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together too numerous and for "causes altogether too trifling; that a too rigid observance of the sabbath has been exacted; that particular specific acts, as, for example, the smoking of tobacco, have been too severely denounced; in short, that the standard of morality is too high for people in their situation.” But this is the old complaint, which again and again has been brought against the Church of Christ, and not unfrequently against the gospel itself. The general principle upon

which the missionaries, in common with all faithful pastors of the Christian Church, have proceeded, needs no defense at our hands,—and as to the question of the application of this principle in particular cases, we are willing to let it be decided by a comparison of the accused with the accuser,--whether that comparison have reference to ability, or purity of motive, or experience, or opportunity of thorough observation.

But our author's loudest complaints are against what he calls “the unity of Church and State.” For our own part we do not see how it could have happened otherwise than that, if there were to be society or government founded on Christian principles in these islands, the missionaries should be the leaders in the enterprise. The case is this. Properly the missionaries commenced with the establishment of the Christian Church, but, as Christianity is the main element and support of every true civilization, and as the Church itself would survive but a short time in any place without the Christian household and Christian society, and as these could not be fully established unless under a Christian government, such a government became a necessity to the people. But the people themselves were not qualified to establish it, left to themselves. Who then should undertake to aid and direct them in this enterprise? The missionary who by his self-denying labors had raised them up to a condition which made a Christian government necessary, or the foreigner whose whole influence had been to debase them and to keep them in heathen pollutions ? There can be but one answer to this question.

But our author objects to specific acts of the government. He dwells most, however, on the law punishing prostitution. This is the main point of attack with the foreign residents of the islands. All the vile slanders which have been brought home against the missionaries have their origin in this law. We need not defend the principle upon wbich the law is founded, since it has been recognized and adopted in all civilized communities. It will be more to our purpose to show the great necessity of such a law in the Sandwich Islands. In the first place, licentiousness in every form prevailed among the people.

We will not describe it, though it is the favorite topic of our author. Until the habits of the people in this respect were changed, there could be no such thing as a Christian household or Christian society, and to accomplish this, all the powers vested in Church and State were required. We believe that the Church and government would finally have succeeded in this reformation, had not their efforts been counteracted by the foreign population. And this suggests, in the second place, the principal ground of the necessity of the most stringent laws on this subject--the character of the foreign residents.

It is well known that throughout the islands of the Pacific there are many outcasts from civilization, who have taken up a permanent residence in those regions of barbarism. Some are runaway sailors; others are dissipated young men who have fled from the restraints of civilized life; others are adventurers; and a few, enterprising men, who are attracted by the opportunities of making their fortunes. Our author has given incidental accounts of several of these classes; and as we have in the former part of this article alleged his testimony in favor of the missionaries, we will here bring forward his testimony to the character of their principal defamers.

In speaking of the sea-port town of Lahaina, he gives the following account:

"There are no licensed taverns in this sea-port, but, what is infinitely worse, there are numbers of licensed victualing-houses. The very appearance of these dens is enough to create within a man a disgust of his race-enough to make a savage sick. They are kept entirely by a few low foreigners. During the spring and fall seasons, when the whaling fleets are here to recruit, there are no fewer than twelve of these Plutos in full blast. And these hot-beds of vice are termed • Houses of Refreshment!' and 'Sailors' Homes !'

“These terms need not be interpreted to those who are at all conversant with seamen, their general character, and habits; the object with which but too large a proportion of them seek first to be entertained, when coming on shore after a voyage or a cruise, and the altar upon which so many lay property, and peace, and character, and all, a willing sacrifice. Refreshed with 5000 or 6000 gallons of 'New England rum,' and kindred spirits during a single year! Refreshed, indeed, and with a vengeance! as the troubles on board ships from the intemperance of their crews-the pawning of clothes and chests, and books and instruments, to procure a few glasses of the good creature'the sicknesses and diseases consequent upon drinking ardent spirits—the lodg. ment of a score or more of sailors upon the bare ground in the fort, for weeks or months, and with kalo and salt and water for their daily food and drink, as a penalty for scrapes into which rum had brought them—and as the shame, and conscious disgrace and degradation, which a sailor must feel on awaking to consciousness, after a drunken fit in a grog shop, would probably testify.'

" And then the vile decoctions which are constantly palmed off as 'beer' on the too pliant sailor, would best merit the title of “double distilled damnation ;' for this beverage has the capacity to produce scenes, the mere mention of which is impossible. An idea of the profits arising from this 'beer'-selling may be formed from the fact that a room twelve by fourteen, centrally located, will rent at $100 per month.”—pp. 294-5.

We add a description of a native of Connecticut: “While journeying along this shore I met a singular looking object. His face was bronzed by a tropical sun, his eyes were blood-shotten, and a short woolen shirt was his only garment. His haggard face, his matted hair and beard, his rapid steps, almost induced me to believe he had just escaped from a retreat for the insane. He was once a white man; but a four years' intercourse with the most debased and wretched of the natives had turned him into & complete savage. He could hardly read, much less write his own name. The poor wretch was a libel on the enlightened state of Connecticut, for from that part of the United States he originally came. He refused to tell his name. At this, however, I was not surprised. His downcast eyes indicated a sense of shame of his abject condition. His personal mein and appearance established more firmly than ever, in my own mind, the theory that the white man, sev. ered from the civilizing influences of society, is capable of becoming a more debased wretch than the savages or aborigines among whom he lives. Such a scene is calculated to draw tears from the eyes of angels, and to fill the bosom of any living man with sorrow for the brutal condition of many of his species. I have witnessed many such scenes on the Sandwich Islands; and they are numerous on the islands scattered over the wide Pacific Ocean.”—pp. 113–14.

We subjoin a more general estimate of the character of the foreign population:

“While staying at Waimea, I had an excellent opportunity to study the comparative difference and the relations between dative and foreign charac. ter. Aware that I am treading upon very delicate ground, I wish distinctly to be understood as speaking of a low class of foreigners, not at Waimea but only, wherever they reside on the group. More especially, however, I choose to refer to this class of men who reside on the island of Hawaii, for there they most plainly reveal their true characteristics. As a general thing, this class are illiterate, sensual, and vicious; they are the substratum of society, or canaille of other nations, and possess neither the inclination nor means to elevate native character. To elevate aboriginal races, both intelligence, virtue, and ambition are necessary. These essentials the lower class of foreigners do not possess, and they never will. Having spent several years of their life among the natives without a single attempt to reform them, it is exceedingly improbable that they will commence now. I have met with many foreigners who, in point of civilization, are far below thousands of the native face, and I have many a time questioned myself if native indolence and stupidity hare surpassed their own. The effects of such examples have always been extremely baneful to the cause of Hawaiian civilization, and the extent to which the cause of native virtue has been hindered will never be known until the day of the world's final judgment.

“So also the relations which subsist between most foreigners and native women—as wives, is more commonly a source of evil than good. To a person who has never threaded his way over the Sandwich group, it will be natural to suppose that, when a foreigner marries a native woman, he will exert every effort to raise her in the scale of civilization. But such is not the case. Almost, as a general thing, this union is but a license to indiscriminate sensual indulgence and horrible brutality. When a foreigner takes to his arms one of these daughters of the Pacific Islands, and supposes she can do for him what a woman of his own nation could, he must be destitute of the first rudiments of common sense. Yet these mistakes are of nearly every-day occurrence. In such cases, the native women are regarded more as matters of convenience than as immortal, and therefore responsible beings. In a very brief period their masculine tyrants commence their brutality, force their unjust exactions, and become unfaithful to their conjugal vows.

“In point of civilization, too, these foreigners, of whom I am speaking, are as much below their wives as their wives are below native women who are married to natives. Justice compels me to state that I have found them gener. ous to a fault. They have always furnished me with the very best they had in their possession, and would never receive from me any compensation for their hospitalities ; but, at the same time, there was every thing wanting which could tend to fling around their habitations what we understand by that magical word, that mighty talisman—' HOME!' It would be impossible to picture the demoniacal outrages perpetrated upon some of these native women by their own husbands during moments of groundless jealousy. However a woman may thus suffer from the hands of a foreigner, there is no redress. Her life becomes a scene of continued slavery. Her spirit is broken, and she too commonly takes that license which a groundless jealousy only supposed had an existence. Under such circumstances as these, it is no longer a cause for surprise that so many of the Hawaiians never see the light of a true eivilization.” -pp. 363-4.

In contrast with the above, and as showing in this matter that the fault lies with the foreigner and not with the native, we give another quotation:

“Noon overtook me within sight of the residence of Mr. PARKER, an old American, who had resided on this island nearly forty years. I was curious to see him, as I heard much of his generous and excellent character, so I resolved on making a short stay with him. In his earlier life he had wandered over the ocean in the capacity of a sailor. His last voyage brought him to this island, when he resolved on quitting a pursuit so precarious. For some years he ranged the woods after wild bullocks, and became a second NIMROD, - a mighty hunter before the Lord.' He showed me a rifle with which he had shot twelve hundred head of cattle. “After a residence of several years on the island, he married a Hawaiian

Two noble half-caste sons were the result of that union. His own untiring and consistent deportment toward her rewarded him, for she has ever been a faithful, good wife. The civilization she displayed in her personal appearance and domestic relations entirely surprised me, and established a firm conviction that, with manly treatment, these daughters of the isles' can be rendered virtuous, happy, and useful.”—p. 367.

We have quoted enough. The more disgusting descriptions we have omitted. It is not strange that in spite of stringent laws, licentiousness should be the “monster evil in the land." We know not a more lamentable sight than is here presented; on the one hand, a few devoted missionaries of the cross spending all their energies in the attempt to secure a perishing people from the plague which is destroying them, and, on the other, the victims of civilized lands, the offscouring of Christianized nations, struggling by every species of temptation to sink them into still lower depths of pollution.

But our author may say, that it is not the end in view which he condemns, but the attempt to secure it by law. This is so. Indeed, the author goes so far as to justify his opinions by the assertion, that “ by the most enlightened legislators, licentiousness has ever been deemed a necessary evil.” But who in the present case is the best judge,—the government, influenced by


men of sound judgment and unquestioned purity, who have proved their character by the self-denials of a long life of Christian benevolence, or the man who says" ten thousand times better would it have been for that wronged people had they been permitted to INDULGE A RESTRICTED CONCUBINAGE, on their oli plan, than to have had their domestic habits so suddenly revolutionized,” that is, by laws punishing licentiousness. If a more shameless sentiment has been uttered by any man, not among the inmates of the brothel, it has been our good fortune not to meet with it.

There are many other topics which we liad marked for comment, but we pass them by. For the absurdity of the thing, we will mention what our author regards as "the greatest of all causes” of the modern decrease of this people, viz:"the strictures (?) of missionary law.!The nation perishes by in fanticide and infanticide originates in the law against licentiousness. But under the absurd extravagance of this statement, we detect an important testimony to the fidelity with which the law is executed—and it is precisely here that “the shoe pinches."

Our author is of course in favor of “ Annexation;" the American foreign residents all are; and from our author's own account of them, doubtless, they will be a valuable acquisition. We can see with what hopes the measure is pressed forward. We can anticipate the reformations which will be attempted, and among them, the establishment of a “well regulated system of concubinage," and the removal of all“strictures of missionary law,” and possibly the more general diffusion of the Hula, at which our author was present onceand again. We will quote our author's arguments in favor of annexation. First, “ that dying people may be brought back to life and activity by the mild sway of just and righteous laws"--that gentle rule which lets the drunken and debauched do as they please; therefore, they should be annexed. Secondly, the islands are situated midway between the western coast of America and Japan and China—at the “Great Crossings of the Pacific;" therefore, they should be annexed. Thirdly, the climate is excellent, and the island produces sugar, molasses, cotton, silk, coffee, indigo, rice, indian corn, wheat, hemp, kalo, cocoa, tobacco, ginger, and the like; therefore they should be annexed. We will add a Fourthly, on our own responsibility; there are a large number of foreign residents, who, in case of annexation will be enabled to exercise the natural right of "squatter sovereignty," and seize upon the best lands in the islands; therefore they should be annexed.


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