,

intended to protect a few interests, and it will And equity exiled our native land;

be ruinous to all. The system of favoritism in The gods of party rule the fatal hour, And mock all efforts to reprieve the victims!” legislation is always pernicious. In these rev

olutionary times it is fatal. There should be an extra session of Congress immediately, and

within the first hour after its organization a CHAPTER XIV.

bill should be introduced repealing the Tariff.

The moment an extra session is called, and we REPUBLICAN EFFORTS TO STIMULATE DISSOLU- think the call inevitable; petitions must be cir

culated throughout the West, praying and deThe Morrill Tariff as a Means to Hasten Dissolution... manding the instant repudiation of the miser

Opinions of the “Cincinnati Commercial," " New York ably short-sighted and"puerile"policy of PennTimes,", and "New York World” ... From the “ London sylvania. Every movement toward perfect Times” ... The Tables Turned on the Charge of “ Disloy - | freedom of trade with direct taxation for the alty”...

Rules of Testimony, and the Proof of Republi. can Disloyalty... Testimony of Andrew Johnson... Sena- support of the Government, is in the right ditor Wilson on “Setting up with the Union" ... What rection. Constitutes a "Traitor and a Copperhead ”...Mr. His Preaching contrasted with

A GLOOMY PICTURE !-EFFECT his Practice... Congress on the "Object” of the War...

RILL TARIFF-THE "Indianapolis Sentinel" ditto... Thad. Stevens against the Constitution as it is... Mr. Chase Declares the Union TO ENFORCE ITS LAWS, &c. Not Worth Fighting For... Frank Blair on Chasc... Thurlow Weed on Mob Inciters...Being for the Union as it

The New York Times, (Rep.) draws the was Declared an "Offense "...The Present Programme following gloomy picture under the caption of Blocked Out Just After Lincoln's Nomination...Dawson's Letter to the “Albany Journal”...Giddings in 'Breakers Alead :) the Chicago Convention ; His Radical Doctrine Voted Down There ; How Acted On... Lincoln's Letter of Ac- "The enactment of a highly protective tariff ceptance... Lincoln and the Chicago Platform in Juxta- on the heel of the last session of Congress, position... Sumner Opens the Radical Ball..."New York Postand Other Papers fear it was Premature...

The without the least provison made for its enforceOther Class of Disunionists... Treason of the “Chicago ment, and at the very time when secession was Tribune"... The Crittenden Resolutions... The Proclama- so fully matured as to indicate its character tion and Emancipation : Conclusions Thereon...

New and purpose, was an act of reckless folly unYork Tribune" and Other Sheots ...The "Pope's Bull Against the Comet”... The Object paralleled in our legislative history. The to Divide the North, &C.... Gov. Andrew Before and Af- measure is equally bad in every point in which ter the Proclamation...Choice Inconsistencies, &c... it can be viewed. It is not a revenue tariff.Money and Not the Proolamation Required to Make Its object was to discourage importations. It Seward Pronounces the Proclamation Unconstitutional. cannot be enforced on more than three thou

sand miles of interior line. We treat the seTHE MORRILL TARIFF AS A MEANS TO HASTEN ceding States as a portion of our Confederacy.

A ship may lawfully enter their ports and put The passage of the MORRILL tariff, with its its goods in warehouse. In seizures for con

demnation, the case would be tried in the high pressure demands, just in the nick of United States Courts, and before a local" time, when the Southern fever was at boiling jury. No such jury exist. If they did it pitch, was not only calculated to hasten seces- would be difficult to tell how the jury would sion and dissolution, but that act was passed ever in the premises. His guides are well

decide. The President has no power whatunder such circumstances, as to leave little established laws which contemplated nothing

Lincoln on the Stand :




[ocr errors]


like the present state of affairs. The spectacle tent for good, goes but a small way toward marof a great nation unable to enforce a law en- king its folly. It teems with mischief. It acted with all due solemnity and upon the ob- widens the chasm between the revolted states servance of which the exercise of all its func- and the Government, by introducing anew a tions depend, is humiliating to the last de system which has always been obnoxious to gree.

them, and which would be sure to repel them (Whatever may be the ultimate aims of the now did they have any disposition to return to seceding states, à present advantage is of the their old line of duty: It" weakens the hands utinost importance as a lever for future opera- of the Union men of the border states, who altions. A tarriff is highly unpopular in the ready find it hard enough to keep their mortal border states. . The one just enacted is the lenenies at bay. It greatly "disaffects England. strongest argument yet addressed to them to and France, alienating the good will which the go to the seceding ones, and is telling with Federal Government might otherwise surely great effect. No matter how absurd, may be reckon on, and presents them a direct inducethe statements and arguments used, they none ment to recognize, at the earlist day, the indethe less effect what we would avoid. We do pendence of the states which reject both it and not at the present moment wish to give an op- the policy on which it rests. It imposes new portunity to draw an ill-natured picture of the troubles and burdens upon the administrators Northern capitalist seeking by legislation to of the law at a time when it was hard to see add to his gains, by increasing the cost of eve- how they could efficiently and honorably disrything the poor man uses. No step could charge those which already pressed upon them. have been taken, so well calculated to alienate. It paralyzes the authority of the Government, the border states, at the very moment it has and puts it in a helpless and ridiculous posibeen our policy to conciliate them.

tion, like (Epidus in rags, or Belisarius at the "The seceding states have us at equal disad wayside, at a time when, if ever, it needed its vantage in the foreign Courts. The nations of whole prestige, its strongest moral force. If Europe with whom we have the most intimate Congress was bent on fastening this measure commercial relations are earnest advocates of upon the country, it should at least have arm. free trade. Yet at the very moment that we ed the President with power to enforce it, most desire their sympathy and co-operation, either by enabling him to abolish contumacious we insult their conviction and strike the sever- ports of entry, or to collect the revenues outest blow in our power at their interests. The side the harbor To make law, yet withhold seceding states will take instant advantage of the means of its execution, is sheer "tomfoolour blunder, and will make every effort to se- ery."? cure their will, if not an actual recognition, by adopting a commercial policy in harmony with their own. It was for this purpose, undoubt- The London Times said: edly, that the enactment of the new tariff was "We do not say that the tide has turned, but postponed, to await the report of the Commis

we say that matters are just in that state which sioners just sent abroad.

imposes a very grave responsibility on friendly "At home and abroad, we are already feeling nations and especially on Great Britain. It is the effects of our gratuitios folly. Both Eng- quite possible to forecast and arm ourselves lish and French journals are teeming with ill- against the consequences of the revolutionary natured and unfavorable remarks; with con- movement, so far as they affect this island, trasts either openly, stated or implied in favor without treating it as a fait accompli. We shall of the seceding states. "Never was a nation in greater embarrass- a New York cotemporary from looking for new

not be deterred, for instance, by the wrath of ment. We confess our inability to enforce the

sources of cotton supply, and drawing, if nemost important law we enact, and sit passively cessary upon the resourses of our own colonies, down and see them violated, without raising a

to save our manufacturers from ruin. On the finger. How can we maintain any national other hand we cannot fail to see, and it is our spirit under such humiliation? We take the

duty to point out, the tendency of a retrogade step of all others most calculated to alienate commercial policy in the North to divert Euthe border states and foreign nations. We can

ropean trade from Boston and New York to neither collect our revenue or afford protection. Charleston and New Orleans. These are matWho, under such circumstances, would dare to

ters of business, and the warmest friends of the embark in any enterprise? How much reve

Union cannot expect our merchants to celebrate nue can be collected in Northern ports? No its obsequies by self-immolation.” one can answer these questions. Is not such uncertainty the greatest of. all'evils? A state This is the way we are making history." of war, would be almost preferable. It would To say that this measure was not intended to be the beginning of an end. Thus far we seem widen the breach, and drive away the South, to be without direction or purpose, or the means of enforcing our purpose, if we had any"

would be a poor compliment to the intelligence

of the leaders who were responsible for the THE SHEER TOMFCOLERY OF THE NEW TARIFF. Morrill Tariff. That the rebels. in Congress The New York World said:

either voted for this Tariff or silently permit"To say that this new tariff is simply impo- 1.ted it to pass, shows that they were as anxious


[ocr errors]



to have this "irritating scheme" passed, as its than the Southern rebels, because to the same Northern friends were to pass it, and probably crime they (the radicals) add deception and for the same purpose--as a common lever to hypocrisy. move a common object,

'If we were Prosecuting Attorney in court, We would have charity, and would not con- and it was our official duty to prosecute a man demn our fellow men of so gross crimes, with for wilful murder, on circumstantial evidence, out sufficient evidence; but we submit it to the and if we should succeed in provingscrutinizing ordeal of histoiy, which shall, 1st. A motive for the crime. without bias, apply all the foregoing facts, and 20; Opportunity to commit it, what may yet follow in these pages, to deter- 3d, Threats to accomplish it. mine whether all the conspirators against our 4th, That the weapon of death had been Government left the Union under the Southern. found in the prisoner's possession. ordinances of secession.

5th, That blood had been found upon his


6th. That it was for his interest, either pe "DISLOYALTY."

cuniarily or otherwise to have the deceased out Disloyalty, in its political signification, of the way. means unfaithfulness to one's government, or 7th. Frequent admissions by the prisoner "system of laws, which constitute the Gov-; that he had attempted to take the life of the ernment. This is the only test that can be deceased. made in this country. In monarchial govern- If we had proved all these facts, we should ntsme, loyalty to the person of the monarch is have a clear conscience to ask the jury for a verrequired, because a monarch or despot assumes dict of "guilty» --we should cite the court to to be the government, but in this country, ac- innumerable cases, where conviction was had cording to the code adopted by our fathers, loy- on weaker testimony than this--we should ask alty to our 'system of laws' is all that can be the court for instructions on this point-the required, and he who is unfaithful to that court, would give them--the jury would render "system of laws” is disloyal to the govern- a verdict of guilty, if unbiased, without leaving ment. By that "system of laws” is meant any their seats. law that may be passed in "'pursuance” of the Now, what is the evidence before us ? constitution, which is the fountain license of The leaders of the party in power are prispower.

oners before the bar of public opinion, charged Here, then, is the correct definition of "log. | with the crime of not only disloyalty, but tresaon alty used in a political sense (though in fact to the Government. What is the evidence? no such word belongs to the nomenclature of 1st. We have shown their motive for dissoa Republican Government) and as we have al- lution, as exhibited through a long series of ready shown from innumerable speeches, re- years-to divide the Union, and multiply the solves, addresses and editorials, by the radical officers, so as to give a fewer number a greater leaders of the party in power, to be not only opportunity at the spoils—to build up an aridenunciatory of the constitution and such laws stocracy; wherein the poor shall pay

constant passed under it, as they do not relish, but that tribute to the rich, by way of enormous taxes they have raised the standard of "positive de- for interest on a monstrous public debt, which fiance” and hence have shown their disloyalty they have claimed to be a "public blėssing?? to their government.

2d. Is not the present the fairest opportuniNot only this, but we believe, and will en- ty, to destroy the Union and civil liberty, on deavor to prove, by a chain of circumstantial the pretext of military necessity ? and and positive evidence, as strong as would 3d. Threats---Search the preceding pages, bequired in a court of justice to convict one and you will find threats without number to charged with murder in the first degree, that dissolve the Union. the political leaders of the party in power de- 4th.. Have these marplots not been found sire, and will accomplish, if they can, a disso. with the weapons of dissolution in their hands, lution of the Union This is a serious charge, -to-wit: the slavery agitation, to say nothing we know. If true, the guilty should be placed of other weapons? Read the testimony given in a higher grade of crime, if that be possible, by themselves.

[ocr errors]
« PreviousContinue »