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Sloan, Amasa Cobb, Charles A. Eldridge, Ezra | dated in a spirit of frankness, justice, and Wheeler, Walter D. McIndoe.

mutual good will. It is especially gratifying CALIFORNIA–Thomas B. Shannon, William that our prize courts, by the impartiality of Higby, 'Cornelius Cole.

their adjudications, have commanded the reMinnesota.-Wm. Windom, Ignatius Don- spect and confidence of maritime Powers. nelly.

The supplemental treaty between the United OREGON—John R. McBride.

States and Great Britain for the suppression of Kassas-A. Carter Wilder.

the African slave trade, made on the 17th day West VIRGINIA—Jacob B. Blair, William G. of February last, has been duly ratiticd and Brown, Kellian V. Whaley.

carried into execution. It is believed ibat, so MEMORANDUM OF CHANGES.

far as American ports and American citizens These changes occurred during the session : are concerned, that inhuman and odious trafic 1864, Jan. 12, Francis P. Blair, jr., took his has been brought to an end.

I shall submit, for the consideration of the est, and June 11th was unseated by vote of the House--yeas 81, nays 33. Same day, the Senato, a convention for the adjustment of posHouse--yeas 70, nays 53-voted that Samuel sessory claims in Washington Territory, arising Knox, the contestant, was entitled to the seat, the United States and Great Britain, and which

cut of the treaty of the 15th June, 1846, between aod June 15th be was qualified. 1864, March 25, Owen Lovejoy died. May 20, the citizens of that now rapidly improving part

have been the source of some disquieț among Ebon C. Ingersoll qualified as his successor.

of the country, The names of A. P. Fields and Thomas Cott. man, claiming seats from Louisiana, were placed the extent of the maritime juri diction of Spain

A novel and important question, involving upon the roll by the Clerk of the 37th Congress, in the waters which surround the island of and roted for Speaker, but their credentials were referred to the Committee on Elections, Cuba, has been debated without reaching an feas 100, nays 71—and, Feb. 10, they were agreement, and it is proposed, in an amicable Foted not entitled to seats, without a division. spirit, to refer it to the arbitrament of a friendly

Power. A convention for that purpose will be The panes of the Maryland delegation; of

submitted to the Senate. Messrs. Blair, Blow, McClurg, Boyd, Loan and Hall, of the Missouri delegation; of Mr. Mc

I have thought it proper, subject to the apBride, of Oregon ; of Mr. Wilder, of Kansas; proval of the Senate, to concur with the interand of the West Virginia delegation, omitted ested commercial Powers in an arrangement bị the Clerk, were ordered by the House, to be the principles which have been heretofore

for the liquidation of the Scheldt dues upon placed upon the roll. The claims of Messrs. Chandler, Segar, and Kitchen, of Virginia, tion in the waters of Denmark.

adopted in regard to the imposts upon navigawere referred to the Committee on Elections, and subsequently reported against—the House Government and that of Chili, touching the

The long pending controversy between this concurring in the report. Messrs. A. A. C. seizure of Sitana, in Peru, by Chilian officers, Rogers

, James M. Johnson, and T. M. Jacks, of a large amount in treasure belonging to claiming seats from Arkansas, were not admitied.

'citizens of the United States, has been brought to a close by the award of his Majesty the

King of the Belgians, to whose arbitration the President Lincoln's Third Annual question was referred by the parties. The subMessage, December 8, 1863. ject was thoroughly and patienıly examined by

that justly respected magistrate, and although Fellow-citizens of the Senate

the sum awarded to the claimants may not and House of Representatives : have been as large as they expected, there is no Another year of health, and of sufficiently reason to distrust the wisdom of his Majesty's abundant harvests, has passed. For these, and decision. That decision was promptly comEspecially for the improved condition of our plied with by Chili, when intelligence in renational affairs, our renewed and profoundest gard to it reached that country. gratitude to God is due.

The joint commission, under the act of the We remain in peace and friendship with for- last session, for carrying into effect the coneigo Powers.

vention with Peru on the subject of claims, bas The efforts of disloyal citizens of the United | been organized at Lima, and is engaged in the States to involve us in foreign wars, to aid an business intrusted to it. inexcusable insurrection, have been unavailing. Difficulties conceruing inter-oceanic transit Her Britannic Majesty's Government, as was through Nicaragua are in course of amicable jastly expected, have exercised their authority adjustment. to prevent the departure of new hostile expe- In conformity with principles set forth in my ditions from British ports. The Emperor of last annual message, I have received a repreFrance has, by a like proceeding, promptly sentative from the United States of Colombia, Findicated the neutrality wbich he proclaimed and have accredited a minister to that republic. at the beginning of the contest. Questions of Incidents occurring in the progress of our great intricacy and importance have arisen out civil war have forced upon my attention the of the blockade and other belligerent opera- uncertain state of international questions touchtions, between the Government and several of sing the rights of foreigners in this country and the maritime Powers, but they have been dis- of United States citizens abroad. In regard to cussed, and, as far as was possible, accommo- some Governments these rights are at least partially defined by treaties. In no instance, I of telegraph through that empire from our Pahowever, is it expressly stipulated that, in the cific coast. event of civil war, a foreigner residing in this I recommend to your favorable consideration country, within the lines of the insurgents, is the subject of an international telegraph across to be exempted from the rule which classes the Atlantic ocean; and also of a telegraph bebim as a belligerent, in whose behalf the Gov- tween this capital and the national forts along ernment of his country cannot expect any the Atlantic sea-board and the Gulf of Mexico. privileges or immunities distinct from that Such communications, established with any character. I regret to say, however, that such reasonable outlay, would be economical as well claims have been put forward, and, in some as effective aids to the diplomatic, military, and instances, in behalf of foreigners who have naval service. lived in the United States the greater part of The consular system of the United States, their lives.

under the enactments of the last Congress, beThere is reason to believe that many persons gins to be self-sustaining; and there is reason born in foreign countries, who have declared to hope that it may become entirely so, with the their intentions to become citizens, or who have increase of trade which will ensue whenever been fully naturalized, have evaded the military peace is restored. Our ministers abroad have been duty required of them by denying the fact, and faithful in defending American rights. In prothereby throwing upon the Government the tecting commercial interests, our consuls have burden of proof. It has been found difficult or necessarily had to encounter iacreased labors impracticable to obtain this proof, from the and responsibilities, growing out of the war. want of guides to the proper sources of infor- These they have, for the most part, met and mation. These might be supplied by requiring discharged with zeal and efficiency. This acclerks of courts, where declarations of inten- knowledgment justly includes those consuls tions may be made or naturalizations effected, who, residing in Morocco, Egypt, Turkey, Jato send, periodically, lists os the names of the pan, China, and other Oriental countries, are persons naturalized, or declaring their intention charged with complex functions and extraordito become citizens, to the Secretary of the Inte- nary powers. rior, in whose department those names might The condition of the several organized Terri. be arranged and printed for general informa- tories is generally satisfactory, although Indian tion.

disturbances in New Mexico have not been en. There is also reason to believe that foreigners tirely suppressed. The mineral resources of frequently become citizens of the United States Colorado, Nevada, Idabo, New Mexico, and Arifor the sole purpose of evading duties imposed zona, are proving far richer than has been by the laws of iheir native countries, to wbich, heretofore understood. I lay before you a comon becoming naturalized here, they at once re- munication on this subject from the Governor pair, and, though never returning to the United of New Mexico. I again submit to your considStates, they still claim the interposition of this aration the expediency of establishing a system Government as citizens. Many altercations for the encouragement of immigration. Al. and great prejudices have heretofore arisen out though this source of national wealth and of this abuse. It is, therefore, submitied to strength is again flowing with greater freedom your serious consideration. It might be advi-than for several years before the insurrection sable to fix a limit, beyond which no citizen of occurred, there is still a great deficiency of lathe United States residing abroad may claim borers in every field of industry, especially in the interposition of his Government.

agriculture and in our mines, as well of iron The right of suffrage has often been assumed and coal as of the precious metals. While the and exercised by aliens, under pretences of demand for labor is much increased here, tens naturalization, which they havedisavowed when of thousands of persons, destitute of remuneradrafted into the military service. I submit the tive occupation, are thronging our foreign conexpediency of such an amendment of the law sulates, and offering to emigrate to the United as will make the fact of voting an estoppel States if essential, but very cheap, assistance against any plea of exemption from military can be afforded them. It is easy to see that, unservice, or other civil obligation, on the ground der the sharp discipline of civil war, the nation of alienage.

is beginning a new life. This noble effort deIn common with other western Powers, our mands the aid, and ought to receive the attenrelations with Japan have been brought into tion and support of the Government. serious jeopardy, through the perverse opposi- Injuries, unforeseen by the Government and tion of the hereditary uristocracy of the empire unintended, may, in some cases, have been into the enlightened and liberal policy of the Ty-flicted on the subjects or citizens of foreign coon, designed to bring the country into the countries, both at sea and on land, by persons society of nations. It is hoped, although not in the service of the United States. As this with entire confidence, that these difficulties Government expects redress from other Powers may be peacefully overcome. I ask your at- when similar injuries are inflicted by persons tention to the claim of the minister residing in their service upon citizens of the United there for the damages he sustained in the de- States, we must be prepared to do justice to struction by fire of the residence of the legation foreigners. If the existing judicial tribuna is at Yedo.

are inadequate to this purpose, a special court Satisfactory arrangements have been made may be authorized, with power to bear and dewith the Emperor of Russia, which, it is be- cide such claims of the character referred to lieved, will result in effecting a continuous line as may have arisen under treaties and the public law. Conventions for adjusting the claims | 086,635 07; making the aggregate, $895,796,by joint commission have been proposed to some 630 65, and leaving the balance of $5,329,044 Governments, but no definite answer to the 21. But the payment of funded and temporary proposition has yet been received from any. debt, having been made from moneys borrowed

In the course of the session I shall probably during the year, must be regarded as merely have occasion to request you to provide indem- nominal payments, and the moneys borrowed nification to claimants where decrees of restitu- to make them as merely nominal receipts; and tion bave been rendered, and damages awarded their amount, $181 086,635 07, should thereby admiralty courts; and in other cases, where fore be deducted both from receipts and disthis Government may be acknowledged to be bursements. This being done, there remains liable in principle, and where the amount of as actual receipts $720,039,039 79, and the that liability bas been ascertained by an infor- actual disbursements $714,709,995 58, leaving mal arbitration.

the balance as already stated. The proper officers of the Treasury have The actual receipts and disbursements for deemed themselves required by the law of the the first quarter, and the estimated receipts and United States upon the subject, to demand a disbursements for the remaining three quartax upon the incomes of foreign consuls in this ters of the current fiscal year, 1864, will be country. While such a demand may not, in shown in detail by the report of the Secretary strictness, be in derogation of public law, or of the Treasury, to which I invite your attenperhaps of any existing treaty between the tion. It is sufficient to say here that it is not United States and a foreign country, the expe- believed that actual results will exhibit a state dicacy of so far modifying the act as to exempt of the finances less favorable to the country from tax the income of such consuls as are not than the estimates of that officer heretofore citizens of the United States, derived from the submitted; while it is confidently expected emoluments of their office, or from property that at the close of the year both disbursements not situated in the United States, is submitted and debt will be found very considerably less to your serious consideration. I make this than has been anticipated. suggestion upon the ground that a comity which The report of the Secretary of War is a docuought to be reciprocated exempts our consuls, ment of great interest. It consists of in all other countries, from taxation to the ex- 1. The military operations of the year, detent thus indicated. The United States, I think, tailed in the report of the General-in-Chief. ought not to be exc ptic bly illiberal to in- 2. The organization of colored persons into ternational trade and commerce.

the war service. The operations of the Treasury during the 3. The excbange of prisoners, fully set forth last year bave been successfully conducted. in the letter of Gen. Hitchcock. The enactment by Congress of a national bank- 4. The operations under the act for enrolling ing law has proved a valuable support of the and calling out the national forces, detailed in public credit; and the general legislation in the report of the Provost Marshal General, relation to loans has fully answered the expect- 5. The organization of the invalid corps; and ations of its favorers. Some amendments may 6. The operation of the several departments be required to perfect existing laws, but no of the Quartermaster General, Commissary change in their principles or general scope is General, Paymaster General, Chief of Engineers, believed to be needed.

Chief of Ordnance, and Surgeon General. Since these measures have been in operation, It has appeared impossible to make a valuable all demands on the Treasury, including the pay summary of this report except such as would of the Army and Navy, have been promptly met be too extended for this place, and hence I conand fully satisfied. No considerable body of tent myself by asking your careful attention tro' ps, it is believed, were ever more amply to the report itself. provided, and more liberally and punctually The duties devolving on the naval branch of paid; and it may be added, that by no people the service during the year, and throughout were the burdens incident to a great war ever the whole of this unhappy contest, have been more cheerfully borne.

discharged with fidelity and eminent success. The receipts during the year from all sources, The extensive blockade has been coustantly inineluding loans and balance in the Treasury at creasing in efficiency, as the navy bas expandits commencement, were $901,125,074 86, and ed; yet on so long a line it has so far been imtbe

aggregate disbursements $895,796,630 65, possible to entirely suppress illicit trade. From leaving a balance on the 1st of July, 1863, of returns received at the Navy Department it ap$5,329,044 21.

Of the receipts there were pears that more than one thousand vessels derived from customs $69,059,642 40; from have been captured since the blockade was in. internal revenue, $37,640,787 95; from direct stituted, and that the value of prizes alrendy taz. $1,485,103 61; from lands, $167,617 17; sent in for adjudication amounts from miscellaneous sources, $3,046,615 35; thirteen millions of dollars. and from loans, $776,682,361 57; making the The naval force of the United States consists aggregate, $901,125,674 86. Of the disburse- at this time of five hundred and eighty-eight ments there were for the civil service, $23,- vessels, completed and in the course of comple253, 922 08 ; for pensions and Indians, $4,216,- tion, and of these seventy-five are iron-clad or 520 73; for interest on public debt, $24,729,846 armored steamers. The events of the war give 51; for the War Department, $599,298,600 83; an increased interest und importance to the for the Navy Department, $63,211,105 27; for Navy which will probably extend beyond the payment of funded and temporary debt, $181,- war itself.



The armored vessels in our Navy, completed to the policy of fostering and training seamen, and in service, or which are under contract and and also the education of officers aud engineers approaching completion, are believed to exceed for the naval service. The Naval Academy is in number those of any other Power. But while rendering signal service in preparing midshipthese may be relied upon for harbor defence men for the highly responsible duties wbich in and coast service, others of greater strength and after life they will be required to perform. In capacity will be necessary for cruising pur- order that the country should not be deprived poses, and to maintain our rightful position on of the proper quota of educated officers, for the ocean.

which legal provision has been made at the NaThe change that has taken place in naval val School, the vacancies caused by the neglect vessels and naval warfare since the introduction or omission to make nominations from the of steam as a motive power for ships of war States in insurrection have been filled by the demands either a corresponding change in some Secretary of the Navy. The school is now more of our existing navy-yards, or the establishment full and complete than at any former period, of new ones, for the construction and necessary and in every respect entitled to the favorable repair of modern naval vessels. No inconsid- consideration of Congress. erable embarrassment, delay, and public injury During the past fiscal year the financial conhave been experienced from the want of such dition of the Post Office Department has been governmental establishments. The necessity of one of increasing prosperity, and I am gratified such a navy yard, so furnished, at some suitable in being able to state that the actual postal place upon the Atlantic seaboard, bas on re- revenue has nearly equalled the entire expend. peated occasions been brought to the attention itures; the latter amounting to $11,314,206 of Congress by the Navy Department, and is 84, and the former to $11,163,789 59, leaving again presented in the report of the Secretary a deficiency of bui $100,417 25. In 1860, tue which accompanies this communication. 1 year inmediately preceding the rebellion, the think it my duty to invite your special attention deficiency amounted to $5,656,705 49, the to this subject, and also to that of establishing postal receipts of that year being $2,645,722a yard and depot for naval purposes upon one 19 less than those of 1863. The decrease since of the western rivers. A naval force has been 1860 in the annual amount of transportation created on those interior waters, and under has been only about 25 per cent., but tho many disadvantages, within little more than annual expenditure on account of the same two years, exceeding in numbers the whole has been reduced 35 per cent. It is manifest, naval force of the country at the commencement therefore, that the Post Office Department may of the present administration. Satisfactory and become self-sustaining in a few years, even important as have been the performances of with the restoration of the whole service. the heroic men of the Navy at this interesting The international conference of postal deleperiod, they are scarcely more wonderful than gates from the principal countries of Europe the success of our mechanics and artisans in and America, which was called at the sugge3the production of war vessels which has created tion of the Postmaster General, met at Paris a new form of naval power,

on the 11th of May last, and concluded its deOur country has advantages superior to any liberations on the 8th of June. The principles other nation in its resources of iron and timber, established by the conference as best adapted with inexhaustible quantities of fuel in the im- to facilitate postal intercourse between nations, mediate vicinity of both, all available and in and as the basis of future postal conventions, close proximity to navigable waters. Without inaugurate a general system of uniform interthe advantage of public works the resources of national charges, at reduced rates of postage, the nation have been developed and its power and cannot fail to produce beneficial results. displayed in the construction of a navy of such I refer you to the report of the Secretary of magnitude which has, at the very period of its the Interior, which is herewith laid before you, creation, rendered signal service to the Union. for useful and varied information in relation to

The increase of the number of seamen in the the public lands, Indian affairs, patents, penpublic service, from seven thousand five hun- sions, and other matters of public coneern dred men, in the spring of 1861, to about thirty- pertaining to this department. four thousand at the present time, has been ac- The quantity of land disposed of during the complished without special legislation, or extra- last and the first quarter of the present fiscal ordinary bounties to promote that increase. It years was three million eight luntred and has been found, however, that the operation of forty-one thousand five hundred and forty-nine the draft, with the high bounties paid for army acres, of which one hundred aud sixty-one recruits, is beginning to affect injuriously the thousand nine hundred and eleven acres were naval service, and will, if not corrected, be sold for cash, one million four hundred and likely to impair its efficiency, by detaching sea. fifty-six thousand five hundred and fourteen men from their proper vocation and inducing acres were taken up under the domestead law, them to enter the army. I therefore respect and the residue disposed of under laws grantfully suggest that Congress might aid both the ing lands for military bounties, for railroad and army and naval service by a definite provision other purposes. It also appears that the sale on this subject, which would at the same time of the public lands is largely on the increase. be equitable to the communities more especially It has long been a cherished opinion of some interested.

of our wisest statesmen that the people of the I commend to your consideration the sug- United States had a higher and more enduring gestions of the Secretary of the Navy in regard interest in the early settlement and substantial cultivation of the public lands than in the the Secretary evince the urgent need for immeamount of direct revenue to be derived from diate legislative action. the sale of them. This opinion has had a con- I commend the benevolent institutions estabtrolling influence in shaping legislation upon lished or patronized by the Government in this the subject of our national domain. I may District to your generous and fostering care. cite, as evidence of this, the liberal measures The attention of Congress, during the last adopted in reference to actual settlers; the session, was ongnged to some extent with a grant to the States of the overflowed lands proposition for enlarging the water communi. within their limits in ord r to their being re- cation between the Mississippi river and the claimed and rendered fit for cultivation; the northeastern seaboard, which proposition, bowgrants to railway companies of alternate sec- ever, failed for the time. Since then, upon a tions of land upon the contemplated lines of call of the greatest respectability, a convention their roads which, when completed, will so has been held at Chicago upon the same subject, largely multiply the facilities for reaching our a summary of whose views is contained in a distant possessions. This policy has received memorial addressed to the President and Conits most signal and beneficent illustration in gress, and which I now have the honor to lay the recent enactment granting homesteads to before you. That this interest is one which, eie actual settlers. Since the first day of January long, will force its own way, I do not entertain last tbe beforementioned quantity of one mil- | a doubt, while it is submitted entirely to your lion four hundred and fifty-six thousand five wisdom as to what can be done now. Augbundred and fourteen acres of land have mented interest is given to this subject by the been taken up under its provisions. This fact actual commencement of the work on the Paand the amount of sales, furnish gratifying cific railroad, under auspices so favorable to evidence of increasing settlement upon the rapid progress and completion. The enlarged public lands, notwithstanding the great strug- navigation becomes a palpable need to the great gle in which the energies of the nation have road. been engaged, and which has required so large I transmit the second annual report of the a sithdrawal of our citizens from their accus- Commissioner of the Department of Agriculture, lomed pursuits. I cordially concur in the asking your attention to tbe developments in recommendation of the Secretary of the Inte- that vital interest of the nation. rior, suggesting a modification of the act in When Congress assembled a year ago the war favor of those engaged in the military ard na- had already lasted nearly twenty months, and ral service of the United States. I doubt not there had been many conflicts on both land and that Congress will cheerfully adopt such sea with varying results. The rebellion had Deasures as will, without essentially chang- been pressed back into reduced limits; yet the ing the general features of the system, se- tone of public feeling and opinion, at home and core, to the greatest practicable extent, its abroad, was not satisfactory. With other signs, benefits to those who have left their homes the popular elections, then just past, indicated in the defence of the country in this arduous uneasiness among ourselves, while amid much crisis.

that was cold and menacing, the kindest words I inrite your attention to the views of the coming from Europe were uttered in accents of Secretary as to the propriety of raising, by ap- pity, that we were too blind to surrender a propriate legislation, a revenue from the mine- hopeless cause. Our commerce was suffering ral lands of the United States.

greatly by a few armed vessels built upon and The measures provided at your last session furnished from foreign shores, and we were for the removal of certain Indian tribes have threatened with such additions from the samo been carried into effect. Sundry treaties have quarter as would sweep our trade from the sea been negotiated, which will, in due time, be and raise our blockade. We had failed to elicit subrointed for the constitutional action of the from European Governments anything hopeful Senate. They contain stipulations for extin- upon this subject. The preliminary emancipaguishing the possessory rights of the Indians to tion proclamation, issued in September, was large and valuable tracts of land. It is hoped running its assigned period to the beginning of that the effect of these treaties will result in the new year. A month later the final proclathe establishment of permanent friendly rela- mation came, including the announcement that tions with such of these tribes as have been colored men of suitable condition would be rebrought into frequent and bloody collision with ceived into the war service. The policy on our outlying settlements and emigrants. Sound emancipation, and of employing black soldiers, policy and our imperative duty to these wards gave to the future a new aspect, about which of the Government demand our anxious and hope, and fear, and doubt contended in uncerconstant attention to their material well-being, tain conflict. According to our political system, to their progress in the arts of civilization, and as a matter of civil administration, the General above all, to that moral training which, under Government had no lawful power to effect the blessing of Divine Providence, will confer emancipation in any State, and for a long time upon them the elevated and sanctifying in- it had been hoped that the rebellion could be fuences, the hopes and consolations of the suppressed without resorting to it as a military Christian faith.

measure. It was all the while deemed possible I suggested in my last annual message the that the necessity for it might come, and that if propriety of remodelling our Indian system. it should, the crisis of the contest would then subsequent events have satisfied me of its ne- be presented. It came, and, as was anticipated, cessity. The details set forth in the report of it was followed by dark and doubtful days.

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