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or is pierced with incisions. The Conference also passed a resolution favoring the restriction of the present burdensome military changes, and formulated various wishes looking toward the limitation of armaments and humaner methods of war.
By far the most important of the acts of the Conference was its First Convention, providing for the peaceful settlement of international differences. This Convention is printed in the present leaflet. Mr. Holls well pronounces it "the Magna Charta of International Law." It provided, for the first time in history, adequate machinery for the settlement of differences between nations by the methods of reason instead of by force, and marks an epoch for humanity.
"The Peace Conference at The Hague," by Frederick W. Holls, the Secretary of the American Commission, is a thorough history of the Conference and a critical commentary upon its proceedings; and the student is referred to this work for full information. In the appendix will be found the full text of the various Conventions and Declarations, as well as the reports of the American Commission, and an account of the Hugo Grotius celebration at Delft, July 4, 1899, with the oration of Ambassador White. The introduction to Grotius's "Rights of War and Peace" is published in Old South Leaflet No. 101. See also William Penn's" Plan for the Peace of Europe," No. 75.
THE DIRECTORS OF THE OLD SOUTH WORK,
Old South Meeting-house, Boston, Mass.
Letter from Lorenzo Pasqualigo to his brothers Alvise and Francesco.*
LONDON, 23rd August, 1497.
Our Venetian, who went with a small ship from Bristol to find new islands, has come back, and says he has discovered, 700 leagues off, the mainland of the country of the Gran Cam, and that he coasted along it for 300 leagues, and landed, but did not see any person. But he has brought here to the king certain snares spread to take game, and a needle for making nets, and he found some notched trees, from which he judged that there were inhabitants. Being in doubt, he came back to the ship. He has been away three months on the voyage, which is certain, and, in returning, he saw two islands to the right, but he did not wish to land, lest he should lose time, for he was in want of provisions. This king has been much pleased. He says that the tides are slack, and do not make currents as they do here. The king has promised for another time, ten armed ships as he desires, and has given him all the prisoners, except such as are confined for high treason, to go with him, as he has requested; and has granted him money to amuse himself till then. Meanwhile, he is with his Venetian wife and his sons at Bristol. His name is Zuam Talbot,† and he is called the Great Admiral, great honour being paid to him, and he goes dressed in silk. The English are ready to go with him, and so are many of our rascals. The discoverer of these things has planted a large cross in the ground with a banner
*Calendar of State Papers (Venice), i. p. 262, No. 752. † A misprint: "T" for "C."
of England, and one of St. Mark, as he is a Venetian; so that our flag has been hoisted very far away.
First Despatch of Raimondo di Soncino to the Duke of Milan.* (Extract.)
24th AUGUST, 1497.
Some month afterwards His Majesty sent a Venetian, who is a distinguished sailor, and who was much skilled in the discovery of new islands, and he has returned safe, and has discovered two very large and fertile islands, having, it would seem, discovered the seven cities 400 leagues from England to the westward. These successes led His Majesty at once to entertain the intention of sending him with fifteen or twenty vessels.
Second Despatch of Raimondo di Soncino to the
18th DECEMBER, 1497.
My most illustrious and most excellent Lord,
Perhaps amidst so many occupations of your Excellency it will not be unwelcome to learn how this Majesty has acquired a part of Asia without drawing his sword. In this kingdom there is a certain Venetian named Zoanne Caboto, of gentle disposition, very expert in navigation, who, seeing that the most serene Kings of Portugal and Spain had occupied unknown islands, meditated the achievement of a similar acquisition for the said Majesty. Having obtained royal privileges securing to himself the use of the dominions he might discover, the sovereignty being reserved to the Crown, he entrusted his fortune to a small vessel with a crew of 18 persons, and set out from Bristo, a port in the western part of this kingdom. Having passed Ibernia, which is still further to the west, and then shaped a northerly course, he began to navigate to the eastern part, leaving (during several days) the North Star on the right hand; and having wandered thus for a long time, at length he hit upon land, ‡ where he hoisted the royal standard, and took possession for this Highness, and, having obtained various proofs of his discovery, he returned.
*Calendar of State Papers (Venice), iii. p. 260, No. 750.
Annuario Scientifico, Milan, 1866, p. 700; Archiv d' Etat Milan, reprinted by Harrisse, p. 324, from the Intorno of Desimoni, and translated from his text for the Hakluyt Society, with his permission. Also Tarducci, p. 351.
said Messer Zoanne, being a foreigner and poor, would not have been believed if the crew, who are nearly all English, and belonging to Bristo, had not testified that what he said was the truth. This Messer Zoanne has the description of the world on a chart, and also on a solid sphere which he has constructed, and on which he shows where he has been; and, proceeding towards the east, he has passed as far as the country of the Tanais. And they say that there the land is excellent and (the climate?) temperate, suggesting that brasil and silk grow there. They affirm that the sea is full of fish, which are not only taken with a net, but also with a basket, a stone being fastened to it in order to keep it in the water; and this I have heard stated by the said Messer Zoanne.
The said Englishmen, his companions, say that they took so many fish that this kingdom will no longer have need of Iceland, from which country there is an immense trade in the fish they call stock-fish. But Messer Zoanne has set his mind on higher things, for he thinks that, when that place has been occupied, he will keep on still further towards the east, where he will be opposite to an island called Cipango, situated in the equinoctial region, where he believes that all the spices of the world, as well as the jewels, are found. He further says that he was once at Mecca, whither the spices are brought by caravans from distant countries; and having inquired from whence they were brought and where they grow, they answered that they did not know, but that such merchandize was brought from distant countries by other caravans to their home; and they further say that they are also conveyed from other remote regions. And he adduced this argument, that if the eastern people tell those in the south that these things come from a far distance from them, presupposing the rotundity of the earth, it must be that the last turn would be by the north towards the west; and it is said that in this way the route would not cost more than it costs now, and I also believe it. And what is more, this Majesty, who is wise and not prodigal, reposes such trust in him because of what he has already achieved, that he gives him a good maintenance, as Messer Zoanne has himself told me. And it is said that before long his Majesty will arm some ships for him, and will give him all the malefactors to go to that country and form a colony, so that they hope to establish a greater depot of spices in London than there is in Alexandria. The principal people in the enterprise belong to
Bristo. They are great seamen, and, now that they know where to go, they say that the voyage thither will not occupy more than 15 days after leaving Ibernia. I have also spoken with a Burgundian, who was a companion of Messer Zoanne, who affirms all this, and who wishes to return because the Admiral (for so Messer Zoanne is entitled) has given him an island, and has given another to his barber of Castione,* who is a Genoese, and both look upon themselves as Counts; nor do they look upon my Lord the Admiral as less than a Prince. I also believe that some poor Italian friars are going on this voyage, who have all had bishopricks promised to them. And if I had made friends with the Admiral when he was about to sail, I should have got an archbishoprick at least; but I have thought that the benefits reserved for me by your Excellency will be more secure. I would venture to pray that, in the event of a vacancy taking place in my absence, I may be put in possession, and that I may not be superseded by those who, being present, can be more diligent than I, who am reduced in this country to eating at each meal ten or twelve kinds of victuals, and to being three hours at table every day, two for love of your Excellency, to whom I humbly recommend myself. London, 18 Dec. 1497, your Excellency's most humble servant, RAIMUNDUS.
Despatch from Ruy Gonzalez de Puebla to the Catholic
25TH JULY, 1498.
The King of England sent five armed ships with another Genoese like Columbus to search for the island of Brasil, and others near it. They were victualled for a year. They say that they will be back in September. By the direction they take, the land they seek must be the possession of your Highnesses. The King has sometimes spoken to me about it, and seems to take very great interest in it. I believe that the distance from here is not 400 leagues.
*Perhaps Castiglione, near Chiavari.
↑ Public Record Office.
This is the first time that the name of Columbus is mentioned in a document coming from England. - Harrisse.