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Marque and reprisal, letters of.
Militia, to be called out...

to be officered by the States........
to be commandod by the President..
their right to keep and bear arms

secured..... Money shall be drawn from the treas

ury only by appropriation laws...... Congress to coin and regulate value

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of....

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States cannot coin......

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2

8 10

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be uniform

1 8 Duties, further provision respecting 1 9 can not be lefied by the States.

1 10 ob exp rts prohibited..

1 9 On esports may be authorized by

to thirds vote.........
on imports and exports imposed by

States, shall enure to the treasury
of the General Goverument...

1 10
may not be laid on imports to foster
any branch of industry ................

D.
Elections of Senators and Representa-

tres sball be prescribed by the
States....

1 4 qualifications and returns of mem

bers of Congress to be determined
by each House.....

1 5 Electors of President and Vice President, bow chusen, and their duties

1 altered (see 12th amendment) to vote

the same day throughout the Unj.

ted (or Confederate) States..... 2 1 Do Senator, or Representative, or

public officer shall serve as .......... 2 1 EnuDuration every ten years............

2 first within three years... Executire porcer vested in a President, (see President,)...........

2 1 Esports, not to be taxed.....

9 may be, by two-thirds vote Ez pos! facto law, not to be passed........ 1 9 prohibited to States.....

1 10 F. Fines, excessive, prohibited........

8 Am'd. Fugitires, from justice, to be delivered up....

4

2 from service, to be delivered up......... 4 2

H.
Habeas Corpus, writ of, can only be

suspended in cases of rebellion or
in rasion..

1 9 Hrise of Representalires-(see Repre

seolatives.)
Heads of Executive Departments may be

allowed to have seats in either
House for certain purposes............

I.
Impeachment to be brought by House
of Representatives.....

2 tried by the Senate.........

3 judgment on........

1 3 all civil oficers liable to....

2 any judicial or other federal oficers

resideat and acting solely in any
State, liable to, by two-thirds vote

of legislature thereof.......... Impattalion of Slaves, not prohibited ul 1808

1 9 probibited....... Iniernal Improrenents, Congress shall

not have power to appropriate
money for ...................

J.
Judges shall hold their offices during
good behavior.

3 1 their compensation ...

1 Judiciary, tribunals inferior to the Su

preme Court may be erected... 1 8 Judicial Pover vested in a Sopreme

Court (or Superior Court) and in-
ferior courts....

3 1 powers of the judiciary......

3 rest: ictions as to suits against a State 11 A m'd. Judicial Proceedings of cach Slate are entitled w credit in all........

4 1 Jury trial secured, and sball be held

in tbe Suate where the crime shall
have been committed.........

3

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Officers of tho House of Representa

tives to be chosen by the House..... of the Senate to be chosen by the

Sepate civil, may be removed by impeach

ment........ Order of one house requiring the con

currence of the other.... Oath of the President

of the public oflicers......

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P. Pardons, President may grant....... 2 2 Palents to be granted to inventors...... 1 8 Petition, right of......

1 Am'd. Persons held to service or labor, their

importation or migration into the
United States may be prohibited
after 1808....

1 9 escaping from one State into another shall be delivered up

4 2 or lawfully carried from one State

to another... Piracy, Congress to prescribe punishment for...

1 8 Post offices and post roads (and routes,) establishing of.......

1 8 Post office Department to be self-sustain

ing after 1st of March 1863.. Powers not delegated to Congress nor

prohibited to the States aro
served........

10 Am'd. legislative,(sco Congress ;) executive, (sce President;) judicial, (see Judi

cial.). Presents from foreign powers to public ofllcers prohibited

1 9 Prees, freedom of secured.

1 Am'd. President of the United States and of

the Confederato States vested with
executive power..

2 1 sha l be chosen for four years...........

2 1 sball be chosen for six years......... how elected................

2 1 same

12 Am'. qualifications for

2

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President, not re-eligible........

who shall act in case of vacancy......
compensation of....
shall take an oath of office....

may be removed by impeachment....
President, commander of ariny, navy,

aud militia.
may require the written opinions of

heads of departments..........
may reprieve and pardon......
may make treaties with consent of

the Senate......
may appoint to office with consent of

the Senate
shall fill vacancies happening during

the recess of the Senate....
shall give information to Congress

and recommend measures...
may convene both Houses or either

House.......
may adjourn them in case of disa-

greement ..... .....
shall receive embassadors and pub.

lic ministers...
shall take care that the laws are

faithfully executed....
shall commission all officers.
Privileges and immunities of members

of Congress
of citizens, (see Citizens; also, Rights.)
Property, Congress to provide for caré

of public
shall not be taken for public use

without just compensation.....
Congress sball pass no law impairing

or denying the right of, in slaves...
Punishment, cruel and unusual, pro-

hibited.....

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Representatives and direct taxes, appor-

tioned according to numbers..... 1 2
Represesentation of a State ; vacancies

in, supplied until a new election by
executive authority..

1 2
Resolution, order, or vote, requiring

the concurrence of both Houses, to

undergo the formalities of bills...... 1 7
Removal of certain civil officers to be

reported by the President to the

Senate, with his reasons therefor...
Revenue bills to originate in the Houso
of Representatives

1
Rights of the citizen declared to be priv-

ileges of citizens of the several
States......

4 2
liberty of conscience in matters of
religion....

1 Am'd.
freedom of speech and of the press.... 1 Ain'l.
to assemble and petition.

I Amd.
to keep and bear arms....

2 Au'u.
to be exempt from the quartering of
soldiers..

3 A m'u.
to be secure from unreusonable
searches and seizures.....

4 Am'a.
to be free from answering for a

crime, unless on presentment or
indictment by a jury.

5 Ain'd.
not to be twice jeoparded for the
same offence.....

5 Am'd.
not to be compelled to be a witness
against himself

5 A m'd.
not to be deprived of life, liberty, or

property without due process of
law....

5 Am'd.
private property not to be taken for
public use...

5 Am'd.
in criminal prosccutions shall bave

speedy trial by jury, with all the

means necessary for his defence..... 6 A m'd.
in civil cases trial to be by jury, and

shall only be re-examined accord.
ing to common law

7 A'md.
excessive bail shall not be required,

excessive tines imposed, nor cruel

and unusual punislaments indicted... 8 Ain'd.
enumeration of certain rights not to

opera:e against reserved rights...... 9 A m'a.
Rules, each house shall determine its
OWD..........................................

1 5

9

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Receipts and expenditures, accounts of,

to be published......
Records, how to be authenticated........
Religion—no law to be mado; free ex-

ercise of............
religious test not required.....
Reprieves granted by the President.....
Representatives, House of, members of

chosen every second year..........
qualifications of members of...
apportionment of.......
vacancies, how supplied..
shall choose their officers..
shall have the power of impeach-

ment....
shall be the judge of the election and

qualification of its members.
what shall be a quorum
apy number may adjourn, and com.

pel the attendance of absentees......
may determine the rules of proceed-

ing......
may punish or expel a member.
shall keep a journal and publish, ex.

cept parts requiring secrecy.
shall nut adjourn for more than three

days, nor to any other place, with-

out the consent of the Senate...
one fifth may require the yeas and

Bays.......
shall originate bills for raising reve-

nue
compensation to be ascertained by

law.
privileged from arrest, except in cer-

tain cases
Representatives shall not be questioned

for speech or debate in the House...
shall not be appointed to office......
shall not be electors of President......

1

S.
Seat of Government, exclusive legisla-

1 8
Searches and seizures, security against.. 4 Au’d.
Senale, composed of two Senators from
each State....

1 3
how chosen, classed, and terms of
service...

1 3
qualifications of Senators

1 3
Vice-President to be President of the 1 3
sball choose thcir oflicers...

1 3
shall be the judge of the elections

and qualidcations of its members... 1 5
what number shall be a quorum........ 1 5
any number way adjourn, and com.

pel attendance of absentees............ 1 5
may determine its rules..........

1 5
may punish or expela member..

5
shall kecp a journal and publish the

same, except parts requiring se-
crecy.......

1 5
sball not adjourn for more than three

days, nor to any other place, with.

out the consent of the other house.. 1 5
one-fifth may require the yeas and
nays.........

1 5
may propose amendments to biils
for raising revenue.......

1
shall try impeachinents......

1 3
effect of their judgment on impeach-
ment...

1 3
compensation to be ascertained by
law

1 6
members of, privileged from arrest... 1 6
memlery not to be questioned for
words spoken in debate.

1 6
shall not be appointed to olice...... 1 6

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cess may be filled temporarily by
the President

2 2 Vacancies in representation in Congress, how filled ..........

1 2 Veto of the President, effect of and proceedings on .....

1 7 Vice-President to be President of the Senate......

1 3 how elected......

2 also, Amendment..

12 shall in certain cases discharge tho duties of President....

1 may be removed by impeachment...... Vote of one house requiring the concurrence of the other.............

1 7 W. War, Congress to declare.....

8 Warrants for searches and seizures,

whon and how they shall issue....... 4 A m'a. Witness in criminal cases, no one com

pelled to be against himself......... 5 Am'd. Weights and Measures, standard of........ 1 8

Y. Yeas and Nays entered on journal, and published.....

5

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2 9

7

1

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Seraton hall not be elector...

2 1 Senators and Representatives, election of, how prescribed.

1 4 Slabes, their importation may be prohibited after 1808.....

1 9 their importation prohibited, no law

to be passed impairing right of property in. right of transit and sojourn with, in

aus State, guarantied... introduction of, from any State not a

member of tho Confederacy, may

be probibited by Congress. Soldiers not to be quartered on citizens 3 Am'd. Speaker, how chosen

1 2 Speech, freedom of.............................

1Am'd. States prohibited from entering into treaty, alliance, or confederation .....

1 10 granting letters of marque............. 1 10 enining money

1 10 emitting bills of credit..

1 10 making anything a tender but gold and silver

1 10 passing bills of attainder, ez post facto

laws, or laws impairing contracts... 1 10 granting titles of nobility..

1 | 10 laying duties on imports and exports 1 | 10 laying duties on tonnage....

1 | 10 may lay tonnage duty on sea-going

Fessels for the improvement of riv

ers, &C..... keeping troops or ships of war in time of peace

1 entering into any agreement or com

pact with another State or foreign
Power...

1 10 may enter into compact for improve

ment of certain rivers............. engaging in war .....

1 | 10 States, new, may be admitted into the Union (or Confederacy)..

4 3 new, may be admitted upon two

thirds sote of both Houses, the Sen

ste voting by States.. may be formed within the jurisdiction of others, or by the junction of two or more, with the consent of Congress and the Legislatures of the states concerned.........

3 State judges bound to consider treaties.

the Constitution, and the laws
under it, as supremo.....

6 1 State, every, guarantied a republican

form of government, protected by

the United (or Confederate) States 4 4 Supreme Court(See Court and Judi

ciary.) Suits at Common Law, proceedings in... 7 Aw'd.

T

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THEIR CONSTITUTION AS INTERPRETED BY THE

"CONFEDERATE” VICE PRESIDENT. 1861, March 21, ALEX. H. STEPHENS delivered a speech at Savannah, in explanation and vindication of the Constitution, from which this is a well known extract:

“The new Constitution has put at rest forever all the agitating questions relating to our peculiar institutionsAfrican slavery as it exists

among us--the

proper status of the negro in our form of civilization. This was the immediate cause of the late rupture and present revolution. Jefferson, in his forecast, had anticipated this as the rocke upon which the old Union would split. He was right. What was conjecture with him, is now a realized fact. But whether he fully comprehended the great truth upon which that rock stood and stands, may be doubted. The prevailing ideas entertained by him and most of the leading statesmen at the time of the formation of the old Constitution, were that the enslavement of the African was in violation of the laws of nature: that it was wrong in principle, socially, morally, and politically. It was an evil they knew not well how to deal with, but the general opinion of the men of that day was, that somehow or other, in the order of Providence, the institution would be evanescent and pass away. This idea, though not incorporated in the Constitution, was the prevailing idea at the time. The Constitution, it is true, secured every essential guarantee to the institution while it should last, and hence no argument can be justly used against the constitutional guarantees thus secured, because of the common sentiment of the day. Those ideas, however, were fundamentally wrong. They rested upon the assumption of the equality of races. This was an error. It was a sandy foundation, and the idea of a government built upon it; when the storm came and the wind blew, it fell.'

“Our new Government is founded upon exactly the 01posite idea; its foundations are laid, its corner stone rests upon tho great truth that the negro is not equal to the white man. That slavery—subordination to the superior race, is his natural and normal condition. This, our new Government, is the first, in the history of the world, based upon this great physical and moral truth. This truth has been slow in the process of its development, like all other truths in the various departments of science. It has been 80 even amongst us. Many who hear me, perhaps, can recollect well, that this truth was not generally admitted, even within their day. The errors of the past generation still clung to many as late as twenty years ago. Those at the North who stili cling to these errors, with a zeal above knowledge, we justly denominate fanatics.

"In the conflict thus far, success has been, on our side, complete throughout the length and breadth of the Confederato States. It is upon this, as I have stated, our actual fabric is firmly planted; and I cannot permit myself to doubt the ultimate success of a full recognition of this principle throughout the civilized and enlightened world.

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Tas, direct, according to representa

tion..... shall be laid only in proportion to

census. on exports prohibited.... except by vote of two-thirds of both

Hogses...... Tender, what shall be a legal.. Territory, or public property, Congress

may make rules concerning.... Tex, religious, shall not be required...... Tities, (see Nobility.) Tule from foreign state prohibited..... Freason, defined......... two witnesses, or confession, neces

sary for conviction.......... punishment of, may be prescribed by

Congress.... Treasury, money drawn from only by

appropriation.... Treaties, how made..........................

the supremne law......................... States cannot make

V. reconcis happening during the rem

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“ As I have stated, the truth of this principle may be slow the granite; then comes the brick or the marble. The subin development, as all truths are, and ever have been, in stratum of our society is minde of the materit:) fitted by nathe various branches of science. It was so with the prin- ture for it, and by experience we know that it is best, not ciplos announced by Galileo-it was so with Adam Smith only for the superior, but for the inferior race that it should and his principles of political economy-it was so with bo so. It is, indeed, in conformity with the ordinance of Harvey and his thoory of tho circulation of tho blood. It the Creator. It is not for us to inquiro into the wisdom of is stated that not a single one of tho m-dical profession, His ordinances, or to question them. For His owo purliving at the timo of the announcement of tho truths made posos H* has made one race to differ from another, as He by him, admitted them. Now they are universally ac- has mado 'one star to differ from another star in glory.' knowledged. May wo not, therefore, look with confidence “ Tho great objects of humanity are best attained when to the ultimate universal acknowledgment of the truths conformed to llis laws and decrees, in the formation of goyupon which our system rests. It is tho first governmont ernments, as well as in all things else. Our Confederacy is ever institutod upon principlos of strict conformity to na- founded upon principles in strict conformity with these ture, and tho ordination of Providonco, in furnishing the laws. This stone which was first rejected ly the first builders matorials of human society. Many governments have been is becomo the chief stone of the corner'in our new edifice. founded upon the principle of certain classes; but the “The progress of disintegration in the old ('nion may be classes thus enslaved, were of the samo race, and in viola- expected to go on with almost alsolute certainty. We are tion of the laws of nature. Our system commits no such now the nucleus of a growing power, which, if we are true violation of nature's laws. Thio negro, by nature, or by the to ourselves, our destiny, and high mission, will become curso against Canaan, is fitted for that condition which he the controlling power on this continent. To what extent occupies in our system. The architect, in tho construction accessions will go on in the process of time, or where it will of buildings, lays the foundation with the proper materials, I end, the future will determine."

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ADMINISTRATION OF ABRAHAM LINCOLN.

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Abraham Lincoln's Inaugural Ad-consistently with the Constitution and the laws, dress, March 4, 1861,

can be given, will be cheerfully given to all the

States when lawfully demanded, for whatever Fellow-citizens of the United States: In com-cause — as cheerfully to one section as to pliance with a custom as old as the Govern- another. ment itself, I appear before you to address you There is much controversy about the deliverbriefly, and to take in your presence the oath ing up of fugitives from service or labor. The prescribed by the Constitution of the United clause I now read is as plainly written in the States to be taken by the President“ before he Constitution as any other of its provisions : enters on the execution of his office."

“No person held to service or labor in one State, under I do not consider it necessary at present for the laws thereof, escaping into another, shall

, in conseme to discuss those matters of administration quence of any law or regulation therein, bo discharged about which there is no special anxiety or ex

from such service or labor but shall be delivered up on

claim of the party to whom such servico or labor may be citement.

Apprehension seems to exist among the people of the Southern States that by the accession was intended by those who made it for the re

It is scarcely questioned that this provision of a Republican Administration their property claiming of what we call fugitive slaves; and and their peace and personal security are to be the intention of the law-giver is the law. All endangered. There bas never been any reason-members of Congress swear their support to able cause for such apprehension. Indeed, the the whole Constitution to this provision as most ample evidence to the contrary has all the while existed and been open to their inspec- that slaves, whose cases come within the terms

much as any other. To the proposition, then, tion. It is found in nearly all the published of this clause, “ shall be delivered up,” their speeches of him who now addresses you. I do loaths are unanimous. Now, if they would but quote from one of those speeches when I make the effort in good temper, could they not, declare that "I have no purpose, directly or with nearly equal unanimity, frame and pass a indirectly, to interfere with the institution of slavery in the States where it exists. I believe law by means of which to keep good that

unanimous oath ? I have no lawful right to do so, and I have no inclination to do so.” Those who nominated this clause should be enforced by national or

There is some difference of opinion whether and elected me did so with full knowledge that I bad made this and many similar declarations, is not a very material one.

by State authority; but surely that difference

If the slave is to and had never recanted them. And more than be surrendered, it can be of but little consethis, they placed in the platform for my acceptance, and as a law to themselves and to me, the quence to him, or to others, by which authority

it is done. And should any one, in any case, clear and emphatic resolution which I now be content that bis oath shall goʻunkept, on a read:

merely unsubstantial controversy as to how it * Readired, That the maintonance inviolate of the rights shall be kept ? of the States, and especially the right of each Stato to order

Again, in any law upon this subject, ought al control its own domestic institutions according to its 570 judgment exclusively, is essential to the balance of not all the safeguards of liberty known in civiPor on which the perfection and enduranco of our polit- lized and humane jurisprudence to be introWullore depend, and wo denounce the lawless invasion | duced, so that a free man be not, in any case, by armed force of the soil of any State or Territory, no mattis under what pretext, as among the gravest of, surrendered as a slave? And might it not be crines."

well at the same time to provide by law for the I now reiterate these sentiments; and, in do enforcement of that clause in the Constitution ing so, I only press upon the public attention which guaranties that “the citizens of each the most conclusive evidence of which the case State shall be entitled to all privileges and imis siisceptible that the property, peace, and munities of citizens in the several States ?”' security of no section are to be in anywise I take the official oath to-day with no mental endangered by the now incoming Administra- reservations, and with no purpose to construe tion. I add, too, that all the protection which, I the Constitution or laws by any hypercritical

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