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SOUTH CAROLINA. James Mollenry,

J. Rutledge,
Dan; of 3t. Thos. Jenifer, Charles Cotesworth Pinckney In Suits at common law, wbere the value in
Dani. Carroll.

Charles Pinckney,
Pierce Butler,

controversy shall exceed twenty dollars, tie John Blair,

right of trial by jury shall be preserved, and James Madison, Jr.,

no fact tried by a jury shall be otherwise reNORTH CAROLINA Wm. Blount, William Few,

examined in any Court of the Uuited States, Rich'd Dobbs Spaight, Abr. Baldwin.

than according to the rules of the common law. Hu. Williamson. Attest:

Secretary. Excessive bail shall not be required, por

excessive fines imposed, nor cruel and unusual Amendments.

punishments inflicted. ARTICLE I.

ARTICLE IX. Congress shall make no law respecting an es- The enumeration in the Constitution, of tublishment of religion, or probibiting the free certain rights, shall not be construed to deny exercise thereof; or abridging the freedom of or disparage others retained by the people. speech, or of the press; or tbe right of the people peaceably to assemble, and to petition the Government for a redress of grievances.

The powers not delegated to the United

States by the Constitution, nor prohibited by ARTICLE II.

it to the States, are reserved to the States A well regulated Militia, being necessary to respectively, or to the people. the security of a free State, the right of the

ARTICLE XI. people to keep and bear Arms, shall not be in. fringed.

The Judicial power of the United States ARTICLE III.

shall not be construed to extend to any suit in

law or equity, commenced or prosecuted against No Soldier shall, in time of peace be quar- one of the United States by Citizens of another tered in any house, without the consent of the State, or by Citizens or Subjects of any Foreign Owner, nor in time of war, but in a manner to

State. be prescribed by law.


The Electors shall meet in their respective The right of the people to be secure in their states, and vote by ballot for President and persons, houses, papers, and effects, against Vice President, one of whom, at least, shall unreasonable searches and seizures, shall not not be an inhabitant of the same state with be violated, and no Warrants shall issue, but themselves; they shall name in their ballots vpon probable cause, supported by Oath or the person' voted for as President, and in affirmation, and particularly describing the distinct ballots the person voted for as Viceplace to be searched, and the persons or things President, and they shall make distinct lists of to be seized.

all persons voted for as President, and of all persons voted for as Vice-President, and of the

number of votes for each, which lists they No person shall be held to answer for a shall sign and certify, and transmit sealed to capital, or otherwise infamous crime, unless on the seat of the government of the United a presentment or indictment of a Grand Jury, States, directed to the President of the Sen. except in cases arising in the land or naval ate : The President of the Senate shall, in forces, or in the Militia, when in actual service presence of the Senate and House of Reprein time of War or public danger; nor shall any sentatives, open all the certificates and the person be subject for the same offence tɔ be votes shalithen be counted;—The person having iwice put in jeopardy of life or limv; nor shall the greatest number of votes for President, be compelled in any Criminal Case to be a wit shall be the President, if such number be a ness against himself, nor be deprived of life, majority of the whole number of Electors apliberty, or property, without due process of pointed'; and if no person have such majority, law; nor shall private property be taken for then from the persons having the highest numpublic use, without just compensation.

bers not exceeding three on the list of those voted for as President, the House of Repre

sentatives shall choose immediately, by ballot, In all criminal prosecutions, the accused shall the President. But in choosing the President, enjoy the right to a speedy and public trial, by the votes shall be taken by states, the reprean impartial jury of the State and district. sentation from each state having one vote; a wherein the crime shall have been committed, quorum for this purpose shall consist of a which district shall bave been previously member or members from two thirds of the ascertained by law, and to be informed of the states, and a majority of all the states shall be nature and cause of the accusation; to be con- necessary to a choice. And if the House of fronted with the witnesses against him; to Representatives shall not choose a President have Compulsory process for obtaining Wit- whenever the right of choice shall devolve nesses in his favour, and to have the Assistanoe upon them, before the fourth day of March of Counsel for his defence.

next following, then the Vice-President shall




Ent as President, as in the case of the death or assembled, that Constitution which has apother constitutional disability of the President. poared to us the most advisable. The person having the greatest number of The friends of our country have long seen Fotes as Vice-President, shall be the Vice- and desired that the power of making war, Prasident, if such number be a majority of the peace, and treaties; that of levying money, and whole number of Electors appointed, and if no regulating commerce, and the correspondent person have a majority, then from the two executive and judicial authorities, should be highest numbers on th“ list, the Senate shall fully and effectually vested in the General Goveboose the Vice-President; a quorum for the ernment of the Union; but the impropriety of purpose shall consist of two-thirds of the delegating such extensive trust to one body of whole number of Senators, and a majority of men is evident; hence results the necessity of a the wholo number shall be necessary to a different organization. choice. But no person constitutionally in- It is obviously impracticable in the federal eligible to the office of President shall be government of these States to secure all rights eligible to that of Vice-President of the United of independent sovereignty to each, and yet States,

provide for the interest and safety of all. Indi

viduals entering into society must give up a PROCEEDINGS OF THE CONVENTION WHICH FORMED nitude of the sacrifice must depend as well on

share of liberty to preserve the rest. The mag

situation and circumstance as on the object to IN CONVENTION.

be obtained. It is at all times difficult to draw Monday, September 17, 1787.

with precision the line between those rights

which must be surrendered and those which Resolved, That the preceding Constitution be may be reserved; and on the present occasion, laid before the United States in Congress assem- this difficulty was increased by a difference bled: and that it is the opinion of this Conven- among the several States as to their situation, tion that it should afterwards be submitted to extent, habits, and particular interests. a convention of delegates, chosen in each State

In all our deliberations on this subject, we by the people thereof, under the recommenda- kept steadily in our view that which appears tion of its legislature, for their assent and rati- to us the greatest interest of every true Amerification; and that each convention assenting to can-the consolidation of our Union-in which and ratifying the same should give notice is involved our prosperity, felicity, safety, perthereof to the United States in Congress assem-haps our national existence. This important bied.

consideration, seriously and deeply impressed Resolved, That it is the opinion of this Con- on our minds, led each state in the Convention Fention that, as soon as the conventions of nine to be less rigid on points of inferior magnistates shall bave ratified this Constitution, the tude than might hate been otherwise expected ; United States in Congress assembled should and thus the Constitution which we now present fix a day on which electors should be appointed is the result of a spirit of amity and of that by the States which shall have ratified the same, mutual deference and concession which the and a day on which electors should assemble to peculiarity of our political situation rendered vote for ihe President, and the time and place indispensable. for commencing proceedings under this Consti

That it will meet the full and entire approtation ; that after such publication, the electors bation of every State is not, perhaps, to be exshould be appointed, and the Senators and pected; but each will doubtless consider that, Representatives elected; that the electors should had her interest been alone consulted, the conmeet on the day fixed for the election of the sequences might have been particularly disaPresident, and should transmit their votes, cer- greeable or injurious to others. That it is tified, signed, sealed, and directed, as the Con- liable to as few exceptions as could reasonably stitution requires, to the Secretary of the United have been expected, we hope and believe. States in Congress assembled ; that the Sena- That it may promote the lasting welfare of that tors and Representatives should convene at the country so dear to us all, and secure her freetime and place assigned; that the Senators dom and happiness, is our most ardent wish. should appoint a President of the Senate, for

With great respect, we have the honor to be, tbe sole purpose of receiving, opening, and sir, your excellency's most obedient, humble counting the votes for President; and that, after

servants. be shall be chosen, the Congress, together with

By unanimous order of the Convention: the President, should, without delay, proceed to

Go: WASHINGTON, President. execute this Constitution.

His Excellency the PRESIDENT OF Congress. By the unanimous order of the Convention :

Go: WASHINGTON, President. WILLIAM JACKSON, Secretary.



Friday, Seplember 28, 1787. IN CONVENTION.

PresentNew Hampshire, Massachusetts,

Connecticut, New York, New Jersey, PennsylSEPTEMBER 17, 1787.

vania, Delaware, Virginia, North Carolica, 818: We have now the bonor to submit to the South Carolina, and Georgia; and from Maryconsideration of the United States in Congress land, Mr. Ross.


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Congress having received the report of the Ford“ felony” after the word " treason" in the first paraConvention lately assembled in Philadelphia-


The second paragraph is changed by adding thereon the Resolved, unanimously, That the said report, follwing words: “ But Congress muy, by law grunt to the with the resolutions and letter accompanying principal officer in each of the executive apartments a seit the same, be transmitted to the several legisla- upon the floor of either house, with the privilege of discusstures, in order to be submitted to a convention ing any measures appertaining to his department."

SECTION 7. The following changes are made in this secof delegates chosen in each State by the peo- tion: In the second paragraph tho wordsthe House of Rep ple thereof, in conformity to the resolves of the "both Houses" substiruted ; also the word " such” is in

resentatires and the Senate," aromtricken ont. and th: Kurda Convention made and provided in that case. errted between tho word " all'' and the word "cuses ;" algo CHARLES THOMSON, Secretary. the following words are added to the end of this parastaph:

The President may approve any appropriation and disapprore any other appropriation in the same bill. In such

case he shall, in signing the bål, designate the appropriaConstitution of the “Confederate" tions disapproved, and shall roturn a copy of such appro

priations, with his objections, to the House in which the ball States.

shall have originated ; and the same proceedings shall then In framing the Constitution of the so-called “Confederate be had as in case of other bills disapproved by the PresiStates of America,” its authors, in nearly all its parts, have

dent." adopted the precise language of the Constitution of the

The third paragraph is changed by striking out the words United States, and have followed the same order of arrange

The Senate and House of Representatives" in both places ment in its articles and sections throughout. The two

where they occur, anil inserting in their places, in both Constitutions, however, differ in many particulars, and it is cases, the words " both Houses ;" also hy substituting the designed, in this chapter, to exhibit clearly the points of words may", for the word shallafter the words " dis difference between them.

approved by him.The preamble is changed in the following respects : the

SECTION 8. In the first paragraph, after the word " excises" words "Uniled States," near the beginning, are stricken

the words " for revenue necessary" are inserted; also the out, and the following words inserted in their place : "Con

word "and" after the word " debts" is omitted ; also the federate States, each Słale acting in its sovereign and inde

words and general welfare of the United States ; but” are pendent character ;” also, the words “more perfect union

stricken out, and the following words substituted: "and are stricken out, and the words “ permanent ferleral governo carry on the government of the Confederate States; but no mentinserted in their place; also, the following words

bounties shall be grand from the treasury, nor shall any are omitted: “provide for the common defence, primote the duties or taxes on importations from foreign nations be laid general welfare ;" also, after the word posterity," the fol

to promote or foster any branch of industry; andlowing words are inserted: “ invoking the favor and gui; followiny words: but neither this, 'nor any other clause

The third paragraph is changed by adding thereto tho dance of Almighty God;" also, the word " Confederate"; I contained in the Constitution, shall ever be construed to del takes the place of " United," preceding the word "States." This last change takes place throughout the entire instru- legate the power to Congress to appropriate money for any ment, with a single exception, wbich will be noted in the cept for the purpose of furnishing lights, beacons, and buoys,

internal improvement intended to facilitate commerce; 62appropriate place.

and other aids io navigation upon the coasts, and the improve ARTICLE I.

ment of harbors, and the removing of obstructions in rire

narigation ; in all such cases such duties shall be laid on the SECTION 1. The word “granted” {stricken out, and the navigation facilitated thereby, as may be necessary to pay word delegated" inserted in its place ; also, the word the costs and expenses thereof." United,preceding the word “States,” is stricken out, and The fourth paragraph is changed by adding thereto the the word "Confederated” inserted in its place.

following worils: "bui no law of Congress shall discharge any ::ECTION 2. This section is changed as follows: in the first debt contracted before the passage of the same." paragraph, after the words " in each State shall," the fol- The seventh piragraph is changed as follows: tho last lowing words are inserted: "be citizens of the Confederate word " roads" is changed to “routes," and the following States, and; also, the following words are added to this words added thereto: "but the expenses of the Posl-office parngraph: "but no person of foreign birth, and not a Depurtment, after the first day of March, in the year of out citizen of the Confederute States, shall be allowed to vote for Lord eighteen hundred and sixty-three, shall be paid out of any oficer, civil or political, state or federal."

its own rerenues." in the second paragraph, the words “ been seven years a In the fifteenth paragraph, the word " Union" is stricken citizen of the United” aro stricken out, and the words be a out, and the words the Confederate States" substituted. citizen of the Confederate” inserted in place of them.

SECTION 9. The whole of the first para raph is striclien In the third paragraph the word Union” is stricken out, and the following words enbstituted therefor : “ The ont, and the word " Confederacysubstituted ; also the importation of negroes of the African race from any foreiga wouls “ other personsare stricken out, and the word country other than the slaveholding States or territories of " slaves” substituted; also, the word thirty" preceding the United States of America is hereby forbidden; and Cm the word thousand," is stricken out, and the word “filty?yress is required to pass such laws as shall effectually prerent substituted ; also, all the words in this paragraph after the same. Congress shall also have power to prohibit the in. the words the State ofare stricken out, and the f 11wtroduclim of slaves from any State not a member of, or ing words substituted: “South Carolina shall be entitled to territory nnt belonging to, this Confederacy:""* choose six, the State of Genrgia ten, the State of Alabama In the third paragrap., ilter the word "laro," the word's nine, the State of Florida two, the State of Mississippi seven, " or law denying or impuiring the right of properly in negro the State of Louisiana six, and the State of Texas sir. slaresare inserted.

No change is made in the fourth paragraph, and the fifth The filth paragraph is changed by adding thereto the folparagraph is changed by adding the following words: “er- lowing words: “excepit by a vote of two thirds of both crpt that any juicial or other federal officer resident and Houses." acting solely within the limits of any State, may be impeached Tho sixth paragraph is changed by the omission of all, by a vote of two thirds of both branches of the Legislalure after the word " another.thereof."

The following clauses are inserted after the seventh SECTION 3. In the first paragraph, after the words“ thereof paragraph : “ Congress shall appropriate no money from the for six years,” the words " at the regular session next im Treasury except by a vole of two thirds of both Houses, taken mediately preceding the commencement of the term of service" by yeas and nays, unless it be asked and estimated for by same are inserted.

one of the hearts of departments and submiltei to Congress by No change is made in the sccond paragraph. In the the President; or for the purpose of paying its own crpenses thiril paragraph the words “been nine years a citizen of and contingencies ; or for the payment of claims against the the Unitedare stricken out, and tbe words be a citizen Confederale Stales, the justice of which shall have been judiof the Confederate" substituted.

cially lerlared by a tribunal for the investigation of claims SECTIUN 4. The first paragraph of this section is changed against the Government, which it is hereby made the duty of by inserting the words “subject to the provisions of this Congress to establish." Constitutionbetweeu the word " thereof) and the word " All bills approprialing money shall specify in Ferleral "but." Also, the words "times andare inserted near the currency the exact amount of each appropriation and the cluso, before the word "places."

Section 5. In the second paragraph of this section, the * This provision is said to have been adopted as a part of words of the whole number” are inserted, between the the Permanent Constitution, by the vote of the States of word "two-thirdsand the word “expel."

Georgia, Alabama, Louisiana, and Mississippi, against that SECTION 6. This section is changed by striking out the of South Carolina and Florida.


på Toss fir thich it is made; and Cmgress shall grant no transit and sojourn in any State of this Confederacy, with I owperxion to any public contractor, oficer, agent, or their slaves and other property; and the right of property stean, fir suck contrad shall have been maile or such ser- in such slav's shari nol be thereby impaired." tice rendered."

The third paragraph is changed in the following respecte: This section is further changed by adding to it the first after the first word" No” the words “slave or" are ineigut amendments to the Constitution of the United states, serted; also tho words “one State") are stricken out, and followed by this paragraph : " Every law or resolution hav- the words “any State or Territory of the Confederate Slates!! ing the force of law, shall relate tu but one subject, and that are substituted; also, after the word "escaping" the words skall be erpressed in the title."

or liwfu'ly carried into" are inserted; also the words SECTION 10. The drst paragraph is changed by striking slave belongs, or to whom suchare inserted between the out the following words : “emit bills of crelit;" also by word “such" and the word " service," near the close of the insertiog tie word " or" between the word “ attainder paragraph. od the words "ez post facto."

Section 3. The first paragraph is changed by striking The third paragraph is charged by inserting after the out all the words to aid including the word " Union," and word “ tonnage,'' tho fotlowing words: “ except on seagoing substituting the words “ Other States may be admitted into asds, for the improvement of its rivers and harbors naci. this Confederacy by a vote of two thirds of the whole House gairi ty the said vessels , but such dusies shall not conflict of Representatives and two thirds of the Senuli, the Senate with any treaties of the Confederate Slates with foreign na- voting by States.” tions; anl any surplus of revenue thus derived shall, afier The second paragraph is changed by striking out all after making such improvement, be paid into the common Treas- the word "regulations'' and inserting th- following clauses: ury; nt shail any Stale. Also the following clause is concerning the property of the Confederale Slales, including added to this paragraph : “ But when any river divdles or the lands thereof." poos through two or more Slater, they may enter into com- " The Confederate States may acquire new territory, and pacis tiih each other to improve the navigation thereofCongress shull hire power to legislate and provide gover

ments for the inhabitants of all territory belonging to the ARTICLE II.

Confederate States lying without the limits of the several SECTION 1. The first paragraph is so altered as to read as Stutes, and may permit them, at such times and in such Allows : “ The ereculive power shall be vested in a Presilent mitted into the con federacy. In all such territory the in

manner as it may by law provide, to form Statcs to be udof the Confcietate States of America. He and the Vice Prezident hall hold their offices for the term of six years ;

stitution of negro slucery as it now exists in the Confederate but the Pre i lent shall not be re-e'isible. The President and Mie territorial government, and the inhabitants of the several

Stalns shall be recognized and protected by Congress and by Vice President shall be clected as follows :"

The third paragraph is strickeu out, and the twelfth arti-Confederate States and territories shall have the right to tale cle of the amendments to the Constitution of the United

to such territory any slaves lawfully held by them in any of States substituted.

the States or Territories of the Confede ate Slutes." The tih paragraph is changed in the following respects :

SECTION 4. This section is changed as follows: the words the words " or a citizen of the United States") are stricken

in this Union" are stricken out, and the words “that now out, and the words of the Confederale States, or a citizen is, or hereu fter may become, a member of this Confederacy! te wullowing words are insertel: "or a citizen thereof in session," substituted ; also this entire section is owitted, thereof substituted ; also aller the word . Constitution," inserted; also, after the word "Legislature," tho words

"cannot be convened' are dropped, and the words is not born in the United States, prior to the 20th of December, 1860;" als) the words "United States at the close or 6.10

as a section, and placed at the end of section 3, as a parpiragraph, are sıricken out, and the words “ limits of the agraph thereof. Conjderute States, as they may exist at the time of his elec

ARTICLE V. tas" are subsutuled. The eiguth paragraph is changed by substituting the

This article is stricken out entirely, and the following word "enters" for the word “ enter."

substituted : " Upon the demand of any three States, legally ibe last paragraph is changed by striking out the words

assembled in their several Conventions, the Congress shall # of the Crited States' at the close, and substituting the

summon a Convention of all the States, to take into consilordword " thereof."

tion such amendments to the Constitution as the suid States SECTION 2. The second paragraph is changed by adding is made; and should any of the proposed amonuments to the

shall comcur in suggesting at the time when the said demarit thereto the words following: “ The principal officer in eah of the executive departments, and all

persons connected with

Constitution be agreed on by the suid Cunrendim--zoling by the diplomalic service, may be remored from ojice at the latesand the same be ratified by the Legislatures of twopleasure of the President. All other civil officers of the ex- thirds of the several States, or by Conventions in two-thirus ecutite department may be removed at any time by the Pres- thcreaf--as the one or the other mode of ratification may be ident, or other cppointing power, when their services are proposed by the general Conrention-they shall hence forward La necessary, or for dishonesty, incapacity, inefficiency, mis- forin a part of this Comstilution. But no Sate shall, without onduct, or neglect of duty; and when 30 removed, the re

ils consent, be deprived of its equal representation in the

Senate." motal shall be reported to the Senate, together with the Teasons there for.

ARTICLE VI. The third paragraph is changed by dropping the word “up” after the word d "full."

This article is precocled by the following paragraph : SECTION 3. This section is changed in the following res

The Government established by this Constitution is the sucDects: the first word “He" is stricken out and the words

cessor of the Provisional Government of the Confederate The President" substituted; also the word “ Union" is

States of America, and all laws pussed by the latter shall stricken out and the word “Confederacy" substituted.

continue in force until the same sk ll be repealed or modified;

and all the officers appoined by the same shall remain in ARTICLE III.

ofjice until their successors are appointed and qualified or

the offices abolished.” Szctrox 1. In this section the word "supreme'' is stricken

The first paragraph is changed by striking out the word out and the word " Superior substituted in the first sen- Confederation" ani substituting tho words " Provisional teace of the first paragraph.

Government." SECTION 2. This section is changed as follows: after the In the second paragraph, the words which shall bc" clause " citizens of another State," the following clause is following the word “ States" aro stricken out. inserted : " where the State is plaintiff;" also the next simple This article is also changed by adding thereto the 9th and Sentence is changed by inserting the words “ claiming 10th articles of the Amendments to the Constitution of the Lands under grants between the word "citizens” and the United States, as two additional paragraphy, inter aduing Ford of;" also the following clause is stricken out:“ be to the 9th Article the words: of the several States." turn citizens of the same State claiming lands under grants of difceat Stales;" also the following clause is added to

ARTICLE VII. the first paragraph: "but no State shall be rued by a citiwo or subject of any foreign State;" also in the first part of The first paragraph is changed by substituting the word this paragraph the following clauses: "in law and equity," "fire" for the word " nine” preceding the word " Slates." and - arising under this Comstilution," are transposed.

Also the following paragraph is added to the foregoing la the third paragraph, in the clause " where the said as amended: crimes shall have been committed," the word "crimesis

* When five States shall have ratified this constitution, in changed to the word "crime."

the manner before specified, the Congress under the Provis

ionul Constitution shall prescribcthe time for holding the cloc. ARTICLE IV.

tion of President and Fice President ; and for the meeting of

the electoral college; and for counting the votes and inaug SECTION 1. Yo change.

rating the President. They shall also prescribe the time for SECTION 2. The first paragraph is changed by adding holding the first elcction of members of Cmgress under this thereto the following clauses: and shall have the right of Constitution, and the time for assembling the same. Enlil the


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assembling of such Congress, the Congress under the provisional Constitution shall continue to exercise the legislative

! U.S. "C" S. powers granted them, not extending beyond the time limited by the Constitution of the Provisional Government."

Art. Sec. Art. Sec. The final paragraph: “Done in convention by the unanimous consent,' &c., is omitted, and the words following

electors of President and Vice-Pressubstituted: “Adopted unanimously, March 11, 1861."


2 1 2 1 may invest the appointment of infe

rior oflicers ic the President alone,

in the courts of law, or the heads Index to the Constitution of the Uni- of departments.............

2 2

2 2 ted States, and of the “Confederate"

may establish courts inferior to the States.

Supreme Court.......

3 1 3 1 may declare the punishment of treaU. S. 1“O." S. son..

3 3 3 3 may prescribe the manner of proving Art. Sec. Art. Sec. the acts and records of each Stato... 4 1

1 to assent to the formation of new A.




may propose amendments to ConstiArts and Sciences, to be promoted..... 1

:ution, or call convention....

5 1 5 1 Acts, records, and judicial proceedings

to lay and collect taxes ...................

1 8 1 8 of each state entitled to faith and

to borrow money....

1 8 credit in other States.

4 1

to regulate commerce.

1 8 Amendments to the Constitution, how

to establish uniform laws of bank. made... 5 1 5 1 ruptcy and navigation......

1 8 1 8 Appointments to be made by the Pres.

to coin money, regulate the value of ident....

2 2 2

coin, and fix the standard of Apportionment of representatives......... 2

weights and measures.................. 1 8 1 8 Appropriations by law..

to punish counterfeiting.


8 1 8 Appropriations for Army not to exceed

to constitute tribunals inferior to the two years..

1 8 1
Supreme Court.......

1 8 1 8 Armies, Congress to raise and support. 1 8 1

to punish piracies, folonies on the Arms, right of people to levy and bear. 2 Am'd. 1

high seas, and offences against the Assemble, people may....

1 Ain'd. 1
laws of nations.

1 8 1 8 Attainder, bill of, prohibited to Con

to establish post offices and post gress ........

1 9 1 9
roads, (cr routes)..

1 8 1 8 prohibited to the States....

1 10 1


to authorize patents to authors and of treason shall not work corruption


1 8 1 8 of blood, or forfeiture except &c..... 3

3 3

to declare war, grant letters of Appropriation bills may be approved in

marque, and make rules concernpart and disapproved in part.........

ing captures.........

1 8 1 8 to raise and support armies

1 8 1 B.

to provide and maintain a navy....


to make rules for the government of Bail, excessive, not to be required ....... 8 A m'a. 1

the army and navy...


8 1 8 Bankruptcy laws to be uniform.... 1 8 1

to call out the militia in certain Bills for raising revenue shall originate


1 8 1 8 in the House of Representatives, 1

7 1

to pass laws necessary to carry the

7 before tbay become laws, shall be

enumerated powers into effect........

1 8 1 8 passed by both houses and approv

to dispose of and make rules coned by President;or, if disapproved,

cerning the territory or other propsball be passed by two-thirds of

erty of tho government....

4 3 4 3 each house.....

1 7 1

President may con vene and adjourn,

7 not returned in ten days, unless an

in certain cases.......


4 3 adjournment intervene, shall be

shall not appropriate money unless laws......

1 7 1

it be estimated for by the head of a

7 Borrow money, Congress may..

8 1

depart nient and submitted by the

8 Bounties cannot be granted from the

President, unless by a vote of two treasury


thirds of both Houses-or to pay

its own expenses, or claims against
the Confederacy..


Compensation, extra, to contractors, Capitation tax, apportionment of......


officers, &c., not to be granted...... 9


9 Census, to be made every ten years...... 1 2

Compacts botween two or more States

1 Citizens of each State to be entitled to

may be entered into, to improve the privileges of citizens in the sev

navigation of rivers in certain eral States..

2 4


1 10 of one State not to sue those of anoth

Constitution, how amended.

1 er in Confederate courts....

laws and treaties declared to be the

3 2 Claims, no prejudice to certain..

supreme law........

6 1 6 1 Court of, to be established......


number of States to ratify to render

9 Coasting trade, regulated.

9 1


7 1

1 Coins, Congress to fix value of foreign... 1

Contracts, no law impairing... 8 1 8

1 10 1 10 Commerce, Congress to regulate..


Conventions for proposing amendments

8 1 8 such regulations to be uniform..

to the Constitution. 1 9 1 9

5 1 5 1 Commissions to be granted the Pres

Counterfeiting, Congress to provide for ident.....

2 2 2

punishment of...... 2

1 8 1 8 Common law recognized and established 7Am'd. 1

Court, Supreme, its original and appelCongress vested with legislative power.. 1 1 1

late jurisdiction..

2 3 2 may alter the regulations of State

Courts, inferior to the Supreme Court, legislatures concerning elections of

may be ordained by Congress..... 1 8 1 8 Sepators and Representatives, ex


3 1 3 1 cept as to place of choosing Sepa

Crimes, persons accused of, fleeing from tors......

justice, may be demanded.

4 2 also, except as to time and place of

How to be tried......

3 2 3 choosing Senators....

Criminal prosecutions, procecdings in... 6 A m'u.

1 sball assemble once a year.....

1 4 ofcers of Goveromert cannot be

D. members of..........

1 6 1 6 may prescribe for cases of removal,

Debts against the Confederation to be death, &c., of President and Vice

valid. President.....

6 1 2 1 2 1 may determine the time of choosing

against the Provisional Gov rnm't

6 1 Duties to be levied by Congress, and to




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