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" said act:


and fathers, either in East Tennessee or in the Lincoln Gov.

ernment. March 1, 1862—JEFFERSON Davis President,

W.M. CHURCHWELL "by virtue of the power vested in him by law

Colonel and Provost Marshal.

KNOXVILLE, Tenn., April 23, 1862. to declare the suspension of the privileges of

STRENGTH OF THE REBEL ARMY. toe writ of Habeas Corpus in cities threatened mitt invasion," proclaimed that martial law

1864, Jan. 30.-In debating the bill to repeal was extended over Richmond and the adjoin. the Substitute Exemption bill, Mr. Wm. N. H. ing country to the extent of ten miles.' He Smith, of North Carolina, said, the “Confedprohibited all distillation of spirituous liquors, rates” had at this time four hundred thousand and directed that the distilleries be forth with men on their muster roll " of whom probably closed and the establishments for the sale one half were not there, and it was well known thereof closed. Many Union men were arrested we were unable to feed the fractional part who at once and imprisoned.

were, in the field.” April 8, 1862, Davis issued a proclamation

The Richmond Whig of Jan. 1, 1864, alluextending martial law over East Tennessee and ding to the passage of the above named bill, suspending all civil jurisdiction and the writ of bas these comments : Habeas Corpus. Col. W. M. Churchwell was

We wish at this time only to make some passing commade prorost marshal and was charged with upon this measure. A Senator (Mr. Orr of s. C.) amnoug

ments upon the tone manifested in Congress in tho debates the execution of the proclamation.

other objections to the passage of the bill gravely questioned May 3, 1862, Davis issued a like proclama- its legality. tion with reference to the counties of Lee, will be great dificulty in executing it, by reason of tho de

"If the pending bill becomes a law,” said Mr. O., “there Wise. Buchanan, McDowell, and Wyoming in cisions of the Courts in several of the States. Wo must acVirginia, under the command of Brig. Gen. quiesce in the decisions of the Courts, or resort to measures

which he was not prepared for." A Senator from Missouri Humpbrey Varsball.

(Mr. Clark,) representing a constituency wholly beyond the August 14, 1861, Davis issued this

action and control of our laws, replied, in urging its passage,

that “in regard to the action of tho Courts, steps may and PROCLAMATION OF BANISHMENT :

should be taken to remove the subject beyond their juris

diction." The Senator from Mississippi, (Mr. Brown.) goes Whereas, the Congress of the Confederate States of Amer- further: “We should not defer our legislation to consult the keaal, Ly 30 ut approved on the sth day of August, 1661, views of every State Judge-to ascertain whether he will ettide- An art respecting alien enemics,” make provision overthrow it or not by his judicial decision. We have high that proclamation should be issued by the President in re- duties to perform. Let us perform them without reference Lesion to aliea enemies, and in conformity with the provisions to Stato Judges. There was a remedy against the interfer

ence of the Courts, in the suspension of the writ of habeus Nos, therefore, I, Jefferson Davis, President of the Con- corpus." fekete States of America, do issue this my proclamation: The voto of Congress upon this measure shows to what ani I do herby warn and require every malo citizen of the extent the provisions of the Constitution are getting to by Totei State of the age of fourteen years and upwards, now disregarded in the Legisilive branch, and how far revoluwitin the Confelerate States, and adhering to the Govern- tionary sentiment already prevails in that body. The strength mat of the United States, and acknowledging thoauthority of the popular respect for our Government, and the good of the same, and not being a citizen of the Confederate States, sense of the quiet inusses, may for the moment allow such te depart from the Confederate States within forty days from declarations to pass without disturbance. The little respect the date of this proclamation. And I do warn a persons in which substitute men are held may influenco a temporary abite de-crited, who shall remain within the Confederato acquiesence in them. But the intelligent and ardent lover Suites estar the expiration of said period of forty days, that of his country cannot witness such proceedings with indif. they wil toe treat l as alien cnemies.

ference, nor will he, with submission. fyrrided, h nocter, That this proclamation shall not be There is as much patriotism and intelligence out of the red-red as applicable, during the existing war, to citizens halls of Congress as in it, and the tendency of the legislaof ite United States residing within the Confederate States tive and executive declarations 60 far this session to a subviib intent to become citizens thereof, and who shall make version of the liberties of the countryand a military despotism declaration of such intention in duo form, acknowledging is already sowing the seeds of a counter revolution. Our the aatt rity of this Government; nor shall this proclamation people claim it as their right, as the duty of the General te considered as extending to the States of Delaware, Mary- Government to insure to them, as the basis of the compact Lot, beata:ky, Missouri, the District of Columbia, the by which they have associated together, that the Conjederacy Trnitors of Arizons and New Mexico, and the Indian Terbut a community of sovereign Slules. They look to tho rits surrth of Kansas, who shall not be chargeable with Constitution as the supremo law of the Confederacy. They xtual hostility or other crime against the public safety, and regard it as among the blessings for which they are indebted bilaknowledge the authority of the Government of to their ancestry that they transmitted to us a written Con. the Clernte Shites.

stitution. It received the plighted faith of our fathers. It Al I do further proclaim and make known that I have is the hopo of our posterity. To argue questions outside or established the rules and regılations hereto annexed in ac- above it is but to assail the cause of law, of right, and order. cortanon with the provisions of said law.

Given under my hand and the scal of the Confederato Setes of America, at the city of Richmond, on tio 11th day Meeting of the Thirty-Seventh Con. of Angust. A. D. 1961.

gress. By the President:

JEFFERSON DAVIS. RM. T. HCSTER, Secretary of State.

The first session began July 4,1861, and closed August 6,


The second session began December 2, 1861, and closed The undersigned, in executing martial law in this Depart

July 17, 1802. Da, on those interested who have fled to tho chemy's

The third session began December 1, 1862, and closed hari who are actually in their arıny, that he will wel.

March 4, 1863. c re ib ir r turn to their homes and families; they are of- MEMBERS OF The Turty-SEVENTH CONGRESS, ferd appasty and protection if they come to lay down their arus am wt as loyal citizens within the thirty days given

March 4, 1861, to March 4, 1863. th-nul Maj. Gen. E. KIRDY SMITi to do so.

HANNIBAL HAMLIN, of Maine, President. At the end of that time, those failing to return to their

John W. Forney, of Pennsylvania, Secretary. bumes an arcopt the amnesty thus offered, and provide for et prctat their wives and children in East Tennessee, will

SENATORS. bare form sont to their cire in Kentucky, or beyond the Confederate State lipes, at their own expeuse.

Maine-Lot M. Morrill, William P. FessenAl that leare after this date, with a knowledge of the den. atuve facts, will have their families sent immediately after

New HAMPSHIRE - John P. Hale, Daniel The women and children must be taken care of by husbands Clark.




VERMONT-Solomon Foot, Jacob Collamer. E. Lansing, Ambrose W. Clark, Charles B. MASSACHUSETTS—Charles Sumner, Henry Sedgwick, Theodore M. Pomeroy, Jacob P. Wilson.

Chamberlain, Alexander S. Diven, Robert B. Rhode ISLAND–James F. Simmons,* Henry Van Valkenburgb, Alfred Ely, Augustus Frank, B. Anthony.

Burt Van Horn, Elbridge G. Spaulding, Reuben CONNECTICUT-James Dixon, Lafayette S. E. Fenton. Foster.

New JERSEY_John T. Nixon, Job, L. N. NEW YORK-Preston King, Ira Harris. Stratton, William G. Steele, George T. Cobb,

NEW JERSEY—John R. Thomson,* John C. Nehemiah Perry. Ten Eyck.

PENNSYLVANIA-William E. Lehman, Charles PENNSYLVANIA --David Wilmot, Edgar Cow- J. Biddle,* John P. Verree, William D. Kelley,

William Morris Davis, John Hickman, Thomas DELAWARE—James A. Bayard, Willard Sauls- B. Cooper. * Sydenham E. Ancona, Thaddeus bury.

Stevens, John W. Killinger, James H. CampMARYLAND—Anthony Kennedy, James A. bell, Hendrick B. Wright, Philip Johnson, GaPearce. *

lushu A Grow, James T. Hale, Joseph Baily, VIRGINIA. *

Edward McPherson, Samuel S. Blair, John Co0110—Benjamin F. Wade, John Sherman. vode. Jesse Lizear, James K. Moorhead, Rob

KENTUCKY-Lazarus W. Powell, John C. ert McKnight, John W. Wallace, John Patton, Breckinridge.*

Elijah Babbitt. TENNESSEE—Andrew Johnson.

DELAWARE—George P. Fisher. INDIANA—Jesse D. Bright,* Henry S. Lane. MARYLAND–John W Crisfield, Edwin H.

ILLINOIS–Orville H. Browning, * Lyman Webster, Cornelius L. L. Leary, Henry Mas, Trumbull.

Fran is Thomas, Charles B. Calvert. MISSOURI—Trusten Polk,* Waldo P. John- VIRGINIA--Charles H. Upton,* William G.

Brown, John S. Carlile * Kellian V. Whaley, MICHIGAN —Zachariah Chandler, Kinsley S. Joseph Segar.* Bingham. *

OH10–George H. Pendleton, John A. Gurley, Iowa-James W. Grimes, James Harlan. Clement L. Vallandigham, William Allen, Jas.

WiscoNSIN–James R. Doolittle, Timothy 0. M. Ashley, Chilton A. White, Richard A HarHowe.

rison, Samuel Shellabarger, Warren P. Noble, CALIFORNIA-Milton S. Latham, James A. Carey A. Trimble, Valentine B. Horton, Samuel McDougall.

S. Cox, Samuel T. Worcester, llarrison G. Minnesota-Henry M. Rice, Morton S. Wil- Blake, Robert H. Nugen, William P. Cutler, kinson.

James R. Morris, Sidney Edgerton, Albert G. OREGON—Edward D. Baker,* James W. Nes. Riddle, John Hutchins, John A. Bingham. mith.

KENTUCKY--Henry C. Burnett,* James S. KANSAS–James H. Lane, Samuel C. Pomeroy. Jackson,* Henry Grider, Aaron Harding, Chas.

A. Wickliffe, George W. Dunlap, Robert Mal. REPRESENTATIVES.

lory, John J. Crittenden, William H. WadsGalusha A. Grow, of Pennsylvania, Speaker.

worth, John W. Menzies. Emerson Etheridge, of Tennessee, Clerk.

Tennessee-Horace Maynard,* Andrew J.

Clements,* George W. Bridges. * MAINE-John N. Goodwin, Charles W. Wal- INDIANA—John Law, James A. Cravens, W. ton, * Samuel C. Fessenden, Anson P. Morrill, McKee Dunn, William S. Holman, George W. John H. Rice, Frederick A. Pike.

Julian, Albert G. Porter, Daniel W. Voorhees, New HampsuiRE-Gilman Marston, Edward Albert 8. White, Schuyler Colfax, William H. Rollins, Thomas M. Edwards.

Mitchell, John P. C. Shanks. VERMONT-E. P. Walton, Jr., Justin S. Mor- Illinois-Ellihu B. Washburne, Isaac N. rill, Portus Baxter.

Arnold, Owen Lovejoy, William Kellogg, WilMASSACHUSETTS—Thomas D. Eliot, James liam A. Richardson,* John A. McClernand, * Buffinton, Benjamin F. Thomas, Alexander H. James C. Robinson, Philip B. Fouke, John A. Rice, William Appleton, * John B. Alley, Daniel Logan.* W. Gooch, Charles R. Train, Goldsmith F. MISSOURI—Francis P. Blair, Jr., James 8. Bailey, * Charles Delano, Henry L. Dawes. Rollins, John B. Clark,* Elijah H. Norton,

Rhode Island—William P. Sheffield, George John W. Reid, * John S. Phelps,* Jobo W. H. Browne.

Noell. CONNECTICUT--Dwight Loomis, James E. Eng. Michigan—Bradley F. Granger, Fernando C. lish, Alfred A. Burnham,* George C. Wood Beaman, Francis W. Kellogg, Rowland E. Trowruff.

bridge. New YORK-Edward H. Smith, Moses F. Iowa-Samuel R. Curtis, * William Vanderer. Odell, Benjamin Wood, James E. Kerrigan, Wil- WISCONSIN-John F. Potter, Luther Hanliam Wall, Frederick A. Conkling, Elijah Ward, chett, * A. Scott Sloan. Isaac C. Delaplaine, Edward Haight, Charles CALIFORNIA–Timothy G. Phelps and Aaron H. Van Wyek, John B. Steele, Stephen Baker, A. Sargent, qualified Dec. 2, 1801 ; and Fred. Abraham B. Olin, Erastus Corning, James B erick F. Low, (now Governor, ) June 3, 1863. McKean, William A. Wheeler, Socrates N. Sher- MINNESOTA-Cyrus Aldrich, William Windom. man, Chauncey Vibbard, Richard Franchot, Oregon-Andrew J. Thayer. * Roscoe Conkling, R. Holland Duell, William

KANSAS-Martin F. Conway.

* See memorandum at end of list.

* Soe memorandum at end ur list.



MissotRI--1862, January 21, Thomas L. The following changes took place during the Price succeeded John W. Reid, 'expelled DeCongress:

cember 2, 1861; 1862, January 20, William A. Hall succeeded John B. Clark, expelled July

13, 1861; 1862, May 9, Jobn S. Phelps qualified. RHODE ISLAND—1862, Dec. 1, Samuel G. Jowa--1861, December 2, James F. Wilson Arnold succeeded James F. Simmons, resigned. succeeded Samuel R. Curtis, resigned August

NEW JERSEY-1862, Dec. 1, Richard S. Field 4, 1861. succeeded, by appoiniment, Jobn R. Thomson, Wisconsin—1863, January 26, Walter D. deceased Sept. 12, 1862. 1863, Jan. 21, James McIndoe succeeded Luther Hanchett, deceased W. Wall succeeded, by election, Richard S. November 24, 1862. Field.

OREGON—1861, July 30, George K. Shiel MARYLAND—1863, Jan. 14, Thomas H. Hicks, succeeded Andrew J. Thayer, unseated. first by appointment and then by election, suc- LOUISIANA-1863, February 17, Michael ceeded James A. Pearce, deceased Dec. 20, 1862. Hahn qualified; 1863, February 23, Benjamin

VIRGINIA — 1861, July 13, John S. Carlile F. Flanders qualified. and Waitman T. Willey, sworn in place of Robert M. T. Hunter and James M. Mason, President Lincoln's First Message, withdrawn and abdicated. KESTCCKY — 1861, Dec. 23, Garrett Davis

July 4, 1861. succeeded John C. Breckinridge, expelled De- Fellow-Citizens of the Senate and cember 4.

House of Representatives : INDIANA-1862, March 3, Joseph A. Wright succeeded Jesse D. Bright, expelled Feb. 5.

Having been convened on an extraordinary 1863, Jan. 22, David Turpię superseded, by occasion, as authorized by the Constitution, election, Joseph A. Wright.

your attention is not called to any ordinary Illinois—1863, Jan. 30, William A. Richard- subject of legislation. son superseded, by election, 0. H. Browning.

At the beginning of the present Presidential Missouri-1862, Jan. 24, R. Wilson suc- term, four months ago, the functions of the ceeded Waldo P. Johnson, expelled Jan. 10. Federal Government were found to be generally 1862, Jan. 29, Jobn B. Henderson succeeded suspended within the several States of South Trusten Polk, expelled Jan. 10.

Carolina, Georgia, Alabama, Mississippi, LouMichigan—1862, Jan. 17, Jacob M. Howard isiana, and Florida, excepting only those of the succeeded K. S. Bingham, deceased Oct. 5, 1862. Post Office Department. OREGON—1862, Dec. 1, Benjamin F. Hard

Within these States, all the forts, arsenals, ing succeeded Edward D. Baker, deceased Oct. dock-yards, custom-houses, and the like, inclu21, 1862.

ding the movable and stationary property in and about them, had been seized, and were held

in open hostility to this Government, excepting MAINE—1862, December 1, Thomas A. D. only Forts Pickens, Taylor, and Jefferson, on Fessenden succeeded Charles W. Walton, re- and near the Florida coast, and Fort Sumter, in signed May 26, 1862.

Charleston harbor, South Carolina The forts MASSACHUSETTS-1862, December 1, Amasa thus seized had been put in improved condition ; Walker succeeded Goldsmith F. Bailey, deceased new ones had been built, and armed forces had May 8, 1862; 1861, December 2, Samuel Hooper been organized, and were organizing, all avowsucceeded William Appleton, resigned. edly with the same hostile purpose.

CONNECTICUT-1861, December 2, Alfred A. The forts remaining in the possession of the Burnham qualified.

Federal Government in and near these States PENNSYLVANIA–1861, December 2, Charles J. were either besieged or menaced by warlike Biddle qualified ; 1862, June 3, John D. Stiles preparations, and especially Fort Sumter was Eucceeded T. B. Cooper, deceased April 4, 1862. nearly surrounded by well-protected hostile

VIRGINIA—1861, July 13, John S. Carlile re- batteries, with guns equal in quality to the best signed to take a seat in the Senate; 1861, De- of its own, and outnumbering the latter as percember 2, Jacob B. Blair succeeded John S. haps ten to one. A disproportionate share of Carlile, resigned ; 1862, February 28, Charles the Federal muskets and rifles had somehow H. Upton unseated by a vote of the House; found their way into these States, and had been 1862, May 6, Joseph Segar qualified.

seized to be used against the Government. AcKENTUCKY-1862, December 1, George H. cumulations of the public revenue, lying within Yeaman succeeded James S. Jackson, deceased; them, had been seized for the same object. The 1862, March 10, Samuel L. Casey succeeded navy was scattered in distant seas, leaving but Tienry C. Burnett, expelled December 3, 1861. a very small part of it within the immediate

TESNESSEE—1861, December 2, Horace May- reach of the Government Officers of the Fednard qualified ; 1862, January 13, Andrew J. eral army and navy bad resigned in greit Clements qualified ; 1863, February 25, George numbers; and of those resigning a large proW. Bridges qualificd.

portion had taken up arms against the GovernIllinois-1801, December 12, A. L. Knapp ment. Simultaneously, and in connection with qualified, in place of J. A. McClernand, re- all this, the purpose to sever the Federal Union signed; 1862, June 2, William J. Allen quali- was openly avowed. In accordance with this fieri, in place of John A. Logan, resigned ; purpose an ordinance had been adopted in each 1863, January 30, William A. Richardson with of these States, declaring the States, respecdrew to take a seat in the Senate.

tively, to be separated from the National Union.



A formula for instituting a combined govern- mated. This could not be allowed. Starvation ment of these States had been promulgated; was not yet upon the garrison; and ere it would and this illegal organization, in the character be reached Fort Pickens might be re-inforced. of Confederate States, was already invoking This last would be a clear indication of policy, recognition, aid, and intervention from foreign and would better enable the country to accept Powers.

the evacuation of Fort Sumter as a military neFinding this condition of things, and believ- cessity. An order was at once directed to be ing it to be an imperative duty upon the in- sent for the landing of the troops from the coming Executive to prevent, if possible, the steamship Brooklyn into Fort Pickens. This consummation of such attempt to destroy the order could not go by land, but must take the Federal Union, a choice of means to that end longer and slower route by sea. The first rebecame indispensable. This choice was made, turn news from the order was received just one and was declared in the inaugural address. The week before the fall of Fort Sumter. The news policy chosen looked to the exhaustion of all itself was that the officer commanding the Sa. peaceful mensures before a resort to any stronger bine, to which vessel the troops had been trans.

It sought only to hold the public places ferred from the Brooklyn, acting upon some and property not already wrested from the quasi armistice of the late Administration, (and Government, and to collect the revenue ; rely- of the existence of which the present Adminising for the rest on time, discussion, and the tration, up to the time the order was dispatched, ballot-box. It promised a continuance of the had only too vague and uncertain rumors to fix mails, at Government expense, to the very attention,) had refused to land the troops. To people who were resisting the Government; now reinforce Fort Pickens, before a crisis and it gave repeated pledges against any dis- would be reached at Fort Sumter, was imposturbance to any of the people, or any of their sible-rendered so by the near exhaustion of rights. Of all that which a President might provisions in the latter named fort. In preconstitutionally and justifiably do in such a caution against such a conjuncture the Governcase, everything was forborne without which ment had, a few days before, commenced preit was believed possible to keep the Governnent paring an expedition, as well adapted as might on foot.

be, to relieve Fort Sumter, which expedition On the 5th of March (the present incumbent's was intended to be ultimately used, or not, acfirst full day in office) a letter of Major Ander-cording to circumstances. The strongest antison, commanding at Fort Sumter, written on cipated case for using it was now presented; the 28th of February, and received at the War it was resolved to send it forward. As had Department on the 4th of March, was, by that been intended in this contingency, it was Department, placed in his hands This letter resolved to notify the Governor of South Caroexpressed the professional opinion of the writer lina that he might expect an attempt would be that reinforcements could not be thrown into made to provision the fort ;* and that if the atthat fort within the time for his relief, rendered tempt should not be resisted there would be no necessary by the limited supply of provisious, effort to throw in men, arms, orammunition, with and with a view of holding possession of the out further notice, or in case of an attack upon same, with a force of less than twenty thousand the fort. This notice was accordingly given; good and well-disciplined men. This opinion whereupon the fort was attacked and bombarded was concurred in by all the officers of his com- to its fall, without even awaiting the arrival of mand, and their memoranda on the subject were the provisioning expedition. made enclosures of Major Anderson's letter. It is thus seen that the assault upon and reThe whole was immediately laid b fore Lieut. duction of Fort Sumter was, in no sense a matGeneral Scott, who at once concurred with ter of self-defence on the part of the assailants. Major Anderson in opinion. On retlection, how- They well knew that the garrison in the fort ever, he took full time, consulting with other could, by no possibility, commit aggression o cers, both of the army and the navy, and, at upon them. They knew—they were expressly the end of four days, came reluctantly, but notified—that the giving of bread to the few decidedly, to the same conclusion as before. He brave and hungry men of the garrison was all also stated at the same time that no such suffi- which would on that occasion be attempted, uncient force was then at the control of the Gov- less themselves, by resisting so much, should ernment, or could be raised and brought to the provoke more. They knew that this Govern. ground within the time when the provisions in ment desired to keep the garrison in the fort, the fort would be exhausted. In a purely mi. not to assail them, but merely to maintain in litary point of view this reduced the duty of visible possession, and thus to preserve the the Administration in the case to mere matter Union from actual and immediate dissolution of getting the garrison safely out of the fort. trusting, as hereinbefore stated, to time, dis

It was believed, however, that to so abandon cussion, and the ballot-box for final adjustment; that position, under the circumstances, would and they assailed and reduced the fort for prebe utterly ruinous; that the necessity under cisely the reverse object-to drive out the viswhich it was to be done would not be fully un- ible authority of the Federal Union, and tbus derstood ; that by many it would be consirued force it to immediate dissolution. That this 113 a part of a voluntary policy; that at home was their object the Executive well understood; it would discourage the friends of the Union, and having said to them, in the Inaugural Adembolden its adversaries, and go far to insure dress, “you can have no confict without being to the latter a recognition abroad; that in fact it would be our national destruction consum

* See page 113.

yourselves the aggressors,” he took pains not their great resentment at the Government's reonly to keep this declaration good, but also to sistance to that assault, is not definitely known. keep the case so free from the power of inge. Although they submitted the ordinanc?, for nious sopbistry as that the world should not ratification, to a vote of the people, to be taken be able to misunderstand it. By the affair at on a day then somewhat more than a month Fort Sumter, with its surrounding circumstan- distant, the Convention, and the Legislature, ces, that point was reached. Then and thereby (which was also in session at the same time and the assailants of the Government began the place,) with leading men of the State, not memconflict of arms, without a gun in sight or ia bers of either, immediately commenced acting expectancy to return their fire, save only the as if the State were already out of the Union. few in the fort sent to that harbor years before They pushed military preparations vigorously for their own protection, and still ready to give forward all over the State. They seized the that protection in whatever was lawful. In this United States armory at Harper's Ferry, and act, discarding all else, they have forced upon the navy-yard at Gosport, near Norfolk. They the country, ihe distinct issue: “Immediate received-perhaps invited-into their State dissolution or blood."

large bodies of troops, with their warlike apAnd this issue embraces more than the pointments, from the so-called seceded States. fate of these United States. It presents to the They formally entered into a treaty oftemporary whole family of man the question whether a alliance and co-operation with the so-called Constitutional Republic or Democracy-a gov. "Confederate States," and sent members to erament of the people by the same people-can their Congress at Montgomery. And, finally, or cannot maintain its territorial integrity they permitted the insurrectionary Government against its own domestic foes. It presents the to be transferred to their capital at Richmond question whether discontented individuals, too The people of Virginia bave thus allowed few in numbers to control administration ac- this giant insurrection to make its nest within cording to organic law in any case, can always, her borders; and this Government has no choice upon the pretences made in this case, or on any left but to deal with it where it finds it. And it other pretences, or arbitrarily without any pre- has the less regret, as the loyal citizens have, tence, break up their Government, and thus in due form, claimed its protection. Those loyal practically put an end to free government upon citizens this Government is bound to recognize, the earth. It forces us to ask: “Is there, in and protect, as being Virginia. all republics, this inherent and fatal weak- In the Border States, so-called-in fact, the Dess?"

* Must a Government of necessity be Middle States—there are those who favor a politoo strong for the liberties of its own people, or cy which they call “armed neutrality;" that is, too weak to maintain its own existence ?" an arming of those States to prevent the Union

So viewing the issue, no choice was left but forces passing one way, or the disunion the to call out the war power of the Government; other, over their soil. This would be disuniou and so to resist force, employed for its destruc- completed. Figuratively spe:: king, it would be tion, by force, for its preservation.

the building of an impassable wall along the The call was made, and the response of the line of separation ; and yet not quite an impasscountry was most gratifying, surpassing in able one; for, under the guise of neutrality, it unanimity and spirit the most sanguine expec. would tie the hands of the Union men, and tations. Yet none of the States commonly called freely pass supplies from among them to the inslave States, except Delaware, gave a regiment surrectionists, which it could not do as an open thr gh regular State organization. A few regi-enemy. At a stroke it would take all the trouments bave been organized within some others ble off the hands of secession, except only what of those States by individual enterprise, and re- proceeds from the external blockade. It would ceived into the Government service. Of course, do for the disunionists that which, of all things, the seceded States, so called, (and to which they most desire-feed them well, and give Texas bad been joined about the time of the them disunion without a struggle of their own. inauguration,) gare no troops to the cause of It recognizes no fidelity to the Constitution, no the Union. The border States, so called, were obligation to maintain the Union; and while not uniform in their action; some of them being very many who have favored it are doubtless almost for the Union, while in others—as Vir- loyal citizens, it is, nevertheless, very injurious ginja, North Carolina, Tennessee, and Arkan- in effect. sas—ihe Union sentiment was nearly repressed Recurring to the action of the Government, and silenced. The course taken in Virginia was it may be stated that, at first, a call was made the most remarkable, perhaps the most impor- for seventy-five thousand militia ; and rapidly tant. A Convention, elected by the people of following this, a proclamation was issued for that State to consider this very question of dis- closing the ports of the insurrectionnry disrapting the Federal Union, was in session at the tricts by proceedings in the nature of blockcapital of Virginia when Fort Sumter fell. To ade. So far all was believed to be strictly this body the people had chosen a large major-legal. At this point the insurrectionists anity of professed Union men. Almost immediately nounced their purpose to enter upon the pracafter the fall of Sumter, many members of that tice of privateering. majority went over to the original disunion mi- Other calls were made for volunteers to serve nority, and, with them, adopted an ordinance three years, unless sooner discharged, and also for withdrawing the State from the Union. for large additions to the regular army and Whether this change was wrought by their navy. These measures, whether strictly legal great approval of the assault upon Sumter, or or not, were ventured upon, under what ap

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