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A Statement showing the number who have relinquished

their pensions under the act of March 18, 1818, and have Abstract of the number of warrants issued for the been placed on the rolls under the act of June 7, 1832.

72

ing on the 30th September, 1833.

1st. authorized by the acts of December 24,
1811, and January 11, 1812

2d. authorized by the acts of December 10,
1814

Whereof, of the 1st description, 65 granted

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East and West Tennesse, 2

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Ohio and Pittsburg agen

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8

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of 160 acres each

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65

=

10,400 320

160

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One Canadian warrant, per special act of Con-
gress, for

WAR DEPARTMENT,
Pension Office, November 25, 1833.

J L. EDWARDS, Com'r of Pens.

DEPARTMENT OF WAR,

Bounty Land Office, November 1, 1833.

The above and aforegoing is respectfully reported to the honorable Secretary of War as the proceedings of this office for the year ending on the 30th September, 1833. WM. GORDON, First Clerk.

Documents accompanying the President's Message.

[23d CONG. 1st SESS.

REPORT OF THE SECRETARY OF THE NAVY. small increase of expense attending it, has been amply

NAVY DEPARTMENT,

November 30, 1833.

SIR: In submitting to your consideration a review of the operations of the naval branch of the public service during the past year, I would first invite attention to its administration in this place.

The separate organization of the Navy Department in the manner originally established by Congress, and the change since made by the addition of a Navy Board, have, with the several clerks now allowed, furnished a sufficient number of persons for the suitable discharge of all ordinary duties immediately connected with this office. So far as my knowledge extends, those duties have generally been performed with promptitude and accuracy; but some changes in the present laws respecting them would probably prove beneficial. Though the number of clerks, and the aggregate amount of salary paid to them, are deemed sufficient, yet more substantial justice could be enforced if that amount was so appropriated as to permit the Department to divide it in conformity to the usefulness of their respective services. It has happened that some of them receiving large salaries perform no greater or more difficult duties than those receiving less pay, and no power exists here to equalize their compensation, except by an occasional transfer of duties, not always convenient, appropriate, or useful.

A different arrangement of the Navy Board has, for a few years, been a subject of consideration by Congress. The Board itself, and the head of this Department, once united in recommending such a change as to apportion its ordinary business among the several members, with a view to greater convenience, despatch, and responsibity. This could be accomplished without any material increase of expense, and it seems, on many accounts, very desirable. The reasons for the change have been so fully detailed in former reports as not to need at this time further expla- | nation.

There might be some useful alterations connected with the administration of the naval branch of the service in the office of the Fourth Auditor, whose duties, though nominally belonging to the Treasury Department, are intimately allied with, and very essential in most of, the operations of the navy. The great amount of property which is in charge of this Department, and which is yearly increasing, seems to require that a regular account of it should be opened in that office, and kept in such manner as to ensure safety and responsibility. In another particular, improvement could be made. The old bal. ances on his books, due from defaulters who were once in the naval service, are large, and though few such balances have occurred lately, yet the collection of all of them would doubtless be promoted if it were devolved upon him as the person who, from his official station, is best acquainted with the situation of the claims, and the means of payment possessed by the debtors, and who could act with the most promptitude in securing the public.

Auxiliary to the central administration of the naval service, the inspection of our ordnance was a few years since assigned to an officer of rank residing in this neighbor. hood; and authorized to receive the usual extra allow. ances while engaged in actual duty. His employment during the past season has been much extended, having embraced the inspection of all our ordnance and ordnance stores in depot at all the naval stations. The result it is hoped may prove highly beneficial in our future operations. Under a similar arrangement, the custody and correction, as well as occasionally the purchase of charts, chronometers, compasses, and nautical instruments generally, were devolved on two intelligent officers stationed at this place. The system has worked favorably; and the VOL. X.-G

repaid in the better preservation and quality of those articles, and in the probable increase of safety to our vessels afloat, and to the lives of their gallant officers and crews. A specific estimate for the purchase and maintenance of a lithographic press is submitted as a means of saving, under charge of these officers, still more to the public in the procurement of charts, circulars, and blank forms, of such kinds as are employed, not only in this office, but at the several yards and on board vessels in commission. (A.) Its various conveniences and usefulness in other respects, and especially in the drawings and plans connected with the survey of our coast, now in progress, are more particularly detailed in the reports annexed. (B, 1 and 2.) To prevent any nominal or real increase of appropriations in consequence of the purchase of this press, it will be seen in the general estimates that a corresponding, or, indeed, a larger reduction has been made in what is asked for the general contingent appropriations for this office and for the service, and out of which appropriations most of the above articles are now provided.

It was formely recommended to organize at this place a naval medical bureau, and a bill is now on the files of Congress reported for that purpose. As that bill was not finally disposed of, I did not deem it proper to adopt any different system for attaining in a different manner most of the benefits expected to be accomplished by that measure. But if nothing be done during the ensuing session of Congress, regulating this subject, it is intended, under our present laws, that one of the older surgeons, in connexion with other services, either at the barracks or navy yard in this city, shall be detailed and employed in performing many of the duties contemplated for a surgeon general.

The whole expenses, the past year, for all persons situated here, and belonging to the administration of this Department, as well as the expenses for the care and repair of our furniture, buildings, and the grounds appertinent, were about $48,000. This amount, I trust, will be thought to bear a favorable comparison with the same class of expenses at former periods, or in other similar establishments, when the large increase and extent of duties at this place are duly considered.

Passing from the central administration of this Department, to that of the persons connected with its operations elsewhere, I would next submit to your considera. tion a few remarks on the situation of such of those persons as fill official stations, but are not technically denom inated naval officers. They are a large and useful class, belonging to what may be considered our civil list, and consist of agents, storekeepers, constructors, builders, schoolmasters, secretaries to commanders, clerks of yards, engineers, live-oak superintendents, and some others attached to stations and hospitals.

In an establishment growing like the navy in a few years from so small a beginning to its comparatively great size at the close of the late war, and at the present moment, it was perhaps unavoidable that many measures and appointments, considered as incidental to other im portant objects expressly authorized, should be left to the discretion of the Department. In this way most of the above persons have been employed and paid, usually by virtue of estimates and general appropriations, without any specific provision in any act of Congress regulating the manner of their appointment, or the amount of their compensation. Indeed, a system similar in some respects has been extended to others; as the only limit, which now exists, to the number of every class of naval officers is the same discretion, restrained solely by estimates and appropriations, and by the confirmation required from the Senate in the case of commissioned officers. practices have not, in my opinion, been the safest; though

These

23d CONG. 1st SESS.]

Documents accompanying the President's Message.

very low compensation of some of the clerks at a few of the yards.

the custom of this Department to submit to Congress, through the Executive and otherwise, full communications of its doings in relation to most of these subjects, The remaining persons belonging to the naval estabenables the Government to exercise any control deemed lishment are the various officers and seamen of the navy. necessary over any supposed abuse. My own desire has The general conduct of these, the past year, has been been, whenever convenient and practicable, to impose highly commendable. The very small number of courtsstill further limits on that discretion. With this view, on martial, it is believed, has arisen from an improving spirit a former occasion, the estimates for the contingent ap- of harmony in the service, and from a mild but firm and propriations were made by me more specific, and settled uniform system of discipline. Seldom bas the health enrules of allowances and compensation in most cases were joyed on every station been better; and the superior conestablished or collected, and then digested and publish.dition of the medical corps, as well as of the hospitals, ed. The revision of our whole naval regulations by the exercises on this subject a very salutary influence. Board heretofore appointed for that purpose, will, when The number of officers in the different classes has genfinished and adopted, probably introduce greater system erally been kept within the estimates. It is proposed to and certainty in relation to some of these matters. But continue the number much as it now exists. There are it still deserves consideration, whether additional legal now quite as many captains and surgeons as can be useprovision might not judiciously be made concerning the fully employed; the former having been increased about appointment and wages of some of the classes before one-third, and the latter one-fourth, during the last ten named. All the persons on the civil list now under con- years. There are somewhat more lieutenants and midsideration are believed to have conducted, during the shipmen than might be deemed indispensable, the former past year, with fidelity to their duties. The only essen- within that time having been increased about one-half, tial changes in relation to them have been the following. and the latter one-fourth; though, in making this compariThere has been a discontinuance of two naval construct- son, it is proper to state that, previous to 1824, all these ors, whose services were no longer needed; and new and classes had occasionally been more numerous than they more economical arrangements have been made as to the were at that period. But, in relation to the two last duties of some of our agents and storekeepers abroad. classes, no reduction from the estimates of last year is The few live-oak agents, appointed for certain districts, contemplated. It is considered that, on a peace estabwho remained in office last December, have been dis- lishment, they ought to possess ample and valuable mapensed with; and no salary is now paying on that account, terials for any sudden or large increase of the higher except to one person, in temporary employ for a few classes, which any national emergency may at any time months, in the examination of one unfinished district. In require; while nothing is found to prove more injurious some cases in which we have had warranted officers, to older officers, than to be placed in a condition where competent to perform the labors assigned to persons be no further incentives to improvement by anticipated prolonging to civil life, and hired at some of the yards, it has motion exist, and where the classes they already fill conbeen deemed sound economy to order the former upon tain so large a number as to permit many years to clapse such duty, and to discontinue the services of the latter. without the possibility of putting them all on active duty, It has not yet been found necessary to select a permanent unless at the expense, inconvenience, and injury of more engineer, as the superintendents of the dry docks and of frequent changes of the superior officers in stations and the erection of the hospitals have been able, for the pres- squadrons, than the public interests appear to justify. ent, to perform such duties as would have been required The whole number of naval officers at this time, inof him. But the additional schoolmasters, authorized at cluding those under warrants as well as commissions, are the last session, have been employed, and it is hoped with about 1,000; and our whole annual expenses of every increased benefit to the class of younger officers. A gen- kind, for their maintenance, is about $850,000, or, on an eral order has recently been issued with a view to im- average, about 850 dollars for each officer. These exprove the education of these officers, by requiring all penses have not been increased during the last ten years, midshipmen, whether passed or not, after suitable relax-except what has been caused by the addition before menation under leaves of absence, to attend on one of the tioned to the numbers of some classes of officers, and the naval schools for further instruction in the studies, and augmentation in pay in 1827 to passed midshipmen, in proficiency in the duties, belonging to their profession. 1828 to surgeons and their assistants, and in 1830 to lieuIt is intended to employ them there not only in appro- tenants. In the mean time, of late years, more useless priate reading, nautical observations and recitations, but officers have been placed on half pay, and some large alin forming a more practical acquaintance with the several lowances reduced; but no further essential reductions in materials used in the construction and equipment of ves- these particulars can, in my opinion, be effected, without sels, and with the manner of preserving them, and of ap-injury either to individual officers or to the naval service. plying them in building and repairs. A due portion of Whatever has been accomplished by myself on this subtheir leisure will also be devoted to the performance of ject, and on the requirement of a more equal portion of such services, connected with our most important naval laborious duty from all officers of similar rank and date, stations where the schools are established, as will be use. who were not invalids, has often caused to me much pain; ful to the public, and at the same time advance them in but it has been prompted by a strong sense of the equal a more thorough knowledge of the active duties which justice due to the officers themselves, and of the manifest may soon devolve on them in higher and more responsi- propriety in this Department of seeing that all those under ble situations. Excepting these variations, the civil es- its administration perform services for the public, when tablishments at the yards, and abroad, have not been practicable, in some degree proportionate to the compenmaterially altered during the year. It will be seen that sation they receive. the whole expenses of the persons connected with them have been considerably reduced, and are now annually about $130,000. This does not include the wages of ordinary laborers, as these are more properly charged, according to their employment, under other heads, which will hereafter be considered-such, for example, as repairs of vessels, improvements at yards, or building of hospitals. The only material change proposed in the civil list for the ensuing-year, is a small addition to the

It is hoped that I may not be deemed importunate in once more urging on your attention a topic far more grate. ful to my feelings. I have long entertained a decided opinion that the compensation to some classes of officers ought to be increased. It is certain that more equal justice would be awarded to all, that services at sea could more easily be obtained, that greater cheerfulness and alacrity in the performance of duty would be evinced, and a higher grade of qualifications in some subordinate

Documents accompanying the President's Message.

stations could be commanded, if the whole subject of pay was revised, and the compensation graduated in a fairer proportion among different ranks in the navy, and to similar ranks in the army; and if there was provision made for a larger and marked discrimination between duty afloat and leave of absence or waiting orders on shore. Such a discrimination formed a prominent feature in the act of Congress passed April 21, 1806, and which regu. lated pay as now established. But that discrimination, amounting to one-half of the whole pay, was virtually abolished by a rule of this Department in 1819. During the continuance of the small compensation to some classes of officers, and after so long a practice under that rule, with the yearly sanction of Congress, by means of the estimates and corresponding appropriations in conformity to the rule, I have not felt at liberty to alter it. Further details on this subject, at this time, are not deemed necessary, as they have fully and recently been laid before you in a special report from this Department, on a resolution of the Senate passed at the last session of Congress.

[23d CONG. 1st Sess.

corps; and the army regulation entirely abolishing that part has been applied to their rations while on shore. The whole expenses of the corps, independent of the erection of barracks and officers' quarters, are yearly about $190,000. The expenditures for such erections, on an average for the last ten years, have been about $5,000 annually. The quarters authorized at Philadelphia have been completed; but the comfort and proper accommodation of the men require new barracks at New. York. The estimates for this purpose, and for the support of this corps, are herewith submitted. (C, 1 and 2.) The examination of the state of the pensioners upon the navy pension fund, as those enjoying its privileges, who have been or are now in the service, or were con. nected with those once in it, may also be deemed to come properly under the head of persons attached to the navy. Though the annual expenditures from that fund are about $33,000, yet the fund itself did not spring from the public treasury, except as derived from prizes captured by our public vessels. It was not till lately that its disbursements were classed with the navy expenditures; and now the only yearly expense this fund and its administration here impose on the Treasury is the portion of time they occupy of the head of this Department, and of one clerk. Its annual income now exceeds the annual expenses about $20,000; and, during the past year, rules have been prepared, and the benefits of this surplus extended, as originally contemplated by the act of Congress creating the fund, so as to embrace those officers and seamen who, without being wounded, have, during long and faithful services, been visited by infirmities entitling them to relief. Five persons, coming under this description, have been added to the pension list, and are allowed suitable clothing, food, and medical attendance. The number of pensioners, under this and the other provisions, is 298. The condition of the privateer pensioners, placed under the exclusive administration of this Department, has not essentially changed during the year. The fund for their relief, like that for navy pensioners, does not come from the public treasury, and its management is no charge upon that treasury, except in the particulars before men. tioned. As the whole of this fund was derived from cap. tures by privateers, it has been deemed expedient to exhaust it in the support of those disabled, and of proper persons connected with those whose bravery and enterprise made the captures. It has, therefore, become gradually reduced to $44,667. The annual charge on it at this time is about $3,000, exceeding considerably the annual income; and thus, in due time, carrying into effect the original policy of the system. For further particulars about these two funds, reference can be had to the annexed statements. (D, 1 to 6.)

The whole number of seamen in the navy, including all the different grades, does not vary much from 5,000; and the annual expenses of their pay, rations, and enlist. ment, are not far from $1,130,000, or, on an average, about $226 for each seaman. These expenses are small, and indicate great popularity in the service, when we advert not only to our facility in obtaining good seamen, but to the high rate of wages the past year in merchant vessels, and to the great cost of this class of persons in the navies of some countries where labor is generally much lower than in the United States. These expenses have not been increased the last ten years, except by an augmentation of about one-third in the whole number of seamen, arising chiefly from an increase of our force in commission. The complement of men to each vessel might advantageously, in some respects, be lessened, and the whole expenses, on account of them, be thus reduced, were it not considered of vital importance, in so small a navy, to have all our ships afloat as perfect as possible in every particular conducive to their efficiency, and to the reputation of the Government. It is expected that a laudable pride will then be felt and encouraged by all connected with the service, on a comparison of the condition of our own ships with those of other nations; and that the moral force of our navy, as a model for a larger one when wanted, as likely to vindicate its country's rights and honor in war, and protect its commerce in peace, will always be much greater with a small number of vessels afloat, built of the best materials, and in the best manner, supplied with the most approved equipments, commanded by well-educated and well-disciplined officers, and navigated by full crews of hardy and contented seamen, with the whole ready, on any emergency, for immediate and efficient action, than with dou ble the number of vessels half-manned, and in other re-establishment, it will be seen that its annual cost, not inspects defectively provided. Every improvement in our materials, whether timber, cordage, or cannon, in our yards, docks, or harbors, in our hospitals or asylums, will add strength to its moral force, and better prepare us for any future conflict in which the violence or injustice of other nations may involve us.

In connexion with this part of the service, it is deemed proper to present some remarks concerning the condition of the marine corps. The subject of its allowances, in addition to pay, was not specially noticed by Congress the last year; though in that way it has of late been customary to regulate them. But, under the belief that the omission probably arose from accident, I have not interfered to revise the difficulties which have so long existed under that head. It will, however, be be considered my duty, the ensuing year, to investigate and attempt to adjust them, if not otherwise provided for.

The commutation of the whiskey part of the ration while the marines are at sea, has been extended to this

On a review of the entire personal branch of our naval

cluding the marine corps, is about $2,000,000, and of that sum about $1,964,000 is an annual charge on the public treasury. Considering the size and usefulness of the whole naval establishment, it is believed that this part of it, at the present time, bears a judicious and economical proportion to the whole, except in the particulars heretofore enumerated. Should improvements be made in those particulars, I am satisfied that the number and compensation of the persons employed both on the civil list and in the navy, will be found to be such as to ensure the due care and preservation of the public property, to furnish officers and men sufficient for the present protection of our commerce and rights abroad, and to maintain among all classes a state of discipline and activity indispensable to efficiency in the discharge of ordinary duties, and to a supply of suitable candidates for promotion in the extraordinary exigencies of the future.

The deaths, dismissions, and resignations in the service, since my last report, may be seen in the tables annexed.

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23d CONG. 1st SESS.]

ers.

Documents accompanying the President's Message.

When we advert to the other subjects connected with the navy, and more especially to what may be considered as belonging to its materials, it is deemed proper to notice, first, the employment and condition of our public vessels. Those in commission have consisted of one ship of the line, four frigates, eleven sloops, and seven schoonThey have been distributed, as usual, on four foreign stations, keeping up a greater intercourse than formerly with the western coasts of Portugal and Africa, and with the adjacent islands, extending our cruises into various parts of the Indian ocean, and making the West India squadron act somewhat more as a home squadron, by requiring a portion of it to visit twice, annually, some of our Atlantic ports. By properly regulating these visits, much exposure in the two most dangerous months in a tropical climate is avoided, and great facilities are obtain ed to furnish necessary supplies to relieve parts of their crews, and exchange officers, as well as to have nearer at hand, during those visits, vessels in commission, which, if any emergency should occur, may be despatched at once on any distant or important service. Efforts have been made to relieve, seasonably, all our vessels which have been more than two years abroad. The Fairfield and Vincennes have been sent to the Pacific to succeed the Potomac and Falmouth; the Natchez and Ontario to the Brazilian station, in place of the Lexington and Warren; the Experiment to the West Indies, in place of the Shark; and the Shark and Delaware to the Mediterranean, in place of the Concord, Boston, John Adams, and Brandywine. In making these changes so early as to prevent the expiration abroad of the service of our seamen, much discontent has been avoided, though this system has necessarily subjected the Department to some additional expense, by having occasionally, for short periods, double sets of vessels afloat attached to the same station. But it has enabled us to perform our engagements faithfully with their crews, and to keep up a more regular and constant force on each station for protection. At the same time caution has been taken to guard against an increase of our whole expenditure for the current year beyond the appropriations connected with this subject.

All these squadrons have been actively and efficiently employed, and it gives me great satisfaction to state that our commerce in all quarters of the globe was probably never known to be more free from menaces, danger, or actual violence.

The estimates for the ensuing year are for the same amount of force as was authorized the past year, consisting of about 530 guns, and distributed in such a proportion among vessels of every class belonging to our service, as to combine the greatest efficiency, for naval purposes during peace, with the soundest economy. Few will deem that force either too large or extravagant, when it is considered that our foreign commerce, exposed on the ocean, exceeds $100,000,000 in imports, and almost an equal amount of exports, with vessels exposed in their transportation of over half a million in tonnage, and prob. ably twenty millions in value; and when it is remembered how much the security, not only of those vessels and their cargoes, but of their numerous crews; and of other classes of our citizens resident in some countries abroad, depends upon our navy being actively and widely distributed. On this point it may be well to reflect further how safely that navy enables us, not only to send to new and the most distant markets, and thus to give increased value to the surplus proceeds of our agriculture, manufactories, and fisheries, and to obtain in return whatever may conduce to comfort, improvement, or wealth, but what protection and enhanced worth it confers on most of our immense coasting trade; how much our national reputation abroad is every where known and appreciated by it; the respect it inspires, the security it yields, and the weight it affords in all our claims of justice and negotiations with

semi-barbarous nations; and how justly it may be appre hended that new perils will, ere long, await a portion of our trade, and the tranquillity of a part of our maritime frontier, from the operations of a new course of legislation by some foweign Powers concerning an unfortunate portion of their population, and against which perils, as well as against the ordinary aggressions and piracies in peace, and much of the depredations that may threaten us in war, the navy, from the insular situation of our country as to most of the world, must always be regarded as our great safeguard.

The facilities for the examination and repair of our vessels have been much increased the past year by the completion, in most respects, of the two dry docks, and the expenses in refitting the classes of larger vessels will thereby become sensibly reduced.

The present policy of this Department is to launch no more vessels of the same size with those in ordinary, until the latter are worn out. But it is proposed to build from time to time, and protect on the stocks till wanted, such new vessels as Congress may authorize to be constructed, because in that condition their timber will improve rather than decay, and the expense of taking care of them will be trifling compared with that of vessels in ordinary. This course has been adopted the past year with the Macedonian, now building. It is recommended as sound policy, that authority should be given to procure the frame for another sloop, to be called the Levant, after the consort so gallantly captured with the Cyane; and the frame for another frigate, to be called the Paul Jones, in grateful memory of one of the earliest, bravest, and most distinguished commanders in our naval service during the Revolution. The estimates for the purchase of these are submitted. (H.)

Frames could not be bought for vessels of these names, under any existing laws; and the timber, if procured and seasoned, whether soon set up or not, would become more valuable, being sheltered under either our present excellent sheds or ship-houses, and live oak probably becoming scarcer and dearer as our Southern frontier is cleared for cultivation.

The vessels in ordinary, and on the stocks, as well as the frames for others in depot, have all been examined, and found to be in a good state of preservation, except a few of those in ordinary. Some of these are defective, by their long continuance afloat before being covered, some by their great age, and some by the original imperfection of their timber. Those unworthy of being refitted, are used at times for receiving-ships, and the rest, as wanted, are placed in a proper state to go into commission for the relief of other vessels returning from long cruises, and needing extensive repairs. As vessels afloat grow older, their repairs must of necessity become more expensive. The cost of all repairs of all our vessels, the past year, has been about $580,000. During the last ten years, the repairs have been on an average about $500,000 annually.

A table showing the vessels in commission, with their commanders and stations, is submitted. (I.) The names and condition of those in ordinary and on the stocks may be seen in the documents annexed. (K, 1 and 2)

Proceeding from the vessels to the materials used in their construction and equipment, not much has occurred the past year deserving notice. Some additions of valuable and durable articles have been made to our various stores on hand at the time of my last annual report. All these stores, and especially the timber in the docks and under sheds, are in good condition, and means have been taken to ascertain and supply any deficiency in any article not perishable which may be wanted for the building and perfect equipment of every vessel on the stocks, and every frame in depot. As more timber may be needed,

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