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SYASUING OF THE PEACE CONFERENCE.

Washington, Feb. 18th, 1861. resolutions, declaring the rebellion in the Editor Bulletin : There is no chance South to be treasonable, and recommending whatever for Crittenden's proposition. the use of such force as may be found neNorth Carolina must secede, or aid Lincoln cessary to vindicate the laws and preserve in making war on the South.

the Union. The final vote was, ayes 40, T. L. CLINGMAN. nays 22. The official synopsis of the reso

lutions is as follows:

Resolved, By the Assembly, the Senate The following is part of a special telegram concurring, First. The withdrawal of a to the Charleston Mercury, dated at Wash- State from its membership and obligations ington, Feb. 21st:

in the Federal Union, in defiance of the * The only hope now is in the smashing General Government, can only be accomup of the Peace Congress and getting Vir- plished by a successful resistance to the ginia out.”

whole power of the United States. Second. FALSE DESPATCHES.— The Fayetteville Decent respect to the opinions of the people (North Carolina) Observer, referring to false of the civilized world, and the instinct of telegraphic despatches sent out from Charles- self-preservation demands that the United ton, says: “They are of a piece with the States Government should use all the power stories circulated in Georgia to affect the elec- necessary to enforce obedienc to its la tion in that State; that which preceded the and to protect its property. Third. The mission of the Wilmington Committee to people of the State of California will sustain Raleigh; and that which resulted in the and uphold the constitutionally-elected ofiitreasonable seizure of Fort Caswell, whither cers of the United States Government, in no troops have been or will be ordered. It all constutional efforts to preserve the indoes not answer the purposes of those en- tegrity of the Union, and to enforce obegaged in disunion schemes to allow any dience to the acts of Congress and the doperiod of rest from excitement. The 'South- cisions of the courts. After the laws have ern heart' must be · fired,' that the South been enforced, and the power and authority may be precipitated into secession.'”

of the Constitution and Government of the

United States recognized and acknowledged, Other Secessions Proposed.

every feeling of nationality and brotherhood December 24th, 1860.

demand that such compromises as are conMr. John C. Burch offered the following sistent with justice shall be made for the resolution, which was referred to the Coin purpose of restoring that harimony which mittee on Military affairs :

should characterize the people of a common That the Secretary of War be, and is country. hereby, directed and required to issue to the

The majority vote was given by moderate State of California quotas of arms for the Douglas Democrats and Republicans, the miyears 1850 and 1851, equal to the quota nority by Breckenridge men, who did not issued to said State for the year 1852. conceal, but on the contrary loudly boasted of such description as the authorities of their approval of the secession of the South, said State may require.

and spoke with the utmost enthusiasm of the From California.

Southern Confederacy and President Davis. Fort Kearney, Feb. 5th.– The Pony Ex- California is more intense than elsewhere,

The conflict of feeling on this subject in press from California on the 19th has ar- because it is between Northern and Southern rived. The Governor's message is strong for the Union. The letters from Congress

men who are contending for ascendancy in

the State. mnen Scott and Burch, advocating a Pacific refuse to accept the disunion issue, and de

Many of the latter, however, Republic, are severely denounced by the clare their intention to fight the battle of papers.

the South in the Union. From California.

The result was received with most hearty Fort Kearney.–The Pony Express, bring- applause, proving the devotion of our peoing California news as late as the 29th ultimo, ple to the Union, and their love of country. has arrived.

Considering the outrageously-treasonable Senator Latham's declaration that Cali- speeches that have been made during the fornia will remain with the Union of the sessions, and the symptoms of approval Northern and Western States is generally elicited by them, chiefly from secessionists commended by the newspapers. They un- in the employ of the State, this evidence of doubtedly present a correct representation patriotic feeling is especially gratifying. of a rast majority of the people of the A Pacific REPUBPLIC.—T'he Shasta Her. State.

ald, of Saturday, in discussing political From the California correspondent of the matters, says: New York World, written in the winter of “If disunion does come, neither North 1860:

nor South need look for aid and comfort CALIFORNIA FOR THE UNION.

from the Pacific coast. The Almighty has On Friday last the Assembly passed a piled up the elements along these shores for series of most warm and decided Union a great empire, and if it neods he can make

THE

it one. We have no such interest that city endeavoring to create a sentiment would demand an alliance with either of the among business men favorably to the esbelligerents upon the other side. We are, tablishment of a Confederacy composed of and have been for ten years, as fully sepa- the Northern and Sonthwestern States. A rated from them as though we were but a well-known leader among the democracy has foreign colouy. This coast can stand alone, been approached, our information goes to and if disunion between North and South show, within the past two or three days, by ever comes, it will stand alone and indepen- these agents, with a view of obtaining his dent. When that day comes—if unfortunate influence, but he declined to have any thing ly it should ever como —then ‘Long live the to do with so traitorous a scheme, as he is Pacific Republic !'”

a staunch Union man. The object is to To which the San Francisco Bee respond- make free-trade the basis

of the confederacy ad in opposition:

-to cut off New York, Pennsylvania, New We have frequently mentioned the ex- Jersey, and all the New England States, istence of an organization in California, which are so wedded to a protective tariff. having for its object the establishment of a These Southern gentlemen state that there Pacific Republic on this coast, in accordance are agents of the Gulf States throughout with the treasonable recommendations of all the northwestern States, who are making Scott and Burch. We should have taken similar overtures, and that it is their aim to some pains to learn the names of the leaders spring the issue soon among the citizens of of the movement, that they might be held those States. up to the scorn and ridicule of a union-lov

Mayor Wood's RECOMMENDATION OF ing people, had we not been satisfied, as we now are, that the scheme would be frowned

SECESSION OF NEW YORK CITY, JANUdown the moment it was openly advocated.

ARY 6TH, 1861. But two of the ninety journals in California To the Honorable the Common Council: have ventured to offer a word in favor of the GENTLEMEN : We are entering upon the movement, and they were actuated, we im- public duties of the year under circum. agine, more by a spirit of bravado than a stances as unprecedented as they are gloomy hope of success. Aside from a few dis- and painful to contemplate.

The great appointed office-seekers, there are not to be truding and producing interests of not only found to-day in California, outside of the the city of New York, but of the entire State prison, a thousand voices to give en- country, are prostrated by a monetary cri couragement to the treason. With less to sis; and although similar calamities have thank the Union for than any other portion before befallen us, it is the first time that of the Confederacy, the people of the Pa- they have emanated from causes having no cific are prepared to make any sacrifice to other origin than that which may be traced maintain it-to suffer every neglect rather to political disturbances. Truly, may it than sever their connection with it. Still a now be said, “We are in the midst of 2 Pacific Republic is talked of, and a con- revolution bloodless as YET.” Whether thing spiracy, with the focus in San Francisco, dreadful alternative implied as probable in is poisoning the land. One of its leading the conclusion of this prophetic quotation branches, we learn by the Appeal, is in may be averted, “no human ken can rli Marysville. It is a secret organization, and vine.” It is quite certain that the severity is “forming," says the journal, “ in a section of the storm is unexampled in our history; of country lying back of the Buttes, with a and if the disintegration of the Federal view to establish a military company, pledged Government, with the consequent destrncto the maintainance of a Pacific Republic. tion of all the materiaľ interests of the peo. They will apply to the State for arms under ple shall not follow, it will be owing more the covert pretence of an organization un- to the interposition of Divine Providence, der the State militia law. These misguided than to the inherent preventive power of our inen have been deluded into the belief by institutions, or the intervention of any other their leaders that the Union is irretrievably human agency. gone to pieces, and the only hope for Cali- It would seem that a dissolution of the fornia is the immediate establishment of Federal Union is inevitable. Having been an independent government." The raising formed originally on a basis of general anul of the “bear flag," at Stockton, some days inutual protection, but separate local inde. since, was probably a part of the prograinme. pendence-each State reserving the entire We are anxious to see the faces of some of and absolute control of its own doniestic these revolutionists—to note the mark with affairs, it is evidently impossible to keep which treason brands its votaries.-Sin them together longer than they deem theni. Francisco Mirror.

selves fairly treated by each other, or longer than the interests, honor and fraternity of

the people of the several States aru salis. The Cincinnati Gazette, in the winter of fied. Being a Government creatçıl ly 1860, states :

opinion, its continuance is dependent poa We are most reliably informed that there the continuance of the sentiment which are agents of the Gulf States now in the formed it. It cannot be preserved by

SOUTH AND NORTHWEST.

*

coercion or held together by force. A taxing ourselves for our own government, resort to this last dreadful alternative would has been yielded, and we are not permitted of itself destroy not only the Government, to do so without this authority. * but the lives and property of the people. Thus it will be seen that the political con

If these forebodings shall be realized, and nection between the people of the city and a separation of the States shall occur, mo- the State has been used by the latter to our mentous considerations will be presented to injury. The Legislature, in which the presthe corporate authorities of this city. ent partizan majority has the power, has We must provide for the new relations become the instrument by which we are which will necessarily grow out of the new plundered to enrich their speculators, lobby condition of public affairs.

agents, and Abolition politicians. Laws It will not only be necessary for us to are passed through their malign influence settle the relations which we shall hold to by which, under forms of legal enactment, other cities and States, but to establish, if our burdens have been increased, our subwe can, new ones with a portion of our own stance eaten out, and our municipal liber. State. Being the child of the Union, having ties destroyed. Self-government, though drawn our sustenance from its bosom, and guaranteed by the State Constitution, and arisen to our present power and strength left to every other county and city, has through the vigor of our mother—when de- been taken from us by this foreign power, prived of her maternal advantages, we must whose dependents have been sent among us rely upon our own resources and assume a to destroy our liberties by subverting our position predicated upon the new phase political system. which public affairs will present, and upon

How we shall rid ourselves of this odions the inherent strength which our geographi- and oppressive connection, it is not for me cal, commercial, political, and financial pre- to determine. It is certain that a dissolueminence imparts to us.

tion cannot be peacefully accomplished, With our aggrieved brethren of the Slave except by the consent of the Legislature itStates, we have friendly relations and a self." Whether this can be obtained or not, common sympathy. We have not partici- is, in my judgment, doubtful. Deriving so pated in the warfare upon their constitu- much advantage from its power over the city, tional rights or their domestic institutions. it is not probable that a partizan majority will While other portions of our State have un consent to a separation and the resort to fortunately been imbued with the fanatical force by violence and revolution must not spirit which actuates a portion of the people be thought of for an instant. We have of New England, the city of New York has been distinguished as an orderly and law. unfalteringly preserved the integrity of its abiding people. Let us do nothing to forprinciples in adherence to the compromises feit this character, or to add to the present of the Constitution and the equal rights of distracted condition of public affairs. the people of all the States. We have re- Much, no doubt, can be said in favor of spected the local interests of every section, the justice and policy of a separation. It at no time oppressing, but all the while aid may be said that secession or revolution in ing in the development of the resources of any of the United States would be subverthe whole country. Our ships have pene- sive of all Federal authority, and, so far as trated to every clime, and so have New the Central Government is concerned, the York capital, energy and enterprise found resolving of the community into its original their way to every State, and, indeed, to elements—that, if part of the States form almost every county and town of the Amer- new combinations and Governments, other ican Union. If we have derived sustenance States may do the same. California and from the Union, so have we in return dis- her sisters of the Pacific will no doubt set seminated blessings for the common benefit up an independent Republic and husband of all. Therefore, New York has a right to their own rich mineral resources. The expect, and should endeavor to preserve a Western States, equally rich in cereals and continuance of uninterrupted intercourse other agricultural products, will probably with every section.

do the same. Then it may be said, why It is, however, folly to disguise the fact should not New York city, instead of supthat, judging from the past, New York may porting by her contributions in revenue have more cause of apprehension from the two-thirds of the expenses of the United aggressive legislation of our own State States, become also equally independent ? than from external dangers. We have As a free city, with but nominal duty on already largely suffered from this cause. imports, her local Government could be For the past five years, our interests and supported without taxation upon her peocorporate rights have been repeatedly ple. Thus we could live free from taxes, trampled upon. Being an integral portion and have cheap goods nearly duty free. In of the State, it has been assumed, and in this she would have the whole and united effect tacitly admitted on our part by non- support of the Southern States, as well as resistance, that all political and govern- all the other States to whose interests and mental power over us rested in the State rights under the Constitution she huy Legislature. Even the common right of always been true.

It is well for individuals or communities

NEW HAMPSHIRE. to look every danger square in the face, and The law of the State declares that slaves, to meet it calmly and bravely. As dreadful coming or brought into the State, by or as the severing of the bonds that have with the consent of the master, shall be hitherto united the States has been in con- free ; declares the attempt to hold any pertemplation, it is now apparently a stern and son as a slave within the State as a felony, inevitable fact. We have now to meet it with a penalty of imprisonment of not less with all the consequences, whatever they than one nor more than five years ; provi. may be. If the Confederacy is broken up ded, that the provisions of this section shall the Government is dissolved, and it behooves not apply to any act lawfully done by any every distinct community, as well as every officer of the United States, or other person, individual, to take care of themselves. in the execution of any legal process.

When Disunion has become a fixed and certain fact, why may not New York dis

VERMONT. rupt the bands which bind her to a venal This State, by her several acts of 1843, and corrupt master—to a people and a party 1850 and 1858, provides that no court, justhat have plundered her revenues, attempted tice of the peace or magistrate, shall take to ruin her commerce, taken away the power cognizance of any certificate, warrant, or of self-government, and destroyed the Con- process under the fugitive slave law; profederacy of which she was the proud vides that no officer, or citizen of the State, Empire City ? Amid the gloom which the shall arrest, or aid, or assist in arresting, present and prospective condition of things any person for the reason that he is claimed must cast over the country, New York, as as a fugitive slave ; provides that no officer a Free City, may shed the only light and or citizen shall aid or assist in the removal hope of a future reconstruction of our once from the State of any person claimed as a blessed Confederacy.

fugitive slave; provides a penalty of one But I am not prepared to recommend the thousand dollars, or imprisonment five violence implied in these views. In stating years in State prison for violating this act. this argument in favor of freedom, “peacea- This act, however, shall not be construed to bly if we can, forcibly if we must,” let me extend to any citizen of the State acting as not be misunderstood. The redress can a Judge of the Circuit or District Court of be found only in appeals to the magnanimity the United States, or as Marshal or Deputyof the people of the whole State. The Marshal of the District of Vermont, or to events of the past two months have no any person acting under the command or doubt effected a change in the popular senti- authority of said Courts or Marshal. Rement of the State and National politics. quires the State's attorneys to act as counThis change may bring us the desired relief, sel for alleged fugitives; provides for issuing and we may be able to obtain a repeal of habeas corpus and the trial by jury of all the law to which I have referred, and a con- questions of fact in issue between the parsequent restoration of our corporate rights. ties; and ordains that every person who

FERNANDO Wood, Mayor. may have been held as a slave, who shall January 6th, 1861.

come, or be brought, or be in the State,

with or without the consent of his or her Personal Liberty Laws. master or mistress, or who shall come, or Among the grievances mentioned by the be brought, or be involuntarily, or in any South Carolina Convention was the exist- way, in this State, shall be free. It is also ence in Northern States of “ Personal Lib- provided that every person who shall hold, erty Laws.” We give from the National or attempt to hold, in this State, in slavery, Intelligencer of December 11th, 1860, a or as a slave, any person mentioned as a summary of these laws, except that of Mas- slave in the section of this act, relating to sachusetts, which has been condensed more fugitive slaves, or any free person in any accurately than was there published :

form, or for any time, however short, under

the pretence that such person is or has been MAINE.

a slave, shall, on conviction thereof, be The laws of this State provide that no imprisoned in the State prison for a term sheriff, deputy sheriff, coroner, constable, not less than one year nor more than fifteen jailer, justice of the peace, or other officer years, and be fined not exceeding two thou. of the State, shall arrest or detain or sand dollars. aid in so doing, in any prison or building

MASSACHUSETTS. belonging to this State, or in any county or town, any person on account of a claim on

That of 1860. him as a fugitive slave, under a penalty not The Governor to appoint commissioners exceeding one thousand dollars, and make in each county to defend alleged fugitives it the duty of all county attorneys to repair from service or labor, who shall secure to to the place where such person is held in them impartial trials by jury: and the custody, and render him all necessary and alleged fugitives may have the services legal assistance in making his defence of any attorney whose assistance may be deagainst said claim.

sired.

two years.

All the expenses of the defence of alleged prison for not less than one nor more than fugitives to be paid by the commonwealth.

Persons holding office under this State The penalties prescribed by the two prenot to issue process for the arrest of alleged ceding sections not to apply to any act of fugitives, nor to serve the same, nor to do military obedience performed by an officer any official act in furtherance of the execu- or private of the militia. tion of the fugitive slave law of 1793 or that The preceding sections not to apply to of 1850. Any justice of the peace offending fugitives from justice. United States judi. against this provision to forfeit not exceed-cial officers not to hold any judicial office ing one thousand dollars, or be imprisoned, under the constitution and laws of this State, in jail, not exceeding one year, for each except that of justice of the peace. offence.

No justice of the peace, while holding the The jails and other prisons of the State office of a Commissioner of the United States not to be used for the detention or imprison- Circuit Court, shall have authority to grant ment of any person accused or convicted of any warrant or to issue any process, civil or any offence created by either of the said acts criminal, other than summons to witnesses, of Congress; or accused or convicted of re- or hear and try any cause, civil or criminal, sisting any process issued under either of under the laws of this State. them, or of rescuing or attempting to rescue any person detained under the provisions of ACT APPROVED MARCH 25th, 1861. either of said acts; nor for the imprisonment Sec. 1. Writ of habeas corpus returnable of a person arrested on mesne process or exe- before the Supreme Judicial Court except cution in a suit for damages in consequence in cases mentioned in Sections 30 and 32, of aid rendered to any fugitive escaping from Chap. 144 of General Statutes. service or labor.

Sec. 2. On a trial upon a writ of habeas Whoever removes from this State or corpus, under sec. 19 of same act, issues to assists in so doing, or comes into the State be framed under direction of the court, and with the intention of removing or assisting rules of evidence, etc., to be those of the in the removing therefrom, or procures or

common law. assists in procuring to be so removed, any per- Sec. 3. A person not to be taken by writ son who is not “held to service or labor" by of habeas corpus out of the custody of the the “party" making “claim," or has not U. S. Marshal, or his deputy, holding him "escaped" from the "party" making “ claim" by legal process issued by court of competent or whose "service or labor" is not “due” to jurisdiction, provided, that the Supreme the party making claim" within the mean- Judicial Court may investigate and detering of the words of the Constitution of the mine upon the validity and legal effect of United States, or the pretence that such any process which may be relied upon to person is so held or has escaped or that his defeat the writ, or any other matter prop"service or labor" is so “due" or with the erly arising. intent to subject him to such “service or Sec. 4. No person to be punished, who, labor," shall be punished by fine not less without any false pretence or unlawful intent, than one thousand nor exceeding five thou- claims another person as a fugitive from sand dollars, and by imprisonment in the service or labor. State prison not less than one nor more Sec. 5. The right of any officer or court to

call out the militia for the prevention or And any person sustaining wrong or in- suppression of any riot or mob, is not projury by any proceedings punishable as afore- hibited by the 144th chapter aforesaid; the said, may maintain an action and recover officers or members of the volunteer militia damages therefore.

not excused from obeying any lawful order, Sheriffs, deputy-sherffs and others, state, or liable to any penalty for executing the county, city, district and town officers, and same; provided, that the militia shall not be officers of the volunteer militia forbidden to used to hinder the service of any lawful proarrest, imprison, detain, or return, or aid in cess of this commonwealth. so doing, any person for the reason that he is claimed or adjudged to be a fugitive from

CONNECTICUT. service or labor, shall be punished by fine The State of Connecticut provides that not less than one thousand and not exceed- every person who shall falsely and maliing two thousand dollars, and by imprison-ciously declare, represent, or pretend that inent in the State prision not less than one any free person entitled to freedom is a slave, nor exceeding two years.

or owes service or labor to any person or The volunteer militia not to aid in the persons, with intent to procure or to aid or seizure, detention or rendition of a person assist in procuring the forcible removal of for the reason that he is claimed or adjudged such free person from this State as a slave, to be a fugitive from service or labor. Any shall pay a fine of $5,000 and be imprisoned member thereof offending against this pro- five years in the Connecticut State prison ; vision, to be punished by fine not less than requires two witnesses to prove that any one thousand nor more than two thousand person is a slave or owes labor; denounces a dollars, and by imprisonment in the State | penalty of $5,000 against any person seizing

than two years.

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