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rected to inform the Senate whether Dr. John Law and I lay the whole subject on the table; which was Liteley Meredith, or either of them, citizens of the Stato agreed to-yeas 22, nays 16, as follows: of Delaware, hare been arrested and imprisoned in Fort Delaware: when they were arrested and so imprisoned; the YEAS—Messrs. Anthony, Arnold, Chandler, Clark, Fessen. eharga astinst them: by whom made; by what orders they den, Foot, Foster, Grimes, Hale, Ilarlan, Harris, Hicks, were arrestati and imprisoned; and that he communicate to Howard, Howe, kins, Lano of Kansas, Morrill, Pomeroy, th: Sebale all papers relating to their arrest and imprison- Sumner, Wade, Wilkinson, Wilson of Masshusetts—22.
NAIS-Messrs. Bayard, Carlile, Davis, Harding, Hender
son, Kennedy, Latham, McDougall, Powell, Rice, Richardson,
1862, Dec. 1-Mr. Cox offered the following Lane of Kansas, Morrill, Sumner, Ton Eyck, Trumbull
, preamble and resolution: Wade, Wilkinson, Wilmot, Wilson of Massachusetts, Wright
Whereas, many citizens of the United States have been NATSVests. Bayard, Carlile, Cowan, Davis, Harding, scized by persons acting, or pretending to be acting, under Henderson. Kennedy, Nesmith, Powell, Rice, Sauisbury, out of the jurisdiction of the States of their residence, and
the authority of the United States, and have been carried Why, Wilson of Missouri-13.
imprisoned in the military prisons and camps of the United December 3—Mr. POWELL offered the follow- States, without any public chargo being preferred against ing joint resolution :
them, and without any opportunity being allowed to learn
or disprove thecharges made, or alleged to be made against Whereas, many citizens of the United States have been
them: and whereas, such arrests have been made in States seized by persons actin?, or pretending to be acting, under where there was no insurrection or rebellion, or pretence the authority of the United States, and have been carried thereof, or any other obstruction against the authority of oat of the jurisdictioa of the States of their residence and the Government: and whereas, it is the sacred right of irriscarl in the military prisons and cups of the United
every citizen of the United States, that lo shall not be deStates withont any public charge being preferred against prived of liberty without due process of law, and when arthen and without any opportunity being allowed to learn restel, that he shall have a speedy and public trial by an o darove the charges mäle or alleged to be made against impartial jury of his countrymen: Therefore, tea; anl whereas, it is the sacred right of every citizen Resoireil, 'That thu llouse of Representatives do hereby that he shall not le deprived of liberty without due process condemn all such arrests as unwarranted by tho Constituof law, and when arrested shall have a speedy and public tion and laws of the United States, and as a usurpation of trial by an impartial jury: There!ore
power never given up by the people to their rulers, and do Be it recretly the Senate and House of Representatives hereby demand that all such arrests shall liereaiter cease, of the Cruel Sates of America in Congress assembled, That and that all persons so arrested and yet held should have a all each arrests are unwarranted by the Constitution and prompt and public trial, according to the provisions of tho law of the United States, and a usurpation of power never Constitution. area by the people to the President or any other official. All such arrests are hereby condemned and declared palpa
Which was laid on the table -yeas 80, nays We violations of the Constitution of the United States; and 40. The Nays were : it is here'sy demanded that all such arrests shall hereafter ecase, ani that all persons so arrested and yet held should rert, Corning, Cox, Crittenden, English, Foule, Granger,
Messrs. Ancona, Baily, Biddle, Jacob B. Blair, Calbare a prompt and sper dy public trial according to the pro- Grider, Haight, Hall, Harding, Holman, Knapp, Law, LaHicons of the Constitution, or should be immediately released.
zear, Alenzies, Morris, Noble, Norton, Nugen, Ouell, Price,
Richardson, Sheffield, Shiel, John B. Sterle, William G. Laid on the table and printed.
Sleele, Stiles, Benjamin F. Thomas, Francis Thomas, Val1863, February 26—Mr. POWELL offered the landigham, Ward, Chilton A. White, Wickliffe, Wright,
Yeaman-40. following r:solution :
December 1-Mr. RICHARDSON offered the Resored, That a committee of three be appointed to ino Testigate the conduct of Colonel Giibert, who, in command following resolution : of a regiment of United States solliers, dispersed a llemo- Resolved, That the President of the United States be reStatic Cotention of peaceablo citizens of the State of Ken. quested to inform this louse what citizens of Illinois aro tacky, assembled at ibe capital of that state.on the 18th of now confined in the l'orts Warren, Lafayette, and Delware, February, 143, for the purpose of nominating candidates or the Old Capitol prison, and any other forts or places of for Gorernor and Lieutenant Governor and other State offi.continement; what the charges are against said persons; Cerk That said comınitteo investigate all the facts con- also the places where they wero arrested. That the PresiDectal with the aforesaid action of Calonel Gilbert and the dent be further requesteel to inform this House of the names eficers adde ders under his command; and the raid com- of the persons that have been arrested in Illinois and taken miti pe ara he eby authorized to send for persons and papers, to and contined in prisons outside of the limits of said State, to engine witnesses, atid that they be authorized to ad- and who have been releas', what were the charges against mbiser oats to witnesses; and that said committeo be each of them, by whom the charges were made, also by sathorized to h Id sessions in the State of Kentucky or whose order suid arrests were made, and the authority of elsewhere, and to employ a reporter to take down testi. law for such arrests. aod that they report, &c.
Which was laid upon the table-yeas 74, Varch 3–The Senate refused to take up the nays 40. The Nays wereresolution -yeas 10, nays 25, as follows:
Messrs. Ancona, Baily, Biddle, Calvert, Roscoe Conkling, Yus-Messrs. Carlile, Cowan, Davis, Lane of Kansas, Conway, Corning, Cox, Crittenden, Dunn, English, Fouhe Lahin. Nesmith, Powell, Saulsbury, wall, Wison of Mis- Granger, Grider, Hall
, IIarding, Holman, William Kollore,
Knapp, Law, Lazcar, Leary, Menzies, Morris, Noble, Nora BOC 1-10. Nars_Messrs. Anthony, Arnold, Clark, Collamer, Dixon, ton, Nugen, Odell, Porter, Price, Richardson, Shidl, John B. Lesstaden, Fust, Foster, Grimes, Harding, Harl:in, Harris, Steele, William G. Stecle, Stiles, Benjamin F. Thonnas, ValLederson, Hicks, lowe, Merrill
, Pomeroy, Rice, Sumner, lundigham, Ward, Chilton A. White, Wright-40. Tea Eyck, Wade, Wilkinson, Willey, Wilmot, Wilson of Dec. 22-Vr. May offered the following resMasca busetts-25.
olution : THE CASE OF MADISOX T. JOHXSON.
Resolved, that the Secretary of Stato be requested to Peb. 2-Mr. RICHARDSON offered this resolu- communicate to this louse a copy of an order which, on or
abont the 28th of November, 1861, he cansed to be read to tion :
Stato prisoners confined in Fort Warren, whereby they were Resulted, That a committre of three be appointed to in- forbidden to employ counsel in their belief, and informed testiente: the facts in reference to the arrest and imprison that such employment of comsel would be regarde ly tho brut of Mali-xın Y. Johuson, and that said committee huve Government and ly the State Department is a rcason for for purr to sul for persons and papers, to examine wit prolonging the term of their imprisonment. besses toder oath, and administer oaths to said wituesses. Which was laid upon the table-geas 63,
The memorial of Madison Y. Johnson was nays 48. The Nays wereread wben Mr. Howe, of Wisconsin, moved to Messrs. William Allen, William J. Allen, Ancona, Biddie,
Burnham, Calvert, Clements, Cobb, Cox, Crarens, Crittenden, | invaded, and in which the civil and judicial powers are in Dunn, English, Granger, Grider, Hale, Harding, Johnson, full operation. William Kellogs, Kerrigan, knapp, Law. Lazear, Leary, 2. Resolved, That Congress has no power under the Conj May, Morris, Noble, Norton, Nugen, Pendleton, Price, Rob stitution to delegate to the President of the United States inson, James S. Rollins, Shiel, Smilh, Benjamin F. Thomas, the authority to suspend the privilege of the writ of habeis Francis Thomas, Vallandigham, Fibbard, Voorhees, Wads- corpus, and imprison at his pleasure, without process of law worth, Ward, Chilton A. White, Wickliffé, Woodruff, Wor- or trial, the citizens of the loyal States. cester, Wright, Yeaman–48.
3. Resolved, that the assumption of the right by the Ex
ecutive of the United States to deprive the itizens of such December 15– Mr. PENDLETON offered the fol- loyal States of the benefits of the writ of habeas corpus, lowing resolution :
and to imprison them at his pleasure, without process of Resolved, That the President be requested to inform this with a despotic power unlimited by constitutional obliga
law, is unworthy the progress of the age, is consistint only House, if in his opinion not inconsistent with the public tions, and is wholly subversive of the elementary principles interest, whether in any oath of allegiance or parole re- of freedom, upon which the Government of the United quired to be taken by any prisoner held in custody as a so- States and of the several states is based. called political prisoner, there has been inserted a clause to
4. Resolved, That the Judiciary Committee be instructed to the effect that he should not bring suit for the recovery of prepare and report a bill to this llouse protecting the rights damages for such imprisonment, or that he should not op- of the citizens in the loyal States, in strict accordance with pose, by speech or otherwise, the war measures of the Ad- the foregoing provisions of the Constitution of the United ministration.
States. Which was laid on the table by the following Which was negatived-yeas 67, nays 90, as vote-yeas 77, nays 43.
follows: March 3~ Mr. May offered the following res
Yeas-Messrs. James C. Allen, William J. Allen, Ancona, olution :
Augustus C. Baldwin, Bliss, Brooks, Brown, Chanler, Cof Whereas it is represented that Major General Schenck, froth, Cox, Cravens, Dawson, Denison, Eden, Edgerton, Ë!commanding the forces of the United States stationed in dridge, English, Finck, Ganson, Grider, Hall, Harding, Baltimore, Maryland, has ordered, as a condition to be an- Harrington, Benjamin G. Harris, Herrick, Hólman, wil. nexed to the worship of Almighty God by certain religious lium Johnson, Kernan, King, Knapp, Law, Le Blond, Long, societies or congregations of the Methodist Church of that Mallory, Marcy, Mellister, Mc Douell, Mckinney, Middlecity, that the flag of the United States shall be conspicu- ton, William II. Miller, James R. Morris, Morris, Nelson, ously displayed at the time and place of such worship: and Noble, Odell, John O Néill, Pendleton, Perry, Radford, Sun whereas the said order is a plain violation of the inalien- uc J. Randall, Robinson, Rogers, Ross, Scott, John B. Steele, able riglit to worship God according to the dictates of every
William G. Slacle, Sliles, Strouse, Surat, Poorhers, Widsone's conscience, as it is asserted by the said congregations, worth, Ward, Wheeler, Chilton A. White, Joseph W. W lute, and also by our declarations of fundamental rights and se
Winfield, Wood-67. cured by our State and Federal Constitutions : and whereas
NAYS--Messrs. Alley, Allison. Ames, Arnold, Ashley, John a minister of the said congregation, the Rev. John II. Dash
D. Baldwin, Beaman, Blitine, Blow, Boutwell, Brandlegee, iell, having, on Monday, the 15th ultimo, removed the said Broomall, William G. Brown, Ambrose W. Clark, Freeman flag from his own premises, which was also the place of Clarke, Clay, Cobb, Cole, Creswell, Henry Winter Davis, worship of one of said congregations, where the said flag Thomas T. Davis, Dawes, Dixon, Donnelly, Drives, Dumont, had been placed surreptitiously by somo evil-minded per- | Eckley, Eliot, Farnsworth, Fenton, Frank, Gartield, Gesch, son, and for so doing was arrested by order of the said Gen- Grinnell, Hale, ligby, Ilooper, llotchkiss, Asuhel W. Hul eral Schenck and held as a prisoner: Therefore,
bard, John II. Hubbard, lulburd, Jenckes, Julian, Kason, Be it resolved, That the Judiciary Committee be, and Kelley, Francis W. Kellogs, Orlando Kellogz, Loan, Lodz. hereby is, instructed to inquire into the allegations afore- year, Lovejoy, Marvin, McBride, McClury. McIndeo, Sammel said, and ascertuin by what authority the said General F. Miller, Moorhead, Morrill, Daniel Morris, Amos Myers, , Schenck exercises a power to regulate or interfere with tho Leonard Myers, Norton, Charles O'Neill, Orth, Perbam, Pike, privileges of divine worship, and also to arrest and detain Pomeroy, Price, William H. Randall, Alexander II. Rice, as a prisoner the said minister of the Gospel, as aforesaid; John H. Rice, Edward H. Rollius, Schenck, Scofield, Shanand, further, that suid committeo be instructed to report non, Sloan, Smithers, Spalding, Stevens, Thnver, Truey. Van upon the same at an early day.
Valkenburgh, Ellihu B. Washburne, William B. Washe The House refused to suspend the rules to bridgo—00.
burn, Whaley, Williams, Wilder, Wilson, Windom, Woode get the resolution before the House-ayes 28, noes 79, (yeas and nays not called.)
1864, February 29—Mr. PENDLETON offered the following resolution:
Resolved, (as the sense of this House.) That the military First Session, Thirty-Eighth Congress. arrest, without civil warrant, and trial ly military com1863, December 17-Mr. HARRINGTON offered mission without jury, of Cleinent L. Vallanigham, a citizen
of Ohio, not in the land or naval forces of the United States this resolution :
or the militia in actual service, by order of Major General Whereas the Constitution of the United States (article Burnside, and his subsequent banishment by order of the one, section nine) provides: "The privilege of the writ of President, executed by inilitary force, were acis of mere habeas corpus shall not be suspended, unless when, in cases arbitrary power, in palpallo violation of the Constitution of rebellion or invasion, the public safety may require it:" and laws of the United States. and whereas such provision is contained in the portion of Which the House refused to table-yeas 33, tho Constitution defining legislative powers, and not in the provisions defining executive power; and whereas the nays 84, and then rejected-yeas 47, nays 77, Constitution (article four of Amendments) further provides: as follows: “ The right of the people to be secure in their persons, YEAS—Messrs. James C. Allen, Ancona, Augustus r. Baid. houses, papers, and effects, against unreasonable searches win, Brooks, Chanler, Coffroth, Cox, Darson, Dents, and seizures, shall not be violated," &c.; and whereas the Eden, Eldridge, Finck, Gunson, Harding, Harrington, Here Thirty-Seventh Congress did, by act, claim to confer upon rick, Holman, Hutchins, Kernan, Knapr. Lurr, L, the President of the United States the power, at bis will Marcy, McDowell, Mckinney, William H. Miller, Morrison, and pleasure, to suspend the privilege of the writ of habeus Nelson, Noble, John O'Neill, Pendleton, Railford, Samuel J. corpus tbroughout the United States, without limitations Randall, Rogers, Ross, Scott, Stebbins, John B. Serle, 1974or conditions; and whereas the President of the United liam G. Steele, siles, Strouse, Stuart, Surat, Voorhees, Wil States, by proclamation, has assumed to suspend such priv. liam H. Wadsworth, Chilton A. White, Winfield-47. ileges of the citizen in the loyal States; and whereas the NAYS--Messrs. Alley, Allison, Anderson, Arnold, Baily, people of such States have been subjected to arbitrary ar- John D. Baldwin, Baxter, Francis P. Blair, jr., Blow, Bourrests without process of law, and to unreasonable search well, Boyd, Brandegee, Ambrose W.Clark, Freeman Clarke, and seizures, and have been denied the right to a speedy Clay, Cobb, Cole, Creswell, Henry Winter Davis, Dawes, trial and investigation, and havo languished in prisons at Deming, Dixon, Donnelly, Driggs, Dumont, Eckley, Eliot, the arbitrary pleasure of the Chief Executive and his mili. Farnsworth, Frank, Grinnell, Hale, Miguy. Houper, Hotlie tary subordinates: Now, therefore,
kiss, Asahel W. lublard, John H. Ilubbari, Jeuckes, Řesolved by the Ilouse of Representatives of the United Julian, Kelley, Francis W. Kellous, Orlando Kellogg, lakin, States, That no power is delegated by the Constitution of Marvin, McBride, McClurg, Moorhead, Morrill, Daniel Moro the United States, either to the legislative or executive ris, Amos Myers, Leonard Myers, Norton, Charles O'Neill, power, to suspend the privileges of the writ of habeas corpus Patterson, Perham, Pomeroy, Price, William II. Randall, in any State loyal to the Constitution and Government not John H. Rice, Schenck, Scofield, Shannon, Sloan, Smithers,
Biarr, Stevens, Thayer, Thomas, Upson, Van Valkenburgh, I this bill, which was referred to the Committee
Be it enacted, dc., That upon all arrests under section 6, lowing resolutions, which were laid over under bail shall be a imitted, and such bail, on the demand of the the rule:
party so arrested, may be taken before any judge of the
United States, any chancellor, judge of a supreme or supe. Resolved, 1. That the House fully recognizes the great fund- rior court, or chief or first judge of court of common pleas amental provision of the Constitution of the
of any State, who shall exercise their discretion therein, rewhich guarantees the freedom of speech to every American garding the nature and circumstances of the offence, and of citiz-n; and that neither the President, nor any person act. the evidence and the usages of the law. ing in a subordinate capacity to him, has the rightful authority to arrest and imprison a citizen of the loyal States for the attrance of sentiments distasteful to the men in power.
Third Session, Thirty-Sevonth Congress. 2. That we recognize in the freedom of the press the great
THE ACT OF INDEMNITY OF MARCH 3, 1863. tawark of civil liberty; and that those persons temporarily intrusted with power have not the rightful authority,
Section 1 provides : That, during the pres. in those States not in rebellion, to subvert this great con- ent rebellion, the President of the United etitutional guarantee by issuing military orders, or by a States, whenever, in his judgment, the public resort to any other means unknown to the laws of the country.
safety may require it, is authorized to suspend 2. That the right to security of person from arrest in the the privilege of the writ of habeas corpus in loyal States, when no crimo is charged, is a sacred right any case throughout the United States, or any Dur any one acting by his authority, has the legal right to part thereof. And whenever and wherever the stest, imprison, or transport our people without due pro said privilege shall be suspended, as aforesaid, teu of law," requiring affidavit, warrant, arrest, and trial
no military or other officer shall be compelled, by a jury of the country, impartially selected. 4. That the privilege of the writ of habeas corpus is a in answer to any writ of habeas corpus, to refuo tarneatal and inherent right belonging to the American turn the body of any person or persons detained people, solemnly guaranteed by express provision of the by him by authority of the President; but loyal States, where the courts are open and the administra- upon the certificate, under oath, of the officer tion of justice is unobstructed, and “invasion and rebel- having charge of any one so detained that such lon" do not exist.
5. That the Constitution of the United States is one of person is detained by him as a prisoner under expressed and limited powers, and that neither Congress authority of the President, further proceedings Dir the Executive have the “lawful right” to interfere with under the writ of habeas corpus shall be susthe established rights and domestic institutions of the serpended by the judge or court having issued the eral States. 6. That we reaffirm our unalterable devotion to the Con- said writ, so long as said suspension by the stitution of the United States, and to each and every pro- President shall remain in force, and said rebelvizion thereof, as framed by the fathers, including those
lion continue. prori-ins relating to the rights of property and the inviolability of contracts, as understood and interpreted by the Section 2 directs the Secretary of State and Sapreme Court of the United States.
the Secretary of War to furnish to the judges March 21-Mr. ELDRIDGE offered this reso- of the circuit and district courts of the United lation, which was laid over under the rule : States and of the District of Columbia, a list
Resolted. That the President of the United States bo res of the names of all persons, citizens of loyal per trilly requested, and that the Secretary of State and the States, held as State or political prisoners of Secretary of War be directed, to report and furnish to this the United States, in any fort, arsenal, or other av i held in prison or continement in any prison, fort, or other place; and provides that where a grand jury place whatsiever, for political offences, or any other alleged has adjourned without finding an indictment States, by the order, command, consent, or knowledge of against any such person, the judge shall forththem or either of them, respectively, and who have not been with make an order that any such prisoner charseil, tried, or convicted before any civil or criminal (not desiring a discharge be brought before him to Ditary court of the land, together with the charge against be discharged, and every officer of the United tra le ans, and the name of the prison, fort, or place wheru States is directed immediately to obey this they are severally keptor confined. Also, whether any person order, under penalty of fine and imprisonment tel.z from the United States, or from the States not in rebel- / -the party first to take a prescribed oath of len to the rebellious States; and the names, times, alleged allegiance. Another section provides : That of nice or cause thereof; and whether with or without trial; any order of the President, or under his auand if tried, before what court. April 4-The resolution, on motion of Mr. of the present rebellion, shall be a defence in
thority, made at any time during the existence Edward H. Rollins, was laid upon the table- all courts to any action or prosecution, civil Jeas 62, Days 40. The Nays wereMests. James C. Allen, Ancona, A. C. Baldwin, Bliss, J. any search, seizure, arrest, or imprisonment,
or criminal, pending, or to be commenced, for & Broen, Chanler, Cox, Crarens, Dawson, Denison, Eden, made, done, or committed, or acts omitted to Edridge, English, Finck, Grider, Griswold, Harrington, Loan, Mallory, Marcy, McKinney, Middleton, J. R. Morris, under color of any law of Congress, and such Herrich, Hemon, P. Johnson, Kalbfleisch, Law, Lazear, be done, under and by virtue of such order, or
wrison, J. O' Neill, Pruyn, S. J. Randall, Robinson, Rogers, defence may be made by special plea, or under J. B. Steele, Wheeler, C. A. White, Winfield, Yeoman-10. June 20--Mr. Ross offered the following res
the general issue. o'ution, which went over under the rule :
Suits begun in State courts may be trans
ferred to United States Courts under circumResolred. That all persons not in the military or naval stances described. Any suit described in this service of the United States who have been arrested and imprisoned by the agents of the Government without process act may be carried on writ of error to the Suof law, ani released without trial or examination, are entitled preme Court of the United States, and all suits to the rane pay and mileage for the time they were deprived or prosecutions for any arrest or imprisonment be of Claims are hereby instructed to report a bill at an or other trespasses or wrongs, shall be comtaziy day for that purpose.
menced within two years. Same day, in SENATE—Mr. MORRILL offered This bill passed the House of Representatives, March 2, 1863-yeas 99, nays 45, as imprisoned ; and that for them redress might he had in the follows:
courts of the United States, by resort to the perceful, reg.
ular, and ordinary administration of the law. It is framed YEAS_Messrs. Aldrich, Arnold, Ashley, Babbitt, Baker, upon the idea that the citizen was arrested without the Baxter, Beaman, Bingham, Jacob B. Blair, Samuel S. Blair, existence of crime on his part, or even probable cause to Blake, William G. Brown, Buffinton, Campbell, Casey, suspect it, and that in making such arrests, the substance, Chamberlain, Clark, Colfax, Frederick A. Conkling, as well as the form, of those provisions of law intended Roscoe Conkling, Conway, Cutler, Davis, Dawes, Delano, i to secure personal liberty wero entirely disregarded. It Dunn, Edgerton, Eliot, Ely, Fenton, Samuel C. Fessenden, makes no exception of those cases in which the arrests Thomas A. D. Fessenden, Fisber, Flanders, Franchot, have been made with malice, and the imprisonments have Frank, Goodwin, Gurley, Hahn, Hale, Harrison, Ilooper, been inflicted with circumstances of brutality and cruelty, Horton, Hutchins, Julian, Kelley, Francis W. Kellogg, in which the “public good" has been made the cloak William Kellogg, Killinger, Lansing, Leary, Lehman, wherewith to cover the gratification of political animosity Loomis, Low, McIndoe, McKean, McKnight, McPherson, or private hatred. It distinguishes in nothing between the Marston, Maynard, Mitchell, Moorhead, Anson P. Morrill,
cases in which an honest mistake has been followed by its Nixon, Olin, Patton, Timothy G. Phelps, Pike, Pomeroy, I immediate correction, and cases in which malignity has Porter, John H. Rice, Riddle, Edward II. Rollins, Sarged, been enabled, by talso pretences, to procure the arrest and Sedgwick, Segar, Shanks, Shellabarger, Sherman, Sioan,
to prolong the imprisonment, to the loss of property, the Spaulding, Stevens, Stratton, Francis Thomas, Trimble, destruction of health, and, in some instances, ine insanity, Trowbridge, Van Horn, Van Valkenburgh, Van Wyck, suicide, or lingering death of the unhappy victim. It dis Verree, Walker, Wall, Wallace, Washburne, Wheeler,
tinguishes in nothing between the active officer, zealous in Albert 8. White, Wilson, Windom, Worcester-99.
the full discharge of his oflicial duties, and the base mis-
If these acts had been done in all cases from the purest
motives, with an eye single to the public good, with as litSame day, the bill passed the Senate, without tle aggression as possible on private rights, with all circum& record of yeas and days, owing to a misun spection and care that only those who were really guilty
should suffer such confinement as would prevent the comderstanding respecting the putting of the vote.mission of an unlawful act-if tho public good were in fact
March 3—Mr. BAYARD moved that the Secre- subserved by them-it might be proper to protect the Presa tary of the Senate be directed to request the
ident, and thoso acting under his authority, from criminal
prosecution and penal sentence; it might be proper to proHouse of Representatives, to return to the tect them from pecuniary loss, by tho payment from the pub Senate the above report of the Committee of lic Treasury, of the damages assessed against them. Even Conference; which was rejected -yea3 13, nays in seasons of great public dangers negative all wrongtul in
then, whilst admitting that circumstances like these would 25, as follows:
tent in the commission of these illegal acts, it would be the Yeas-Messrs. Bayard, Carlile, Davis, Henderson, all times the President of the Unitei States, before all other
duty of the Representatives of the people to affirm that at Latham, Nesmith, Powell, Rice, Richardson, Saulsbury, mnen, should adhere most strictly to the forms of legal pro Turpie, Willey, Wilson, of Missouri-13.
cedure when directing his powers against the personal lib NAYg—Messrs. Anthony, Chandler, Clark, Dixon, Doo
crty of the citizen. It could never be proper to indemnify little, Foster, Grimes, Harlan, Harris, Hicks, loward, tho President, and those acting under his anthority, at the Howe, King, Lane of Indiana, Lane of Kansas, Morrill, expense of the citizen whom they had injured, or to add to Pomeroy, Sherman, Sumner, Ten Eyck, Trumbull, Wade, their security by the destruction of his remedies. Wilkinson, Wilmot, Wilson of Massachusetts-25.
The Constitution of the United States guards most care While this subject was pending before Con.
fully tho rights of the citizen; it was ordained “to estaba
lisho justice, insure domestic tranquillity," and to “secure gress, the House, December 8, 1862, passed an the blessings of liberty;" and so steadily was this object kept indemnity bill-yeas 90, nays 45, against which,
in view, that in addition to the reservation of all powers on the 22d of December, thirty-six members of not granted, there are special prohibitions of seizures with
out warrant, detentions without indictment, imprisonment the House moved to enter on the journal this without a speedy and public trial, and deprivation of life, protest :
liberty, or property without due process of law; and there
are clandes which extend the judicial power of the United Resolved, that the following protest of thirty-six mem- States to all controversies between citizens of dit rent bers of this House against the passage of the House bill No. States, and secure a trial by jury in all cuses in which the 591 be entered upon the Journal:
valne in controversy exceeds twenty dollars. Congress has On the 8th day of December, A. D. 1862, and during the hitherto uniformly mnintained, and, as far as was necespresent session of Congress, Mr. STEVENS, of Pennsylvania, sary, has perfected by its legislation these guarantees of prir introduced the bill No. 591, entitled “An act to indemnify sonal liberty, and the courts have enforced them by tho asthe President, and other persons, for suspending tho privi- sessment of damages for their infraction. This bill proposes lege of the writ of habeas corpus, and acts done in pursu- to deprive the courts of the power to afforil such protection. ance thereof." and after its second reading moved that its It will, if carried out into practical and general operation, consideration be made the special order for the Thursday release the people from the duty of appealing to such peace then next ensuing, which motion being objected to, he ful and legal means of restress, and will provoko more summoved the previous question, and this being sustained, un- mary and less constitutional measures. Yet this bill, without der the operation thereof the bill was read a third time, precedent in our history, suggesting such gravo questions of and passed.
constitutionality and expediency, believed by many memThis bill involves questions of the gravest importance. It bers to be utterly subversive of the rights of the citizen and provides that all suspensions of the privilege of the writ of of the express provisions of the Constitution, by the force habeas corpus, all arrests and imprisonments upon what. of mere numbers and against the remonstrance of the miever pretexts or by whomsoever made, under the authority nority, was passed within one hour of its first introluetion, of the President, however arbitrary or tyrannical or unjust, without having been printed, without having been referred are confirmed and made valid; and that all persons who to any committee, select or standing, and without any op advised or executed or assisted in the execution of any such portunity for consideration or discussion. acts are discharged from all liability, whether to the State Tho undersigned, members of the House of Representaor to individuals "in respect thereof;" and that all proceed- tives, do therefore most solemnly remonstrate against this ings against them of any nature, whether for the recovery action of the House, and respectfully ask that this their of damages or for the infliction of punishment " commenced protest may be entered upon the Journal. or to be commenced,” are discharged and made void. It They protest against the refusal of the House to permit also provides that the President may, during the existence consideration and discussion of the bill as an arbitrary exof this rebellion, at any time aod anywhere thronghout any ercise of power by the majority, unjust to the members, of the United States, and as to any person, suspend the unjust to their constituents, and derogatory to its character privilege of the writ of habeas corpus.
as a deliberative legislative body. The bill is framed upon the idea that the acts recited They protest against the passage of the billwere illegal, and without just cause or excuse; that they 1. Because it purports to deprive the citizen of all existwere violations of the rights of the persons arrested and ing, peaceful, legal modes of redrezy for admitted wrongs,
and thus constrains him tamely to submit to the injury in- | present rebellion, it shall not be lawful for any officer or ficted or to seek illegal and forcible remedies.
servant of the United States to arrest or detain any citizen 2. Because it purports to indemnify the President and of the United States who may be supposed or alleged to be all acting under his authority for acts admitted to be wrong. disloyal thereto, or for any other cause, except upon oath or fal, at the expense of the citizen upon whom the wrongful affirmation of some person or persons well known to be rets have been perpetrated, in violation of the plainest loyal to the United States, and particularly describing in principles of justice, and the most familiar precepts of con- said oath or affirmation the act of disloyalty or other cause stitutional law,
for which the said citizen should be arrested and detained. & Because it purports to confirm and make valid, by act Sec, 2. That any and every officer or servant of the United of Congress, arrests and imprisonments which were not States who shall arrest or dethin any citizen of the United only not warrant-d by the Constitution of the United States, States in contravention of the provisions of the first section bat Fere in palpable violation of its express prohibitions. of this act shall, on conviction thereof in any court having
4. Because it purports to authorize the President, during jurisdiction in the case, suffer a fino of 'not less than this rebellion, at any time, as to any person, and every- $10,000, or imprisonment in the penitentiary for a term not where throughout the limits of the United States, to sus- less than five years. pend the privilege of the writ of habeas corpus, whereas by Sec. 3. That all persons arrested under the provisions of the Constitution the power to suspend the privilege of that this act upon the chargo of disloyalty to the Government writ is confided to the discretion of Congress alone, and is of the United States, or for any other cause, shall have tho limited to the places threatened by the dangers of invasion privilege of the writ of habeas corpus ; and the said writ or insurrection.
shall not be suspended at any time so far as the same may 5. Because, for these and other reasons, it is unjust and relate to persons arrested as aforesaid. unwise, an invasion of private rights, an encouragement to Sec. 4. That nothing in this act shall be so construed as lawless violence, and a precedent full of hope to all who to prevent the arrest of any person, a citizen of any or would usurp despotic power and perpetuate it by the arbi- either of the States now in rebellion agninst the Governtrary arrest and imprisonment of those who oppose them. ment of the United States, who may be charged with trea
6. And finally, because in both its sections it is “a delib- son or disloyalty thereto: Prorided, That all arrests of erate, palpable, and dangerous" violation of the Constitu- such persons shall be made as provided in the first section tion, according to the piain sense and intention of that in- of this act, or upon the precept of the President of the strument," and is therefore utterly null and void.
Which was rejected--yeas 7, (Messrs. Car-
J. A. Cravens, lile, Kennedy, Powell, Richardson, Suulsbury,
Turpie, Wall,) nays 29.
THE ACT SUSTAINED BY THE COURTS.
The important case of George W. Jones, ex-
G. W. Dunlap,
Minister to Bogota, vs. William H. Seward, bas
been decided in New York by the Supreme William J. Allen, W. H. Wadsworth, Court. Mr. Jores was arrested on a telegrapbio S. 8. Cox,
dispatch from Secretary Seward, and impris-
brought a suit for $5,000 damages for false imJ. Lazear,
R. H. Nugen,
prisonment. Mr. Seward, by counsel, moved
to transfer the case to the United States Circuit John Law,
Court, under the act of March, 1863. The moThe motion to enter this protest was tabled— tion was denied, and the General Term decided Jeas 75, nays 41.
an appeal which was taken to it. The majority The above bill of Mr. STEVENS was amended of the judges affirm the act; one, Clerke, disin the Senate, and finally passed that body- sented. Jeas 33, nays 7, as follows, January 28 :
George W. Jones us. William H. Sewarıl. Trus-Messrs. Anthony, Arnold, Browning, Chandler, Clark, Collamer, Cowan, Dixon, Doolittle, Fessenden, Foot, of the act of Congress passed March 3, 1863, atforus a valid
LEONARD, J.-The question is not whether the 4th section Toster, Grimes, Hale, Harlan, Harris, Henderson, Hicks defence to the action. The true question is this: Is it in Howard, King, Lane of Indiana, Lane of Kansas, Morrill
, the power of Congress to give the circuit court jurisdiction Pomeroy, Sherman, Sumner, Ten Eyck, Trumbull, Wade, of the case ? Wilkinson, Willey, Wilmot, Wilson of Massachusetts-33. Nars,Messrs. Bayard, Carlile, McDougall, Powell, Turpie, to all cases in law and equity arising
under the Constitu
The Constitution extends the judicial power of the Union Wal, Wilson of Missouri_7.
tion, laws, and treaties of the United States. The House non-concurred in the amendments, The defence in this case arises under the act of Congress, and a Committee of Conference having met, and the validity of that act, considered in the light afforded agreed upon a report, which was agreed to in bo determined at the trial. It has been decided that a case both Houses as stated before, p. 184.
arises within the meaning of the Constitution as well when VOTE OX SUSPENSION OF HABEAS CORPUS.
the defendant seeks protection under a law of Congress, as
when a plaintiff comes into court to demand sono right Pending the consideration of the original conferred by law. House bill in the Senate,
It has been objected that the original jurisdiction of all 1863, Feb. 19–Mr. Powell moved to strike actions may be drawn into the Federal courts, by similar
enactments of Congress, and that the case arises within the out the third section authorizing the President meaning of the Constitution only after a trial and judgment to suspend, by proclamation, the writ of habeas in this court, when the action can be referred by a writ of corpus in certain contingencies; which was re
error or appeal, and brought before the Federal courts for
review. jected-yeas 13, Days 27, as follows:
The power of transferring causes to the United States fests, Bayard, Carlile, Cowan, Kennedy, Latham, Circuit in a similar manner, where the question involved Nesmith, Porcell, Rice, Richardson, Saulsbury, Turpie, was of an appellate and not original jurisdiction, has long Wuley, Wilsm of Missouri-13.
been sustained. X418-Messrs. Anthony, Arnold, Chandler, Clark, Davis,
Chief Justice Marshall says, in the case of Osborn vs. The Dixon, Doolittle, Fescenden, Foot, Grimes, Harris, Blonder Bank of the
United States (9 Wheaton,
821): “We perceive , Hicks, Howard, Howe, King, Lane of Indiana, Lano of no ground on which the proposition can be maintained, that Kansas, Morrill, Pomeroy, Sherman, Sumner, Ten Eyck, Congress is incapable of giving the circuit courts original frumbull, Wilkinson, Wilmot, Wilson of Massachusetts 27. jurisdiction, in any caso to which the appellate jurisdiction
Congress has enacted that the defendant may interpose Feb 23—Mr. CARLILE moved this substitute in his defence the orders, &c., of the President, and has for the bill :
directed the transfer of cases involving such a defence, in
the manner prescribed, into the circuit conrt. From and after the passage of this act, and during the According to the statements of the defendant such a case
VOTE OX ARRESTS.