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of mettall or mynerall. This was a thing of no accompt in the judgement of the captain at the first sight. And yet for novelty it was kept, in respect of the place from whence it came.

After his arrival in London, being demanded of sundrie his friendes what thing he had brought them home of that country, he had nothing left to present them withall but a peece of this black stone. And it fortuned a gentlewoman, one of ye adventurers wives, to have a peece thereof, which by chance she threw and burned in the fire, so long, that at the length being taken forth and quenched in a little vinegre, it glistered with a bright Marquesset of golde. Whereupon the matter being called in some question, it was brought to certain goldfinders in London to make assay therof, who indeed found it to hold gold, and that very ritchly for the quantity. Afterwards, the same goldfinders promised great matters thereof if there were anye store to be found, and offred themselves to adventure for the serching of those partes from whence the same was brought. Some, that had great hope of the matter, sought secretly to have a lease at hir Majesties hands of those places, whereby to enjoy the masse of so great a publike profit unto their owne private gaines.

In conclusion, the hope of the same golde ore to be founde, kindled a greater opinion in the heartes of many to advaunce the voyage againe. Whereupon preparation was made for a newe voyage against the yeare following, and the captaine more specially directed by commission for the searching more of this golde ore than for the searching any further of the passage. And being wel accompanied with diverse resolute and forward gentlemen, hir Majestie then lying at the right honourable the Lord of Warwicks house in Essex, came to take theyr leaves, and kissing hir highnesse hands, with gracious countenance and comfortable words departed towardes their charge.


By this discourse, it may please your Honour to behold the greate industrie of oure present age, and the invincible mindes of our Englishe nation, who have never lefte anye worthy thing unattempted, nor anye parte almoste of the whole world unsearched, whome lately, neyther stormes of seas by long and tedious voyages, danger of darke fogs and hidden rockes in unknown coastes, congealed and frozen

seas, with mountains of fleeting ise, nor yet present dayly before their face, coulde anye white dismay, or cause to desiste from intended enterprises; but rather preferring an honourable death before a shameful retourne, have (notwithstanding the former dangers,) after many perillous repulses, recovered their desired port. So that, if now the passage to CATAYA thereby be made open unto us, (which only matter hytherto hath occupied the finest heades of the world, and promiseth us a more riches by a nearer way than eyther Spaine or Portugale possesseth) where of the hope (by the good industrie and great attemptes of these men is greatly augmented) or if the golde ore in these new discoveries founde out, doe in goodnesse as in greate plenty auns were expectation, and the successe do followe as good, as the proofe thereof hitherto made, is great, we may truely infer, that the Englishman in these our dayes, in his notable discoveries, to the Spaniard and Portingale is nothing inferior: and for his hard adventures, and valiant resolutions, greatly superior. For what hath the Spaniarde or Portingale done by the southeast and southweast, that the Englishman by the northeast and north weast hath not countervailed the same?

And albeit I confesse that the Englishe have not hytherto had so ful successe of profit and commoditie of pleasaunt place (considering that the former nations have happily chanced to travel by more temperate clymates, where they had not onlye good meates and drinkes, but all other things necessarie for the use of man) all whiche things, the English, travelling by more intemperate places, and as it were with mayne force, making waye through seas of ise, have wanted, which notwithstanding argueth a more resolution: for Difficiliora pulchriora, that is, the adventure the more hard the more honorable: yet concerning the perfecter knowledge of the world, and geographicall description, (wherein the present age and posteritie also, by a more universal understanding is much furthered, as appeareth by my universall mappe with pricked boundes here annexed) herein, the Englishman deserveth chiefe honour above any other. For neyther Spaniard nor Portugale, nor anye other besides the English, have bin found, by so great dangers of ise, so neare the Pole, to adventure any discoverie, whereby the obscure and unknowen partes of the world (which otherwise had laine hid) have bin made knowen unto us.

So that it may appeare, that by our English men's industries, and these late voyages, the world is grown to a more fulnesse and perfection; many unknowen lands and ilands, (not so much as thought upon before) made knowen unto us: Christ's name spred: the Gospell preached; infidels like to be converted to Christiantie, in places where before the name of God had not once bin hearde of: shipping and seafaring men, have bin employed: navigation and the navie (which is the chief strength of our realm) maintayned: and gentlemen in the sea service, for the better service of their country, wel experienced. Al whiche things are (no doubt) of so gret importance, as being wel wayed, may seeme to countervayle the adventures charges: although the passage to CATAYA were not found out, neither yet the golde ore prove good, wher of both the hope is good and gret. But notwithstanding all these, even in this (if no otherwise) hyr most excellent Majestie hath reaped no small profit, that she may now stand assured, to have many more tried, able and sufficient men against time of need, that

are (which without vaunt may be spoken) of valour gret, for any great adventure, and of governement good for any good place of service. For this may truly be spoken of these men, that there hath not bin seene in any nation, being so many in number, and so far from home, more civill order, better governement, or agreement. For even from the beginning of the service hitherto, there hath neither passed mutinie, quarrel, or notorious fact, either to the slaunder of the men, or daunger of the voyage, although the gentlemen, souldiers, and marriners (whiche seldome can agree) were by companies matched togither.

But I may perchance (right Honourable) seeme to discourse somewhat too largely, especially in a cause that (as a partie) somewhat concerneth my selfe; which I doe, not for that I doubt of your honorable opinion already conceived of the men, but for that I know, the ignorant multitude is rather ready to slander, than to give good encouragement by due commendation to good causes, who, respecting nothinge but a present gaine, and being more than needefully suspitious of the matter, do therewithall condemne the men, and that without any further respect, either of their honest intents, either of their wel performing the matter they dyd undertake (which according to their direction, was specially to bring home ore) either else of their painful travel (which for their Prince, and the publicke profite of their countries cause they have sustained).

But by the way, it is not unknown to the world, that this our native country of England in al ages hath bred up (and specially at this present aboundeth with) many forward and valiant minds, fit to take in hand any notable enterprise; wherby appeareth, that if the Englishman had bin in times paste as fortunate and foreseeing to accept occasion offered, as he hath bin always forwarde in executing anye cause once taken in hand, he had bin worthily preferred before all nations of the worlde, and the Weast Indies had now bin in the possession of the Englishe.

For Columbus, the firste Discoverer of the Weast Indies, made firste offer thereof, with his service, to King Henry the seaventh, then Kyng of Englande, and was not accepted: Whereuppon, for want of entertainement here, hee was forced to go into Spaine, and offered there (as before) the same to Ferdinando, Kyng of Castyle, who presently acceptyng the occasion, did first himselfe, and now his successors, enjoy the benefite thereof.

Also Sebastian Cabota, being an Englishman, and born in Bristowe, after he had discovered sundrie parts of new found lande, and attempted the passage to Cataya by the Northwest, for the King of England, for lacke of entertainment here, (notwithstanding his good desert) was forced to seeke to the Kinge of Spaine, to whose use hee discovered all that tract of Brazil, and about the famous river Rio de la Plata, and for the same, and other good services there, was afterwards renowmed, by title of Piloto Maggiore, that is Graunde Pylote, and constituted chiefe officer of the Contractation house of Sivilla: in whiche house are handled all matters concerning the Weast Indies, and the revenues thereof; and further that no Pylot shoulde be admitted for any discoverie but by his direction.

But there hath bin two special causes in former age, that have greatly hindered the English nation in their attempts. The one hath bin, lacke of liberalitie in the nobilitie, and the other want of skill in the cosmographie, and the arte of navigation. Whiche kinde of knowledge is very necessary for all oure noblemen, for that wee being ilanders, our chiefest strength consisteth by sea. But these twoo causes are nowe in this present age

(God be thanked) very well reformed; for not only hir majestie now, but all the nobilitie also, having perfect knowledge in Cosmographie, doe not only with good wordes countenance the forward minds of men, but also with their purses do liberally and bountifully contribute unto the same, whereby it cometh to passe, that navigation, whiche in the time of King Henry the 7th was very rawe, and toke (as it were) but beginning (and ever since hath had by little and little continuall increase) is now in hir Majestie's raign growen to his highest perfection.

Martin Frobisher was born in Yorkshire about 1535. He was educated in London, went on a voyage to Guinea in 1554, and was engaged in various expeditions from that time on. His public services brought him under the notice of the queen and of Sir Humphrey Gilbert, who in 1566 wrote his famous "Discourse to prove a Passage to the North-west," published ten years later. This discourse, while still in manuscript, was the incitement to the first expedition commanded by Frobisher for the discovery of a North-west passage. The chief promoter of the expedition was Ambrose Dudley, Earl of Warwick. Frobisher sailed from the Thames with two small barques and a pinnace June 7, 1576, and sighted the southern point of Greenland July 11. He sailed into Frobisher's Bay "above fifty leagues," supposing the land on his right to be Asia and that on the left America. Returning, he reached London in October.

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A piece of black pyrite brought home by one of the sailors was pronounced to contain gold; and on his second voyage, the next year, Frobisher was "more specially directed by commission for the searching more of this gold ore than for the searching any further discovery of the passage." Two hundred tons of ore were brought home; but it was pronounced 'poor in respect of that brought last year, and that which we know may be brought next year." In May, 1578, Frobisher sailed a third time, with a fleet of fifteen vessels. He landed in the south of Greenland, which he named West England. After losing himself in the Mistaken Streight" (.., Hudson's), and after several weeks of farther explorations, he loaded the soundest vessels with mineral that turned out to be worthless, and returned to England in the autumn.

north-west was projected, and the command He went with Drake to the West Indies as "Triumph" in the great Armada fight. He

In 1581 a fourth voyage to Cathay by the was offered Frobisher; but he relinquished it. vice-admiral in 1585; and he commanded the was knighted at sea by the lord high admiral. He served in 1590 with Sir John Hawkins ; and in 1592 he was in the service of Sir Walter Raleigh. In 1593 he paid his last visit to his Yorkshire home, where he became a justice of the peace for the West Riding. In the fight at Crozon, near Brest, in 1594, he was wounded; and unskilful surgery led to his death. He died soon after reaching Plymouth, where his entrails were buried in the church of St. Andrew, while his other remains were interred in St. Giles's, Cripplegate, London.

There is no thorough, critical life of Frobisher, like Corbeett's work on Drake. There is a brief biography by Jones; and there are good notices in the various works on the Elizabethan Seamen, by Fox Bourne, Froude, Payne, and others. The admirable article in the "Dictionary of National Biography" is by C. H. Coote. Frobisher's work is also well outlined by Charles C. Smith in the chapter on Explorations to the North-west in the "Narrative and Critical History of America," vol. iii.; and the bibliographical notes are good.


George Beste's "True Discourse of the Late Voyages of Discoverie for Finding of a Passage to Cathaya, by the North-weast, under the conduct of Martin Frobisher, General" (London, 1578), is the original authority for Frobisher's three voyages. Beste accompanied Frobisher on the second and third voyages. Beste's work was reprinted by Hakluyt; and a fine edition, edited by Collinson, was published by the Hakluyt Society in 1867. This is used for the present leaflet. About one-third of the part devoted to the first voyage is here given, the earlier pages being occupied by a general account of the world at that period.


THE DIRECTORS OF THE OLD SOUTH WORK, Old South Meeting-house, Boston, Mass.

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A report of the voyage and successe thereof, attempted in the yeere of our Lord 1583 by sir Humfrey Gilbert knight, with other gentlemen assisting him in that action, intended to discover and to plant Christian inhabitants in place convenient, upon those large and ample countreys extended Northward from the cape of Florida, lying under very temperate Climes, esteemed fertile and rich in Minerals, yet not in the actuall possession of any Christian prince, written by M. Edward Haies gentleman, and principal actour in the same voyage, who alone continued unto the end, and by Gods speciall assistance returned home with his retinue safe and entire.

MAny voyages have bene pretended, yet hitherto never any thorowly accomplished by our nation of exact discovery into the bowels of those maine, ample and vast countreys, extended infinitely into the North from 30 degrees, or rather from 25 degrees of Septentrionall latitude, neither hath a right way bene taken of planting a Christian habitation and regiment upon the same, as well may appeare both by the little we yet do actually possesse therein, and by our ignorance of the riches and secrets within those lands, which unto this day we know chiefly by the travell and report of other nations, and most of the French, who albeit they can not challenge such right and interest unto the sayd countreys as we, neither these many yeeres have had opportunity nor meanes so great to discover and to plant (being vexed with the calamnities of intestine warres) as we have had by the inestimable benefit of our long and happy peace: yet have they both waies performed more, and had long since attained a sure possession and settled government of many provinces in those Northerly parts of America, if their many attempts into those

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