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'Morbid dreams are classified as-1. Prodromic, or where certain well-marked mental conditions during sleep precede, and are supposed to signalise the approach and commencement of, remote bodily ailments. The soil is virgin; and even where isolated observations have been made it is not easy, in all cases, to connect the premonitory symptom. M. Teste, Minister of Justice, dreamed that he had suffered from apoplexy, and actually died of the disease in three days afterwards. A woman dreamed that she addressed a man who was mute and awoke aphonic. Conflagrations and sanguinary spectacles are said to announce attacks of hæmorrhage. The origin of deep-seated and obscure affections of the abdominal and thoracic viscera may, in the absence of other signs, be indicated by dreams. Nightmare and disturbed dreams are premonitory of nervous diseases.

2. Symptomatic. The illusions of pretended sorcerers, of vampyres, may fairly be identified with their dreams. Esquirol has discovered in the revelations of a sleep-talking monomaniac information which he had been foiled in obtaining during his waking moments. The dreams of the insane are generally characteristic of the nature of the aberration under which they labour; those of the typhomaniac are gloomy and frightful; of the general paralytic, gay and smiling; of the maniac, wild, disordered, pugnacious; in stupidity they

EFFECTS OF DISEASES.

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are vague, obscure, and incoherent; in dementia, few and fleeting; in hypochondria and hysteria the sleep, especially during digestion, is disturbed and painful. It is said that in persons affected with chorea the dreams chiefly refer to the sense of hearing; owing, it is imagined, to the state of the circulation, or the impoverished blood circulated.

3. Diseased dreams include ordinary, periodic, and epidemic nightmare, somnambulism, and various congeneric conditions. The first is characterised by visions of a frightful and painful nature, and by the feeling of fear; the second by the exercise of the muscular system, the external senses, and other organs during dreams, and under the direction of the mental then active.'-Medical Critic and Psychological Journal, vol. ii., April, 1862.-Dream Thoughts and Dream Life.

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DISTURBANCE OF THE NERVES.

JEAN HENRI SAMUEL FORMEY.

When, closing all the avenues of our soul against objects of sense, we commit ourselves to the arms of sleep, whence arise those novel tableaux which offer themselves to us, and sometimes with a vivacity which places our passions in a state little different from that

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INTERIOR EXTREMITY OF THE NERVES.

of waking? How can I see, hear, and feel in general, without making use of the organs of sensation?

'Let us here carefully distinguish between different things that are ordinarily confounded. In what way are the organs of feeling the cause of sensations? Is it in virtue of an immediate principle? Is it by the eye, by the ear, that the soul sees and hears immediately? Not at all. The eye or the ear is affected, but the soul knows nothing of it until the impression reaches the i interior extremity of the optic nerve, or of the auditory nerve; and if any obstacle arrest this impression on the way, so that it does not occasion any disturbance in the brain, the impression is lost to the soul. Thus-and this is a thing very necessary to be remarked, as one of the fundamental principles of our explanation of dreams -it suffices that the interior extremity of the nerves should be disturbed in order that the soul should be alive to any representations.

'One can very readily understand that this interior extremity is the most easy to disturb, because the ramifications in which it terminates are of an extreme tenuity, and are placed at the very source of that subtle fluid which irrigates them, permeates them, rushing here, slowly winding there, and which must have an entirely different form of activity from what it has when it has accomplished the long journey which conducts it to the surface of the body. Hence arise all the acts of ima

WAKING DREAMS AND SLEEPING DREAMS. 23

gination during our waking time; and nobody is ignorant that in persons of a particular temperament, in those who are given to deep meditations, or who are agitated by violent passions, these acts of imagination are equivalent to sensations, and even hinder the effects of these, although they affect us in a manner tolerably lively. Such are the dreams of waking men, which have a perfect analogy with those of men asleep, both being dependent upon that series of interior disturbances which pass to the extremity of the nerves that terminate in the brain. The only difference is that in our waking time we can arrest this series by breaking the connection, by changing the direction, and making it follow the state of the sensations; whereas dreams are independent of our will, and we are as unable to continue agreeable illusions as we are to dispel phantasmal horrors. The imagination of the waking time is a commonwealth ordered and governed, where the voice of the magistrate keeps everything in its place; the imagination of dreams is the same commonwealth in a state of anarchy. And further, the passions are the perpetrators of frequent outrages against the authority of the legislator at the very time when his enactments are in full operation.'-Mélanges Philosophiques. Essai sur les Songes.

PARTIAL ACTIVITY OF NERVOUS CENTRES.

ARTHUR E. DURHAM.

No essay upon sleep, however brief, is considered complete without some reference to those remarkable states of the mind (or of the brain) when the will is in abeyance and the consciousness is awake-not to material objects acting through the senses, but to mysterious processes of internal change; states in which the faded pictures, photographed, as it were, on the memory, are restored; and, it may be, no hypothesis of the anatomy of sleep can be received which is inconsistent with what is known of dreams and dreaming.

'Now, dreams indicate a partial or incomplete activity of the nervous centres, and are associated with those states of the cerebral circulation which have been mentioned as intermediate between the states which respectively characterise perfect repose and perfect activity or wakefulness of the brain. It has been repeatedly asserted that dreams occur only during imperfect sleep. It appears to my own mind that this must necessarily be true for the following reasons: In the first place, dreaming indicates activity of, at any rate, certain portions of the brain; for consciousness is no longer entirely suspended, and impressions upon the organs of sense manifestly affect the changes in the nervous centres. The psychological characteristics of perfect sleep, there

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