Minnesota and Dacotah: In Letters Descriptive of a Tour Through the North-west, in the Autumn of 1856 ; with Information Relative to Public Lands, and a Table of Statistics

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Christopher Columbus Andrews (1829-1922), future Civil War general, diplomat, and state official, wrote these twenty-six letters on a trip to the Minnesota and Dakota [Dacotah] territory during the fall of 1856. He traveled by rail as far as Chicago and Dunleith (Jo Daviess County, Illinois), continuing by steamship to St. Paul, and making his way by stagecoach to Crow Wing and St. Cloud before returning east. Each letter describes the trip or discusses the territory's economic and institutional development, governance, and opportunities for pioneers, land speculators, and entrepreneurs. Andrews devotes considerable attention to the Minnesota bar and also takes an interest in such topics as farming, lumbering, railroads, waterways, the potential of Lake Superior and the Red River valley, and efforts to induce the Chippewa [Ojibwe] to adopt a way of life rooted in European cultural traditions. The letters anticipate the establishment of Dakota as a separate territory and review current proposals for demarcating its boundaries. Andrews also comments on slavery and the era's racial attitudes.

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Page 107 - On this question of principle, while actual suffering was yet afar off, they raised their flag against a power, to which, for purposes of foreign conquest and subjugation, Rome, in the height of her glory, is not to be compared ; a power which has dotted over the surface of the whole globe with her possessions and military posts, whose morning drum-beat, following the sun, and keeping company with the hours, circles the earth with one continuous and unbroken strain of the martial airs of England.
Page 172 - What constitutes a State? Not high-raised battlement or labored mound, Thick wall or moated gate; Not cities proud, with spires and turrets crowned; Not bays and broad-armed ports, Where, laughing at the storm, rich navies ride; Not starred and spangled courts, Where low-browed baseness wafts perfume to pride. No: MEN, high-minded MEN...
Page 121 - ... that he does not apply to purchase the same on speculation, but in good faith to appropriate it to his own exclusive use and benefit; and that he has not, directly or indirectly, made any agreement or contract, in any way or manner, with any person or persons...
Page 121 - ... he has not, directly or indirectly, made any agreement or contract, in any way or manner, with any person or persons whatsoever, by which the title which he might acquire from the government of the United States should inure, in whole or in part, to the benefit of any person except himself...
Page 46 - A statement of the facts constituting the cause of action, in ordinary and concise language, without repetition, and in such a manner as to enable a person of common understanding to know what is intended.
Page 205 - States for the construction of any canal, railroad, or other public improvement; no sections or fractions of sections included within the limits of any incorporated town; no portions of the public lands which have been selected as the site for a city or town; no parcel or lot of land actually settled and occupied for the purposes of trade and not agriculture; and no lands on which are situated any known salines or mines, shall be liable to entry under and by virtue of the provisions of this act.
Page 204 - An act to appropriate the proceeds of the sales of the public lands, and to grant preemption rights...
Page 204 - ... to enter at the proper land office, and at the minimum price, the land so settled and occupied in trust for the several use and benefit of the occupants thereof, according to their respective interests...
Page 205 - ... in trust for the several use and benefit of the occupants thereof, according to their respective interests ; the execution of which trust, as to the disposal of the lots in such town, and the proceeds of the sales thereof, to be conducted under such regulations as may be prescribed by the legislative authority of the State or Territory in which the same may be situated.
Page 120 - No person shall be entitled to more than one pre-emptive right by virtue of this act; no person who is the proprietor of three hundred and twenty acres of land in any State or Territory...

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