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President, not re-eligible........

who shall act in case of vacancy.
compensation of.......
shall take an oath of office.
may be removed by impeachment....
President, commander army, navy,

and militia.
may require the written opinions of

heads of departments.....
may reprieve and pardon..
may make treaties with consent of

the Senate.....
may appoint to office with consent of

the Senate
shall fill vacancies happening during

the recess of the Senate.
shall give information to Congress

and recommend measures......
may convene both Houses or either

House..........
may adjourn them in case of disa-

greement ....................
shall receive embassadors and pub.

lic ministers......
shall take care that the laws are

faithfully executed....
shall commission all officers...
Privileges and immunities of members

of Congress
of citizens, (see Citizens; also, Rights.)
Property, Congress to provide for care

of public
shall not be taken for public use

without just compensation...
Congress sball pass no law impairing

or denying the right of, in slaves...
Punishment, cruel and unusual, pro-

hibited......

9
9

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Representatives and direct taxes, appor-

tioned according to numbers...... 1 2 1
Represesentation of a State ; Vacancies

in, supplied until a new election by
executive authority ..........

1 2 1
Resolution, order, or vote, requiring

the concurrence of both Houses, to

undergo the formalities of bills...... 1 7 1
Removal of certain civil ollicers to be

reported by the President to the
Senate, with his reasons therefor...

2
Revenue bills to originate in the Houso
of Representatives

1

1
Rights of the citizen declared to be priv-

ileges of citizens of the several
States.....

4 2
liberty of conscience in matters of
religion.....

1 Am'd. 1
freedom of speech and of the press.... 1 An'. 1
to assemble and petition.....

1Am'a. 1
to keep and bear arms....

2 Am'u, 1
to be exempt from the quartering of
soldiers

3 A m'u. 1
to be secure from unreasonable
searches and seizures.

4 Am'a. 1
to be free from answering for a

crime, unless on presentment or
indictment by a jury...

5 A m'd. 1
not to be twice jeoparded for the
same offence......

5 Am'a. 1
not to be compelled to be a witness
against himself.

....... 5 Am'd. 1
not to be deprived of life, liberty, or

property without due process of
law....

5 Am'd. 1
private property not to be taken for
public use....

5 Amd. 1
in criminal prosccutions shall have

speedy trial by jury, with all the

means necessary for his defence..... 6 A m'd. 1
in civil cases trial to be by jury, and

sball only be re-examined accord-
ing to common law....

7 A'md.) 1
excessive bail shall not be required,

excessive fines imposed, nor cruel

and unusual punishments inflicted... 8 Am'a. i
enumeration of certain rights not to

operate against reserved rights...... 9 A m'a. 6
Rules, each house shall determine its
OWD............

1 5 1

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Quorum for business, what shall bo a
of States, in choosing a President by

the Ilouse of Representatives......
Quartered—No soldiers to be quartered
upon a citizen..................

R.
Receipts and expenditures, accounts of,

to be published .........
Records, how to be authenticated.
Religion—no law to be made; free ex-

ercise of.........
religious test not required......
Reprieves granted by the President.....
Representatives, House of, members of

chosen every second year...........
qualifications of members of.............
apportionment of...
vacancies, how supplied .................
shall choose their officers..
shall have the power of impeach-

ment........
shall be the judge of the election and

qualification of its members.
what shall be a quorum.
apy number may adjourn, and com.

pel the attendance of absentees......
may determine the rules of proceed-

ing........
may punish or expel a member.
shall keep a journal and publish, ex.

cept parts requiring secrecy...
shall not adjourn for more than three

days, nor to any other place, with-

out the consent of the Senato...
one fifth may require the yeas and

Bays......
shall originate bills for raising reve-
compensation to be ascertained by

law...
privileged from arrest, except in cer-

tain cases.....
Representatives shall not be questioned

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Seat of Government, exclusive legisla-

1 8
Searches and seizures, security against.. 4 A u'd.
Senale, composed of two Senators from
each State...

1 3
how chosen, classed, and terms of
service...

1 3
qualifications of Senators

1 3
Vice-President to be President of the

3
sball choose their officers.......
sball be the judge of the elections

and qualifications of its members... 5
what number shall be a quorum........
any number way adjourn, and com-

pel attendance of absentees............ 1
may determine its rulcs.........

1 5
may punish or expela member......... 1
shall keep a journal and publish the

same, except parts requiring se-
crecy...

1 5
shall not adjourn for more than three

days, nor to any other place, with-

out the consent of the other house.. 1 5
one-fifth may require the yeas and
nays............

5
may propose amendments to biils
for raising revenue...

1 7
shall try impeachments..

1 3
effect of their judgment on impeach-
ment...

3
compensation to be ascertained by
law

1 6
members of, privileged from arrest... 1 6
members not to be questioned for
words spoken in debate.....

1 6
shall not be appointed to ollice........ 6

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for speech or debate in the House...
shall not be appointed to office.........
shall not be electors of Prosident......

1
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2

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U.S. "0." S.

U.S. "C." S. Art. Sec. Art. Sec.

Art.Sec. Art Sec. Senatu shall not be elector.....

2 1 2 1 cess may be filled temporarily by Senators and Representatives, election

the President

2 2 2 of, how prescribed....

14 Vacancies in representation inCongress, Slabes, their importation may be pro

how filled

1 2 1 2 hibited after 1808....

1

Veto of the President, effect of and protheir importation prohibited, no law

ceedings on

1 7 1 7 to be passed impairing right of

Vice-President to be President of the property in... 1 9 Senate.......

1 3 1 3 right of transit and sojourn with, in

how elected.....

1

2 1 2 1 auy State, guarantied.

2 also, Amendment.

12 introduction of, from any State not a

shall in certain cases discharge the member of tho Confederacy, may

duties of President.......

1 be prohibited by Congress... 1 9 may be removed by impeachment......

4 Soldiers not to be quartered on citizens 3 A m'a. 1 9 Vote of one house requiring the concurSpeaker, how chosen. 1 2 1 2 rence of the other...........

1 7 1 7 Speech, freedom of.......

1 Am'a. 1 9 States prohibited from

W. entering into treaty, alliance, or confederation... 10 1 | 10 War, Congress to declare.....

1 8 1 8 granting letters of marque............

10 1 | 10 Warrants for searches and seizures, coining money....

1 10

10 when and how they shall issue...... 4 Am'a. 1 emitting bills of credit.............. 1 10

Witness in criminal cases, no one commaking anything a tender but gold

pelled to be against himself.......... 5 A m'd. 1 9 and silver......

1 10

10 Weights and Measures, standard of......... 1 8 1 8 passing bills of attainder, ex post facto laws, or laws impairing contracts...

1 10
10

Y. granting titles of nobility.

1 10

10 Laying duties on imports and exports 1 10 1 10 Yeas and Nays entered on journal, and laying duties on tonnage.... 1 10 1 10 published...

i 50 il 5 may lay tonnage duty on sea-going vessels for the improvement of riv

1 10

THEIR CONSTITUTION AS INTERPRETED BY THE keeping troops or ships of war in time of peace.........

110

“CONFEDERATE” VICE PRESIDENT.

1 10 entering into any agreement or com

1861, March 21, ALEX. H. STEPHENS delivered pact with another State or foreign Power......

1

a speech at Savannah, in explanation and vin

10 1 10 may enter into compact for improve

dication of the Constitution, from which this meat of certain rivers.................

1 10

is a well known extract: engaging in war ......

1

i 10 States, new, may be admitted into the

“The new Constitution has put at rest forever all the Union (or Confederacy)..

4 3 4 3 agitating questions relating to our peculiar institutionsnew, may be admitted upon two

African slavery as it exists among us--the proper status of thirds vote of both Houses, the Sen

the negro in our form of civilization. This was the imate voting by States.

4 3

mediate cause of the late rupture and present revolution. may be formed within the jurisdic

Jefferson, in his forecast, had anticipated this as the rock tion of others, or by the junction

upon which the old Union would split.' He was right. of two or more, with the consent of

What was conjecture with him, is now a realized fact. Congress and the Legislatures of

But whether he fully comprehended the great truth upon the States concerned............. 4 S

3

which that rock stood and stands, may be doubted. The State judges bound to consider treaties.

prevailing ideas entertained by him and most of the leadthe Constitution, and the laws

ing statesmen at the time of the formation of the old Conunder it, as supreme.........

6 1 6 1

stitution, were that the enslavement of the African was in State, every, guarantied a republican

violation of the laws of nature: that it was wrong in prinform of government, protected by

ciple, socially, morally, and politically. It was an evil they the United (or Confederate) States 4 4

knew not well how to deal with, but the general opinion of

4 4 Supreme Court (See Court and Judi

the men of that day was, that somehow or other, in the

order of Providence, the institution would be evanescent Suits at Common Law, proceedings in... 7 Am'd. 1

and pass away. This idea, though not incorporated in the Constitution, was the prevailing idea at the time. The

Constitution, it is true, secured every essential guarantee to T

the institution while it should last, and hence no argument faz, direct, according to representa

can be justly used against the constitutional guarantees

thus secured, because of the common sentiment of the day.

1 2 1 2 shall be laid only in proportion to

Those ideas, however, were fundamentally wrong. They

rested upon the assumption of the equality of races. This census........

1 9 1 9

was an error. It was a sandy foundation, and the idea of a on exports prohibited..

1 9 except by vote of two-thirds of both

government built upon it; when the storm came and the Houses.....

wind blew, it fell.'

1 9 Tender, what shall be a legal.............

"Our new Government is founded upon exactly the 01

1 10 posite idea; its foundations are laid, its corner stone rests Turritory, or public property, Congress may make rules concerning.....

upon the great truth that the negro is not equal to the

4 Test, religious, shall not be required...... 6

white man. That slavery-subordination to the superior

1 6 1 Teles, (see Nobility.)

race, is his natural and normal condition. This, our new File from foreign state prohibited....... 1

Government, is the first, in the history of the world, based

9 1 9 Trease, defined......

upon this great physical and moral truth. This truth has 3

3 3 two witnesses, or confession, neces

been slow in the process of its development, like all other sary for conviction.......

truths in the various departments of science. It has been

3 3 3 3 panishment of, may be prescribed by

go even amongst us. Many who hear me, perhaps, can Congress.......

recollect well, that this truth was not generally admitted,

3 3 3 3 Treasury, money drawn from only by

even within their day. The errors of the past generation

still clung to many as late as twenty years ago. Those at appropriation......

1 9 1 9 Treaties, how made..

the North who stili cling to these errors, with a zeal above

2 2 2 2 the supreme law.....................

knowledge, we justly denominate fanatics. 6 1

6. 1 "In the conflict thus far, success has been, on our side, States cannot make.

1 10
110

complete throughout the length and breadth of the Confed

erate States. It is upon this, as I have stated, our actual V.

fabric is firmly planted; and I cannot permit myself to Tecancies happening during the re

doubt the ultimate success of a full recognition of this principle throughout the civilized and enlightened world.

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“As I have stated, the truth of this principle may be slow the granite; then comes the brick or the marble. The subin development, as all truths are, and ever have been, in stratuin of our society is made of the materit) fitted by nathe various branches of science. It was so with the prin- ture for it, and by experience we know that it is best, rot ciplos announced by Galileo-it was so with Adam Smith only for the superior, but for the inferior race that it should and his principles of political economy-it was 80 with bo so. It is, indeed, in conformity with the ordinance of Harvey and his thoory of tho circulation of the blood. It the Creator. It is not for us to inquiro into the wisdom of is stated that not a single one of tho madical profession, His ordinances, or to question them. For His own purliving at the timo of tho announcement of the truths made posos IIhas made one race to differ from another, as He by him, admitted them. Now they are universally ac-i has made 'one star to differ from another star in glory.' knowledged. May wo not, therefore, look with confidence “ Tho great objects of humanity are best attained when to the ultimate universal acknowledgment of the truths conformed to llis laors and decrees, in the formation of gove upon which our system rests. It is tho first governmont ernments, as well as in all things else. Our Confederacy is ever institutod upon principlos of strict conformity to na- founded upon principles in strict conformity with these ture, and tho ordination of Providonco, in furnishing the laws. This stone which was first rejected by the first builders materials of human society. Many governments have been is becomo the chief stone of the corner'in our new edifice. founded upon tho principle of certain classes; but the “The progress of disintegration in the old Union mity be classes thus enslaved, were of the samo race, and in viola- expected to go on with almost alsolute certainty. We are tion of the laws of nature. Our system commits no such now the nucleus of a growing power, which, if we are true violation of nature's laws. Tho negro, by nature, or by tho to ourselves, our destiny, and high' mission, will become curso against Canaan, is fitted for that condition which he the controlling power on this continent. To what extent occupies in our system. The architect, in tho construction accessions will go on in the process of time, or where it will of buildings, lays the foundation with the proper materials, I end, the future will determine."

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ADMINISTRATION OF ABRAHAM LINCOLN.

Abraham Lincoln's Inaugural Ad-consistently with the Constitution and the laws, dress, March 4, 1861.

can be given, will be cheerfully given to all the

States when lawfully demanded, for whatever Fellow-citizens of the United States: In com-cause - as cheerfully to one section as to pliance with a custom as old as the Govern- another. ment itself, I appear before you to address you There is much controversy about the deliverbriefly, and to take in your presence the oath ing up of fugitives from service or labor. The prescribed by the Constitution of the United clause I now read is as plainly written in the States to be taken by the President “ before he Constitution as any other of its provisions : enters on the execution of his office."

“No person held to service or labor in one State, under I do not consider it necessary at present for the laws thereof, escaping into another, shall, in consome to discuss those matters of administration quence of any law or regulation therein, bo discharged

from such service or labor but shall be delivered up on about which there is no special anxiety or ex

claim of the party to whom such servico or labor may be citement.

due." Apprehension seems to exist among the peo

It is scarcely questioned that this provision ple of the Southern States that by the accession

was intended by those who made it for the reof a Republican Administration their property claiming of what we call fugitive slaves ; and and their peace and personal security are to be the intention of the law-giver is the law. All endangered. There has never been any reason members of Congress swear their support to able cause for such apprehension. Indeed, the the whole Constitution—to this provision as most ample evidence to the contrary has all the while existed and been open to their inspec- that slaves, whose cases come within the terms

much as any other. To the proposition, then, tion. It is found in nearly all the published of this clause, “ shall be delivered up,” their speeches of him who now addresses you. I do but quote from one of those speeches when I oaths are unanimous. Now, if they would declare that "I have no purpose, directly or with nearly equal unanimity, frame and pass a

make the effort in good temper, could they not, indirectly, to interfere with the institution of slavery in the States where it exists. I believe law by means of which to keep good that

unanimous oath ? I have no lawful right to do so, and I have no inclination to do so.” Those who nominated this clause should be enforced by national or

There is some difference of opinion whether and elected me did so with full knowledge that I had made this and many similar declarations, is not a very material one.

by State authority; but surely that difference

If the slave is to and had never recanted them. And more than be surrendered, it can be of but little consethis, they placed in the platform for my acceptance, and as a law to themselves and to me, the quence to him, or to others, by which authority

And should any one, in any case, clear and emphatic resolution which I now be content that bis oath shall goʻunkept, on a

merely unsubstantial controversy as to how it . Resolrod, That the maintonance inviolate of the rights shall be kept ? of the States, and especially the right of each Stato to order el control its own domestic institutions according to its

Again, in any law upon this subject, ought ben judgment exclusively, is essential to the balance of not all the safeguards of liberty known in civi

I co which the perfection and enduranco of our polit- lized and humane jurisprudence to be introled line dipend, and wo denounce the lawless invasion I duced, so that a free man be not, in any case, by armed force of the soil of any State or Territory, no Datter under what pretext, as among the gravest of surrendered as a slave? And might it not be

well at the same time to provide by law for the I now reiterate these sentiments; and, in do- enforcement of that clause in the Constitution ing so, I only press upon the public attention which guaranties that “the citizens of each the most conclusive evidence of which the case State shall be entitled to all privileges and imis susceptible that the property, peace, and munities of citizens in the several States ?” security of no section are to be in anywise I take the official oath to-day with no mental endangered by the now incoming Administra- reservations, and with no purpose to construe tion. I add, too, that all the protection which, I the Constitution or laws by any hypercritical

read:

ennes."

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