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want of rest. Here, at every moment, the mind lapses into a dozing state, from which the loss of the balance of the body as frequently and suddenly arouses it. In this case, and in all of like kind, neither the sleep nor the waking consciousness is perfect; but the mind is kept close to an intermediate line, to each side of which it alternately passes. No such line, however, really exists; and it is merely a rapid shifting to and fro of conditions of imperfect sleep and imperfect waking, giving curious proof of the manner in which these states graduate into one another.' -Medical Notes and Reflections: On Sleep.


'A dream arises that we clutch a corpse that lies beside us. On resuscitation, we are in the act of grasping the left arm on which we are lying with the right hand. The blood-vessels and nerves of the limb have been compressed in the position occupied; it is benumbed, cold from exposure-in popular phraseology,

⚫ 'Exact estimate of time is obviously difficult here; but I have frequently, when in a carriage, obtained proof that this alternation of the loss and recovery of waking consciousness must have occurred at least three times within a minute, by knowing the distance gone over while the observation was made.'




dead. From it, at all events, no impressions are conveyed to the brain, and it is thus essentially separated from consciousness, while the sentient hand conveys the sensation of coldness. With a view to determine the extent of the instrumentality of the senses in the production of dreams, M. Maury submitted to a series of experiments in which the external organs were provoked, in a manner, and by substances of which he was ignorant while he was asleep, and the succeeding dream immediately and carefully noted. The results of some of the significative observations may be detailed.

1. His lips and nose were tickled by his coadjutor with a feather. He dreamed that he was subjected to horrible tortures; that a pitch-plaster was applied to his face, which was then roughly withdrawn, denuding the lips and checks.

2. A pair of tweezers were struck close to his ears by scissors. He dreamed that he heard the ringing of bells, which speedily passed into the tocsin, and suggested June, 1848.

'3. He was made to smell Eau de Cologne. He dreamed that he was in the shop of a perfumer, which led the fancy to the East, and to the shop of Jean Farina, in Cairo !

'4. He was made to feel the heat and smell of a burning match, and the wind at the time whistled



through the shutters. He dreamed that he was at sea, and that the powder-room of the vessel blew up.

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5. His neck was slightly pinched. He dreamed that a blister was applied; and then there arose the recollection of a physician who had treated him in youth.

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6. A piece of red hot iron was held close to his face for such a length of time as to communicate a slight heat. He dreamed of bandits who got into houses and applied hot irons to the feet of thé inhabitants, in order to extract money from them. This idea suggested that of the Duchess d'Abrantes, who he conceived had chosen him as secretary, in whose memoirs he had read of chauffeurs, or bandits who burned people.

7. The word " parafaramus" was pronounced close to his ear. He heard nothing; but on a repetition of the attempt while in bed, the word "maman" was followed only by a dream of the hum of bees. When the experiment was repeated some days subsequently, and when he was falling asleep, he dreamed of two of three words, "Azor, Castor, Leonore," which were attributed to the interlocutors in his dream. The sound of "chandelle, haridelle," awoke him while pronouncing the words "c'est elle," but without any recollection of the idea attached to the expression.

'8. A drop of water falling on the brow suggested





a dream of Italy, great thirst, and a draught of


9. A light, surrounded by a red paper, was repeatedly passed before his eyes. He dreamed of a storm of lightning, which reproduced a violent tempest which he had encountered between Morlaix and Havre.

'It is very doubtful whether a waking mind, emasculated by the deprivation or disease of several of the senses, could have arrived at more precise results.'

'M. Macario divides physiological dreams into1. Sensorial or intracranial, where they apparently arise from the mind itself, and without the instigation of a sensation, as may be exemplified in the case of a woman hearing for three successive nights a voice exclaiming, "Kill thy daughter! kill thy daughter!" and who immolates her child. 2. Into dream illusions, where an external impression stands in the relation of cause to the mental condition which follows. A dreamer hears an explosion, and immediately conceives that he is in the presence of conflicting armies; he sees the blood flow, he hears the discharge of musketry and cannon, the clash of arms, the cries of the combatants, and the groans of the wounded and dying; or the sound of a bell recalls the days and joys of infancy, or

• Du Sommeil, des Rêves, et d Somnambulisme dans l'état de Santé et de Maladie. Lyons, 1857.



the gloomy pageantry of a funeral or religious solemnity, according to the sensibility of the individual.

'His second class of physiological dreams is the emotional, which are described as those in which the affections and passions concerned predominate, and which he traces to the ganglionic system. The exile, a prey to nostalgia, dreams of his native country, his home, the objects of his love; and he hears the voices of his kindred. Love may suggest lascivious dreams; shame may present the dreamer exposed to the gaze of a multitude; crime may conjure up remorse and horror; hunger may spread a table with good cheer.

'The third class is the psychical, or intellectual, where in sleep the sphere of intellect extends and enlarges itself in a marvellous manner. The ideas are more vivacious and lucid; the imagination is bolder; the memory more precise; the judgment more prompt and assured. "It might be said," he breaks out poetically, "that the spirit bursts the bonds which connect it with earth, and launches itself into the ethereal regions— into the dazzling domain of Truth. Many successful literary and scientific efforts have been inspired by an intellectual dream. Galen acknowledged that he owed a great part of his experience to the lights received in dreams. Hermas wrote his 'Pastor' to the dictation of a voice heard in sleep."

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