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All the legislative, executive and judicial officers of the United States are bound by oath or affirmation to support the constitution.

RELIGION.

It was the policy of the English colonies in this country, from their first settlement, to preserve church and state separate. When those colonies became independent states they continued the same policy. It is therefore provided in the constitution of the United States, that no religious test shall ever be required as a qualification to any office or public trust under the United States. And an amendment to the constitution further provides that "congress shall make no law respecting an establishment of religion, or prohibiting the free exercise thereof."

LIBERTY OF SPEECH AND OF THE PRESS.

In every free government great freedom must be allowed to all in speaking and writing their views

What officers are required to take an oath or affirmation to support the constitution?

What was the policy of the English colonies as to church and

state?

What is said in the constitution respecting religious test?
What is further provided in an amendment?

and opinions. For a popular government can be sustained only by a correct public opinion. And one of the most efficient means of securing such opinion, is by a free press. For this reason it is provided in an amendment to the constitution that " congress shall make no law for abridging the freedom of speech or of the press."

By this it is not meant that any one may say and print. what he pleases. It only gives him liberty to say and print any thing that will not injure or encroach upon the rights of others; or which is necessary for the public good. If granting liberty of speech and of the press gave to any one an unlimited license to abuse, vilify and defame others at pleasure, no man's reputation would be safe. It would be giving the evil disposed portion of community an opportunity to sacrifice the dearest interests of others for their own amusement, or to gratify a spirit of revenge.

RESERVED RIGHTS OF THE STATES.

The powers not delegated to the United States by the constitution, nor prohibited by it to the states, are reserved to the states respectively, or to the people.

How only can a popular government be sustained?

What says the constitution respecting freedom of speech and of the press?

What is meant by freedom of speech and of the press?
What is said of reserved rights of the states?

We have now finished our brief examination of the powers of both Legislative, Executive and Judicial, which have been granted to the general government by the states. The reserved powers still remaining in the states form the state governments.

What do the powers still remaining in the states form?

STATE GOVERNMENTS.

We have seen that all governments are composed of three great departments, legislative, executive and judicial; that when the American colonies threw off the authority of Great Britain, each of them became a sovereign nation, possessing in itself all the powers of government; that when the states formed themselves into a national government by granting part of their own sovereign power, that national government became a sovereign nation as to the exercise of all power granted to it, while the states still remained sovereign as to all remaining powers. These remaining powers are also divided into legislative, judicial and executive.

The legislative power in each state is vested in a senate and house of representatives.

MAINE.

The senate and house of representatives of the state of Maine, are elected annually by the people, on the second Monday of September. These two houses together are called the "Legislature of Maine." They meet annually on the first Wednesday of Jan

Of what three great departments are all governments composed? In what is the legislative power of each state vested?

For how long and when are the house and senate of Maine elected?

uary, at Augusta. The house is composed of 151 members, and the senate of 31 members.

NEW HAMPSHIRE.

The members of the senate and house of representatives of New Hampshire, are elected annually on the second Tuesday in March. They meet annually at Concord, on the first Wednesday of June. The name of the two legislative bodies is "The General Court of New Hampshire." The senate is composed of 12 members, and the house of 250.

VERMONT.

The senate and house of representatives of Vermont are elected annually on the first Tuesday in September, and are together styled "The General Assembly of the State of Vermont." They meet annually at Montpelier, on the second Thursday of October. Vermont has had a senate only since 1836. It now consists of 30 members, and the house of 230.

MASSACHUSETTS.

The senate and house of representatives of Massachusetts are chosen annually, on the second Monday

How many members in the house? How many in the senate?
How often are the senate and house of New Hampshire elected?
How many members in the senate? How many in the house?
How often and when are the senate and house of Vermont elected?
How long has Vermont had a senate?
Of how many members does it consist? How many in the house?
For how long and when are the senate and house of Massachu-
setts chosen?

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