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ted to the" Confederate” Congress a message met at Montgomery, Alabama, February concerning the secession of Missouri. It was 4th, 1861, to organize a Southern Confederaccompanied by a letter from Governor acy. Each State had a representation equal Jackson, and also by an act dissolving the to the number of members of the Thirtyunion with the United States, and an sixth Congress. The original members were: act ratifying the Constitution of the Provisional Government of the Confederate

SOUTH CAROLINA. States; also, the Convention between the Robert W. Barnwell, Ex-U. 8. Senator. Commissioners of Missouri and the Com- R. Barnwell Rhett, missioners of the Confederate States. Con- James Chesnut, Jr., gress unanimously ratified the Convention Lawrence M. Keitt, Ex-M. C. entered into between the Hon. R. M. T. William W. Boyce, Hunter for the rebel Government and the Wm. Porcher Miles, Commissioners for Missouri.

C. G. Memminger.

Thomas J. Withers.
Inter-State Commissioners.


W. P. Chilton. The seceding States, as part of their plan

Stephen F. Hale. of operation, appointed Commissioners to

David P. Lewis.
visit other slaveholding States. They were Thomas Fearn.
as follows, as announced in the newspapers : Richard W. Walker.

Robert H. Smith.

Colin J. McRae.
To Alabama, A. P. Calhoun.

John Gill Shorter.
To Georgia, James L. Orr, Ex-M.C. J. L. M. Curry, Ex-M. O.
To Florida, L. W. Spratt.

To Mississippi, M. L. Bonham, Ex-M. C.
To Louisiana, J. L. Manning.

J. Patten Anderson, Ex-Delegate from To Arkansas, A. C. Spain.

Washington Territory. To Texas, J. B. Kershaw.

Jackson Morton, Ex-U. S. Senator. To Virginia, John S. Preston.

James B. Owens.


W. S. Wilson.
To North Carolina, Isham W. Garrett.

Wiley P. Harris, Ex-M. C. To Mississippi, E. W. Pettus.

James T. Harrison. To South Carolina, J. A. Elmore.

Walter Brooke, Ex-U. S. Senator. To Maryland, A. F. Hopkins.

William S. Barry, Ex-M. C.
To Virginia, Frank Gilmer.

A. M. Clayton.
To Tennessee, L. Pope Walker.
To Kentucky, Stephen F. Hale.

To Arkansas, John Anthony Winston. Robert Toombs, Ex-U. S. Senator.

Howell Cobb, Ex-M. 0.

Martin J. Crawford,
To Missouri, Lúther J. Glenn.

Augustus R. Wright, To Virginia, Henry L. Benning.

Augustus H. Kenan.

Benjamin H. Hill.

Francis S. Bartow.
To South Carolina, C. E. Hooker.

E. A. Nisbet.
To Alabama, Jos. W. Matthews, Ex-Gov. Thomas R. R. Cobb.
To Georgia, William L. Harris.

Alexander H. Stephens, Ex-M. C.
To Louisiana, Wirt Adams.
To Texas, H. H. Miller.

To Arkansas. George R. Fall.

Duncan F. Kenner. To Florida, E. M. Yerger.

Charles M. Conrad, Ex-U. S. Senator. To Tennessee, T. J. Wharton, Att’y-Gen. Henry Marshall. To Kentucky, W. S. Featherstone, Ex-M.C. John Perkins, Jr.

To North Carolina, Jacob Thompson, Ex- G. E. Sparrow.
M. C.

A. de Clouet.
To Virginia, Fulton Anderson.
To Maryland, A. H. Handy, Judge.

TEXAS.-(Admitted March 2d, 1861.) To Delaware, Henry Dickinson.

Louis T. Wigfall, Ex-U. S. Senator.
To Missouri, Russell.

John Hemphill,
John H. Reagan, Ex-M. O

T. N. Waul.
Southern Congress. (See p. 400.) John Gregg.
This body, composed of Deputies elected W. S. Oldham.
by the Conventions of the Seceding States, W. B. Ochiltree.




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Proceedings of the Southern Congress. 9th. Jefferson Davis of Mississippi, elected

February 4th, 1861. Howell Cobb of Provisional President of the Confederale Georgia elected President, Johnson J.

States of America, and Alexander H. Ste

The Hooper of Alabama, Secretary. Mr. Cobb phens of Georgia, Vice President. announced that secession is now a fixed question of attacking Fort Sumter has

been referred to the Congress. and irrevocable fact, and the separation is

11th. Mr. Stephens announced his acceptperfect, complete and perpetual."

ance. Committee appointed to prepare a 6th. David L. Swain, M. W. Ransom and John L. Bridgers, were admitted as Commis- permanent Constitution. sioners from North Carolina, under resolu- all questions and difficulties now existing

12th. The Congress assumed “charge of tions of the General Assembly of that State, passed January 29, 1861, “ to effect an honor: between the sovereign States of this Confedable and amicable adjustment of all the diffi- eracy and the Government of the United culties that disturb the country, upon the States, relating to the occupation of forts, basis of the Crittenden resolutions, as modi- arsenals, navy yards, custom-houses, and all fied by the Legislature of Virginia,” and to tion was directed to be communicated to the

other public establishments.” The resoluconsu't with the delegates to the Southern Governors of the respective States of the Congress for their “

common peace,


Confederacy. and safety." 7th. Congress notified that the State of

15th. Official copy of the Texas Ordinance

of Secession presented. Alabama had placed $500,000 at its dispo

16th. President Davis arrived and received sal, as a loan to the provisional government

with salute, etc. of the Confederacy of Seceding States.

18th. President Davis inaugurated. 8th. The Constitution of the Provisional

19th. Tariff law passed. Government adopted.*

21st. Robert Toombs appointed Secretary

of State; C. G. Memminger, Secretary of the * The Provisional Constitution adupted by the Seceded Treasury; L. Pope Walker of Alabama, States ditfers from the Constitution of the United States Secretary of War; Stephen R. Mallory, in several important particulars. The alterations and additions are as follows:

Secretary of the Navy; Judah P. Benjamin,
Attorney-General, and John H. Reagan,

Postmaster-General ; Philip Clayton of 1st. The Provisional Constitution differs from the other In this : That the legislative powers of the Provisiouul Gov: Georgia appointed Assistant Secretary of erument are vested in the Consress now assembled, and the Treasury, and Wm. M. Browne, late of this body exercises all the functions that are exercised by the Washington Constitution, Assistant

20. The Provisional President holds his office for one Secretary of State. year, unless sooner superseded by the establishment of a March 2d. The Texas Deputies received. permanent Government

3d. Each State is erected into a distinct judicial district. The Justifying Causes of Secession. district and circuit courts; and the several district judges together compose the supreme beuch—a majority of them

In justification of the passage of an ordiconstituting a quorum. 4th Wherever the word “Union” occurs in the United Carolina adopted two papers, one reported

nance of Secession, the Convention of South States Constitution the word “Confederacy

by Mr. R. B. Rhett, being styled “The Ad

dress of the people of South Carolina, assemIst. The President may veto any separate appropria- bled in Convention, to the people of the tion without vetoing the whole bili in which it is cou- Slaveholding States of the United States," tained. 2d. The African slave-trade is prohibited.

and the other, reported by Mr. C. G. Mem3d. Congress is empowered to prohibit the introduction minger, being styled “Declaration of the of slaves from any State not a member of this Confederacy; causes which justify the Secession of South

4th. All appropriations must be upon the demand of Carolina from the Federal Union." As the President or heads of departments.

these official papers have historic value, they 1st. There is no prohibition on members of Congress

are inserted in full. holding other offices of honor and emolument under the

The former of these two papers is as fol. Provisional Government.

lows: 2d. There is no provision for a neutral spot for the location of a seat of government, or for sites for forts, arsenals, It is seventy-three years, since the Union between tho and dock-yards; consequently there is no reference made United States was made by the Constitution of the United to the territorial powers of the Provisional Government.

3d. The section in the old Constitution in reference to capitation and other direct tax is omitted ; also, the sec- 20. Congress, by a vote of two-thirds, may at any time tion providing that no tax or duty shall be laid on any alter or amend the Constitution. exports.

Ath. The prohibition on States keeping troops or ships of war in time of peace is omitted.

Ist. The Provisional Government is required to take 5th. The Constitution being provisional merely, no pro- immediate steps for the settlement of all matters between vision is made for its ratification,





the States forming it and their other late confederates of the United States in relation to the public property and

the public debt. 1st. The fugitive slave clause of the old Constitution is 20. Montgomery is made the temporary seat of governHo amended as to contain the word "slave," and to pro. ment. vide for full compensation in cases of abduction or forci. 3d. This Constitution is to continue one year, unless alDie rescue on the part of the State in which such abduc- tered by a two-thirds vote or superseded by a permanent con or roscue may take place.



States. During this time, their advance in wealth, pros. Hence, they refused to pay the taxes laid by the British perity and power, has been with scarcely a parallel in the parliament. history of the world. The great object of their Union, was And so with the Southern States, towards the Northern defence against external aggressions; which object is now States, in the vital matter of taxation. They are in a miattained, Irun their mere progress in power. Thirty-one nority in Congress. Thoir representation in Congress, is millions of people, with a commerce and navigation wbich useless to protect them against unjust taxation; and they explore every sea, and with agricultural productions which are taxed by the people of the North for their benefil, esare becessary to every civilized people, command the friend actly as the people of Great Britain taxed our ancestors in ship of the world. But unfortunately, our internal peace the British parliament for their benefit. For the last forty bas dot gTown with our external prosperity. Discontont yaars, the taxes laid by the Congress of the United States, and contention have moved in the bosom of the Confed have been laid with a view of subserving the interests of eracy, for the last thirty-øve years. During this time, the North. The people of the South have been taxed by South Carolina has twice called her people together in sul duties on imports, not for revenue, but for an object inemu Copsation, to take into consideration, the aggressions consistent with revenue-to promote, by prohibitions, and uncoostitutional wrongs, perpetrated by the people of Northern interests in the productions of their mines aud the North on the people of the South. Theso wrongs, were

manufactures. submitted to by the people of the South, under the hope There is another evil, in the condition of the Southern And expectation, that they would be final.' But such hope towards the Northern States, which our ancestors refused and expectation, have proved to be vain. Instead of pro- to bear towards Great Britain. Our ancestors not only docinz forbarance, our acquiescence has only instigated to taxed themselves, but all the taxes collected from them, des foris of aggressions and outrage; and South Carolina, were expended amongst them. llad they subinitted to the having azuin assembled her people in Convention, has this pretensions of the British Government, the taxes collectou day dil ved her connection with the States, constituting from them, would have been expended in other parts of the tuiter States,

the British Empire. They were fully aware of the effect The obe great evil, from which all other evils have flowed, of such a policy in impoverishing the poople from whom is the oferthrow of the Constitution of the United States. taxes are collected, anii in enriching those who receive the The Goverument of the United States, is no longer the benefit of their expenditure. To prevent the evils of such Goreriment of Confederated Republics, but of a consoli- a policy, was one of the motives which drove them on to dater Democracy. It is no longer a free Government, but Revolution. Yet this British policy, has been fully realized a D-Dwn. It is, in fact, such a Government as Great towards the Southern States, by the Northeru Sute-8. The Britain att mpted to set over our Fathers; and which was people of the Southern States are not only taxed for the resisted and defeated by a seven years' struggle for inde- benefit of the Northern States, but after ihe taxes are col. pendence.

lected, three-fourths of them are expended at the North. The Resolution of 1776, turned upon one great principle, This cause, with others, connected with the operation of sell-pofcrament,--and self-taxation, the criterion of seli- the General Government, has made the cities of the South government Where the interests of two people united to provincial. Their growth is paralyzel; they are mere getler under one Government, are different, each must suburbs of Northern cities. The agricultural productions bare the power to protect its interests by the organization of the South are the basis of the foreign commerce of tho of the Government, or they cannot be free. The interests United States; yet Southern cities do not carry it on. Our of Great Britain and of the Colouies, were different and foreign trade, is almost annihilated. In 1740, there were antaguistic. Great Britain was desirous of carrying out live ship yards in South Carolina, to build ships to carry the policy of all nations towards their Colonies, of making on our direct trade with Europe. Between 1740 and 1779, theo tribut try to her wealth and power. She had vast and thero were built in these yards, twenty-five squaro rigged ccuplicated relations with the wholo world. ller policy vessels, besides a great number of sloops and schooners, to bosarla ber North American Colonies, was to identiiy carry on our coast and West India trade. In the half them with her in all these complicated relations; and to century immediately preceding the Revolution, from 17-25 make them bear, in common with the rest of the Empire, to 1776, the population of South Carolina, increased seven. the full burden of her obligations and necessities. She had fold. a vast public debt; she had an European policy and an No man can for a moment believe, that our ancestors Asiatic policy, which had occasioned the accumulation of intended to establish over their posterity, exactly the same ber public debt; and which kept her in continuu wars. sort of Governu,ent they had overthrown. The great obThe North Imerican Colonies saw their interests, political ject of the Constitution of the United States, in its interni and commercial, sacrificed by such a policy. Thir interests operation, was, doubtless, to secure the great end of the required, that they should not be identified with the Lur- Revolution-a limited free Government-a Government deps and wars of the mother country. They had been | limited to those matters only, which were general and setiled under Charters, which gave them self-government; common to all portions of the United Stateg. All sectional at least far as their property Wits concerned. They had or local interests, were to be left to the States. By no other taxed themelves, and had never been taxed by the Govern- arringement, would they obtain free Government, by a meut of Great Britain. To make them a part of a consoli- Constitution common to so vast a Confederacy. Yet by dated Empire, the Parliament of Great Britain determined gradual and stea ly encroachments on the part of the to assume the power of legislating for the Colonies in all people of the North, and acquiescence on the part of the cases whatsver. Our ancestors resisted the pretension. South, the limitations in the Constitution have been swept They refusal to be a part of the consolidated Government away; and the Government of the United States has beof Great Britain.

come consolidated, with a claim of limitless powers in its The Southern States, now stand exactly in the same posi- operations. tion towarIs the Northern States, that the Colonies did It is not at all surprising, such being the character of towards Great Britain. The Northern States, having the the Government of the United States, that it should assume majority in Congress, claim the same power of omnipotence to possess power over all the institutions of the country, in legislation as the British parliament. “The General The agitations on the subject of slavewy, are the natural Wulfure," is the only limit to the legislation of either; and results of the consolidation of the Government. Responsithe majority in Congress, as in the British parliament, are bility, follows power; and if the people of the North, have the be judges of the expediency of the legislation, this the power by Congress—" to promote the general welfaro

Central Tulfare” requires. Thus, the Government of the of the United Statee,” by any means they deem expedient-United States has become a consolidated Government; and why should they not assail and overthrow the institution th people of the Southern States, are compelled to meet of slavery in the South? They are responsible for its conthe very despotism, their fathers threw off in the Revolu- tinuance or existence, in proportion to their power. A mation of 1776.

jority in Congress, according to their interested and perThe consolidation of the Government of Great Britain verted views, is omnipotent. The inducements to act upon Grer the Colonies, was attempted to be carried out by the the subject of slavery, under such circumstances, were so tabs. The British parliament undertook to tax tho Colo- imperious, as to amount almost to a moral necessity. To Di*, to promote British interests. Our fathers, resisted this make, however, their numerical power available to rulu pri tension. They claimed the right of self-taxation through the Union, the North must consolidate their power. It their Cdonial Legislatures. They were not represented in would not be united, on any matter common to the whole the British parliament, and, therefore, could not rightly be Union-in other words, on any constitutional subjecttaid by its legislation. The British Government, how for on such subjects divisions are as likely to exist in the ter, offered them a representation in parliament; but it North as in the South. Slavery was strictly, a sectional was Dot sufficient to enable them to protect themselves interest. If this could be made the criterion of parties at from the majority, and they refused the offer. Between the North, the North could be united in its power; and taration without any representation, and taxation without thus carry out its measures of sectional ambition, ena representation adequate to protection, there was no differ- croachment, and aggrandizement. To build up their secEnce. In Deither case would the Colonies tax themselves. I tional predominance in the Union, the Constitution must be first abolished by constructions; but that being done, ' framed the Constitution, to show, that the Southern States the cousolidation of the North, to rule the South, by the would have formed any other Union; and still loss, that tariff and slavery issues, was in the obvious course of they would have formed a Union with more powerful nonthings.

slavobolding States, having m:jority in both branches of The Constitution of the United States, was an experiment. the Legislature of the Government. They were guilty of The experiment consisted, in uniting under one Govern- no such folly. Time and the progress of things, have totally ment, people living in different climates, and having dif- altered the relations between the Northern and Southern ferent pursuits and institutions. It mattore not, how caro- Statcs, since the Union was established. That identity of fully the limitations of such a Government he laid down in feelings, interests and institutions, which once existed, the Constitution,-its success must at least depend, upon the is gone. They are now divided, between agricultural good faith of the parties to the constitutional compact, in and manufacturing, and commercial States; between slave enforcing them. It is not in the power of human language, holding, and non-slavehulding States. Their instituto exclude false inferences, constructions and perversions, tions and industrial pursuits, have mado thoni, totally in any Constitution; and when vast sectional interests are different peoples. That Equality in the Gornrnment to be subserved, involving the appropriation of countless between the two sections of tho Union which once existed, millions of money, it his not been this sul experience of no longer exists. We but imitate the policy of our fathers mankind, that words on parchments can arrest power. in dissolving a union with non-slaveholding confell The Constitution of the United States, irrespective of the erates, and seeking a confederation with slaveholding interposition of the States, rested on the assumption, that States. power would yield to faith,—that integrity would be Experience has proved, that slaveholding States cannot stronger than interest; and that thus, the limitations of be safe, in subjection to non-slaveholding States. Indeed, the Constitution would be observed. The experiment, has no people can ever expect to preserve its rights and liber. been fairly inude. The Southern States, from the com- ties, unless these be in its own custody. Tu plunder and mencement of the Government, have striven to keep it, oppress, where plunder and oppreesion can be practiced within the orbit prescribed by the Constitution. The ex- with impunity, seems to be the natural order of things. periment, has failed. The whole Constitution, by the con- The faircst portions of the world elsowhere, have been structions of the Northern people, has been absorbed by its turned into wildernesses; and the most civilized and prospre mble. In their reckless lust for power, they seem perous communities, have been impoverished and ruined by uuable to coniprehend that serming paradox-ihat the anti-slavery fanaticism. The people of the North have not niore power is given to the General Government, the weaker left us in doubt, as to their designs and policy. United as it becomes. Its strengtlı, consists in the limitation of its a section in the late Presidential election, they have elected agency to objects of common interest to all sections. To as the exponent of their policy, one who has openly deextend the scope of its power over sectional or local inter- clared, that all the States of the United States, must be ests, is to raise up against it, opposition and resistance. In made free States or slave States. It is true, that amongst all such matters, the General Government must necessarily those who aided in his election, there are various shades of be a despotisin, because all sectional or local interests must anti-slavery hostility. But if African slavery in the Southever be represented by a minority in the councils of the ern States, be the evil their political combination affirms it General Government-having no porrer to protect itself to be, the requisitions of an inexorable logic, must lead against the rule of the majority. The majority, constitu- them to emancipation. If it is right, to preclude or abolish ted from those who do not represent these sectional or slavery in a Territory,-why should it be allowed to remain local interests, will control and govern them. A free in the States? The one is not at all more unconstitutional people, cannot submit to such a Goverument. And the than the other, according to the decisions of the Supreme more it enliurges the sphere of its power, the greater Court of the United States. And when it is considered, must be the dissatisfaction it must produce, and the that the Northern States will soon have the power to make wetker it must become. On the contrary, the more it ab- that Court what they please, and that the Constitution stains from usurpe:? powers, and the more faithfully it ad- never has been any barrier whatever to their exercise of heres to the limitations of the Constitution, the stronger it power-what check can there be, in the unrestrained counis made. The Northern people have had neither the sels of the North, to emancipation? There is sympathy in wisdom nor the faith to perceive, that to observe the limi- association, which carries men along without principle; tations of the Constitution was the only way to its perpe- but when there is principle—and that principle is fortified tuity.

by long-existing prejudices and feelings, association is omUnder such a Government, there must, of course, be many nipotent in party influences. In spite of all disclaimers and endless “irrepressible conflicts,” between the two great and professions, there can be but one end by the subniission sections of the Union. The same faithlessness which has of the South, to tho rule of a sectional anti-slavery governabolished the Constitution of the United States, will not ment at Washington; and that end, directly or indirectly, fuil to carry out the sectional purposes for which it has must be the emancipation of the slaves of the South. The been abolished. There must be conflict; and the weaker hypocrisy of thirty years—the faithlessness of their whole section of the Union can only find peace and liberty, in an course from the commencement of our union with them, independence of the North. The repeated efforts made by shew that the people of the non-slaveholding North, aro South Carolina, in a wise conservatisin, to arrest the pro- not, and cannot be safe associates of the slavehulding South, gress of the General Government in its fatal progress to under a common Government. Not only their fanaticism, consolidation, have been unsupported, and she has been but their crroneous views of the principles of free governdenounced as faithless to the obligations of the Constitu- ments, render it doubtful whether, if separated from the tion, by the very men and States, who were destroying it by South, they can maintain a free government amongst themtheir usurpations. It is now too late, to reform or restoro selves Numbers with them, is the great element of free the Governinent of the United States. All confidence in government. A majority, is infallible and omnipotent. the North, is lost by the South. The faithlessness of the “The right divine to rule in kings," is only transferred to North for a half century, has opened a gulf of separation their majority. The very object of all Constitutions, in between the North and the South which no promises nor free popular Government, is to restrain the majority. Conengagements can fill.

stitutions, therefore, according to their theory, must be It cannot be believed, that our ancestors would have as- most unrighteous inventions, restricting liberty. None sented to any Union whatever with the people of the North, ought to exist; but the body politic ought simply to have if the feelings and opinions now existing amongst them, a political organization, to bring out and enforce the will had existed when the Constitution was framed. There was of the majority. This theory may be harmless in a small then, no Tariff--no fanaticism concerning negroes. It was community, having identity of interests and pursuits : but the delegates from New England, who proposed in the Con- over a vast State-still more, over a vast Confederacy, hav. vention which framed the Constitution, to the delegates ing various and conflicting interests and pursuits, it is a from South Carolina and Georgia, that if they would agree remorseless despotism. In resisting it, as applicable to to give Congress the power of regulating commerce by a ourselves, we are vindicating the great cause of ireo governmajority, that they would support the extension of the Af- ment, more important, perhaps, to the world, than the rican Slave Trade for twenty years. African slavery, existed existence of all the United States. Nor in resisting it, lo in all the States, but one. The idea, that the Southern we intend to depart from the safe instrumentality, the sysStates would be made to pay that tribute to their Northern tem of government we have established with them, reconfederates, which they had refused to pay to Great Brit- quires. In separating from them, we invade no rights--nu ein; or that the institution of African slavery, would be interest of theirs. We violate, no obligation or duty to mundo the grand basis of a sectional organization of the them. As separate, independent States in Convention, we North to rule the South, never crossed the imaginations of made the Constitution of the United States with them; our ancestors. Tho Union of the Constitution, was a union and as separate independent States, each State acting for of slaveholding States. It rests on slavery, by prescribing itself, we adopted it. South Carolina acting in her sovera Representation in Congress, for three-fifths of our slaves. eign capacity, now thinks proper to secedo from the Union. There is nothing in the proceedings of the Convention which she did not part with her Sovereignty, in adopting the Constitution. The last thing. a State can be presumed to have The latter paper is as follows: surrendered, is her Sovereignty. Her Sovereignty, is her

DECLARATION OF THE IMMEDIATE CAUSES WHICH INDUCE AND life. Nothing but a clear, express grunt, can alienate it. Inferebce is inadmissible. Yet it is not at all surprising,

JUSTIFY THE SECESSION OF SOUTH CAROLINA FROM THE that those who have construed away all the limitations of

FEDERAL UNION. that Coustitution, should also by construction, claim the The people of the Stato of South Carolina, in convenanuihilation of the Sovereignty of the States. Having abol- tion assombled, on the 26th day of April, A. D., 1832, ished barriers to their omnipotence, by their faithless con- declared that the frequent violations of the constitution structions in the operations of the General Government, it of the United States by the federal government, and its is moet natural that they should endeavor to do the same encroachments upon the reserved rights of the states, towards us, in the States. The truth is, they, having vio- fully justified this state in then withdrawing from the lated the express provisions of the Constitution, it is at an Federal Union; but in deference to the opinions and wishes end, as a compact. It is morally obligatory only on those of the other slaveholding states, she fore bore at that timo wba chouse to accept its perverted terms. South Carolina, to exercise this right. Since that time, these encroachdeeming the compact not only violated in particular fea- ments lave continued to increase, and further forbearance tures, bat virtnally abulished by her Northern confeder- ceases to be a virtuo, ates, withdraws herself as a party, from its obligations. And now the State of South Carolina having resumed The rigut do do so, is denied hy her Northern confederates. her separate and equal place among nations, deems it due They desire to establish a sectional despotism, not only to herself, to the remaining United States of America, and omnipotent in Congress, but omnipotent over the States; to the nations of the world, that she should declare the and as if to manifest the imperious necessity of our seces- immediate causes which have led to this act. Sivd, they threaten us with the sword, to coerce submission In the year 1705, that portion of the British Empire to their rule.

embracing Great Britain, undertook to make laws for the Citizens of the slaveholding States of the United States ! government of that portion composed of the thirteen Circumstances beyond our control, have placed us in tho American colonies. A struggle for the right of self-govvan of the great controversy between the Northern and ernient ensued, which resulted on the 4th of July, 1.76, Southern States. We would have preferred, that other in a declaration by the colonies, that they are, and of Stales bould have assumed the position we now occupy. right ought to be, FREE AND INDEPENDENT STATES; Irrependent ourselves, we disclaim any design or desire, and that as free and independent states, they have full to lead the counsels of the other Southern States. Provi. power to levy war, conclude peace, contract alliances, dence has cast our lot together, by extending over us an establish commerce, and to do all other acts and things identity of pursuits, interests and institutions. South Car- which independent states may of right do." olina, desires no destiny, separate from yours. To be one They further solemnly declared that whenever any"form of a great Slavelolding Confederacy, stretching its arms of government becomes destructive of the ends for which it over a territory larger than any power in Europe possessey- was established, it is the right of the people to alter or with a population, four times greater than that of the whole abolish it, and to institute a new government.” Deeming Uaited slites, when they achieved their independence of the government of Great Britain to havo become destrue the British Empire with productions, which make our tive of these ends, they declared that the colonies are existence more important to the world, than that of any absolved from all allegiance to the British crown, and that other people in ubitius it--with common institutions to all political connection between them and the State of desenri, and common dangers to encounter-we ask your Great Britain is, and ought to be totally dissolved." sympathy and confederation. Whilst constituting a por: In pursuance of this Declaration of Independence, each in vi the United States, it has been your statesmanship of the thirteen states proceeded to exercise its separate which has quiileil it, in its mighty strides to power and sovereignty; adopted for itself a constitution, and apexpansion. In the field, as in the cabinet, you have led pointed officers for the administration of government in all the way to its renown and grandeur. You havo loved tho its departments--legislative, executive and judicial. For Union in whose service your great statesmen have labored, purposes of defence, they united their arms and their counand your great soldiers have fought and conquered-net stis; and, in 1778 they entered into a league known as the for the material benefits it conferred, but with the faith of articles of confederation, whereby they agreed to entrust a generous and devoted chivalry. You have long lingered the administration of their external relations to a common in hope over the shattered remains of a broken Constitu- agent, known as the Congress of the United States, extiun. Compromise iufter compromise, formed by your con- prussly declaring in the first article, “that each state recasions, lias been trampled under foot, by your Nortbern tains its sovereignty, freedom and independence, and every coniederies, All fraternity of feeling between the North power, jurisdiction and right which is not, by this contod and the South is lost, or has been converted into bate; and eration, expressly delegated w thu Vuited States in Corr we, of the South, are at last driven together, by the stern gress assembled.” destiny which controls the existence or nations. Your bit- Under this coufederation the war of the revolution was ter experience, of the faithlessness and rapacity of your carried on, and on the 3d September, 1783, the contest Sorthern confederates, may have been necessary, to evolve ended, and a definitive treaty was signed by Great Britain, tirose great principles of free government, upon which thu in which she acknowledged the indupendence of the colá loterties of the world depend, and to prepare you for the nies in the following terms: fund mission of vindicating and re-establishing them. Wo ** Article 1.-His Britanic Majesty acknowledges the said neo.ce, that other nations should be satisfied with their United States, viz: Now Hampshire, Massachusetts Bay, institutions. Contentment, is a great element of happi- Rhode Island and Providenco Plantations, Connecticut, uns, with nations as with individuals. We, are satisfied New York, New Jersey, Pepusylvania, Delaware, Maryland,

If they prefer a system of industry, in which Virginia, North Carolina, South Carolina and Georgia, to capital and labor are in perpetual condict--and chronic be FREE, SOVEREIGN AND INDEPENDENT STATES; starration keeps down the natural increase of population-- that he treats with them as such; and for himself, his and a faan is worked out in eight years--and the law heirs and successors, relinquishes all claims to the governor lains that children shall be worked only ten hours a ment, proprietary and territorial rights of the same and day and the sabre and bayonet are the instruments of every part thereof." order-le it so. It is their affiur, not ours. We prefer, Thus were established the two great principles asserted bowever, our system of industry, by which labor ani cap- by the colouies, namely: the right of a state to govern ital are identified in interest, and capital, therefore, pro- itself; and the right of a peoplo to abolish a government ter ts la! only which our population doubles every twenty when it becomes destructive of the ends for which it was years-by which starvation is unknown, aud abundance instituted. And concurrent with the establishment of erotts the land--by which order is preserved by an unpaid | these principles, was tho fact that each colony camne, judice, and many fertile regions of the world, where the and was recognized by tho mother country as a FREE, white man cannot labor, are brought into usefulness by SOVEREIGN AND INDEPENDEAT STATE. the labor of the African, and the whole world is blessed In 1787, deputies were appointed by the states to revise 25 vie productions. All we doraud of other peoples is, the articles of confederation, and on the 17th of Septemto be let alone, to work out our own high destinies.ber, 1787, these deputies recommended for the adoption of Toited together, and we must be the most independent, as the states, the articles of union known as thu ConstituTe te ainong the most important of the nations of the tion of the United States. Furid United together, and we require no other instru- The parties to whom this constitution was submitted, not to conquer peace, than our beneficent productions. were the several sovereign states; they were to agree or Crited together, and we inust be a great, free and prosper- disagree, and when nine of them agreed, the compact was os people, whose renown must spread throughout the to take effect among those concurring; and the general civilizei world, and pass down, we trust, to tho remotest government, as the common agent, was then to be invested azes. We ask you to join us, in forming a Confederacy of with their authority. Elavebolding States.

If only nine of the thirteen states had concurrod, tho

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