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The first night we lay out in the woods in Alabama, one of the points discussed by some Carolinian emigrants, who came to our fire to have a little chat before bed-time, was the eligibility of stopping on the road a year, to make and sell a crop from the public lands in their way, or of proceeding without delay to their ulterior destination in the state of Mississippi. They appeared pretty nearly decided on the former plan.

The Southern States presenting, as it appeared to me, no adequate inducement to indigent English emigrants, I turned my especial attention to the advantages offered in the western part of the State of New-York, where it has been understood that many of those destined for Canada finally settle. I found it impossible to learn with any precision to what extent the tide of Canadian emigration is still diverted to the State of New-York; but I am disposed to believe, that fewer in proportion pass over into the American limits than formerly. Neither could I entirely satisfy myself as to the inducements to do so, especially as the soil is not superior in the State of New-York; and it is not very uncommon for Americans to go over into Canada to settle. I believe, however, that the principal reasons are to be found in the extreme activity of the agents of the Holland Company and Sir William Pulteney's estate, (who are very solicitous to promote the rapid settlement of their respective tracts,) and in the aid which they afford the emigrant at his outset, in letting him settle on their lands free of rent for the first two or three

years; assisting him, perhaps, in raising a little cabin, or lending him a little Indian corn.

These trifling services, especially to an emigrant who has no money with which to pay his fees in Canada, are not only very seducing in prospect, but essentially contribute to lessen the first and severest difficulties of a new settler. Ultimately, however, I am disposed to think they are disadvantageous in the majority of instances; the NewYork settler having to begin to provide for rent and instalments, (which, even under the alleviated pressure of his situation, it would require both self-denial and good management to save,) at the very time when the Canadian settler is emerging from his greater difficulties, and deriving a liberal subsistence for his family from his own unburdened estate. I have been told, that very few persons under the former system ultimately maintain possession of their lands; but that, after supporting themselves and their families in greater or less abundance, they are compelled to abandon their improvements for arrears in rent or instalments, and, joining the forlorn hope on the frontiers, to repeat their laborious and interminable efforts to convert the wilderness into a fruitful field. In passing through the State of New-York, I heard a great deal of the distress which at present exists from inability on the part of the emigrants to pay their rents and instalments, and of the hard names which the agents had to bear for proceeding to extremities. Still, however, an active, prudent man, would, under ordinary circumstances, succeed under the system, and probably as rapidly at

least as in Canada; but it would require greater self-denial to impose the necessary severities on himself in New-York, than to submit to them when unavoidable in Canada. The general observations which I made concerning the classes to whom emigration to Canada would prove a real benefit, are equally applicable to emigration to the United States; but in a future letter I will endeavour to give you some idea of what farmers, who bring with them a few thousand, instead of a few hundred, pounds, may expect to do in different parts of the United States. I will, at the same time, tell you all I can learn respecting Mr. Birkbeck's settlement.

I had not intended to confine this letter to such dry statistics; but it is too late to begin on any other subject.-James, I believe, is disposed to think, that he is better at home than in America; except in his present capacity, in a city where his wages might be ten pounds per annum higher than in England, and where his wife's services as a dress-maker, fine washer, &c. would be productive.


Norfolk, (Virginia,) Dec. 12, 1820.

As engagements of various kinds begin to thicken upon me previously to embarking, and I have little chance of any opportunity of writing to you as I wish, I must continue to snatch little

intervals as they present themselves, and write to you as I can.

You are already in possession of our personal narrative" to a late date. I will now continue my remarks, scanty and superficial as I know they are, on the subject of emigration. I do not recollect that I omitted any thing at all material which occured to me during my hasty progress through the country, with respect to the inducements offered to the poorer classes, who are anxious to obtain a little land, from which they may derive a subsistence for their families by personal exertion. On the more difficult subject of the advantages which agriculturists, with a capital of a few thousand pounds, would derive from coming to this country, I shall enter with greater reluctance; because it is one in the minutiæ of which I feel still less at home, although I have taken pains to obtain such information as would lead me to conclusions on which I could rely. The fact is, that of the more recent settlements, (even of those less remote than Mr. Birkbeck's,) little is known on the coast, and the accounts which you receive from casual visiters are usually as vague and inaccurate as those derived from persons interested are exaggerated and partial. Opinions respecting all the settlements, is easy enough to collect; but facts, on which to found opinions entitled to any consideration, it is extremely difficult to obtain.

I have met with two persons only who have actually been at Mr. Birkbeck's settlement; one in the course of the last summer, the other less

than eight weeks since. They both state, that he has now a very comfortable house, excellent fences, and from 60 to 80 acres of Indian corn; but that he has raised little or no wheat, finding it more desirable, on the whole, to purchase flour at Harmony, eighteen miles distant.

I have not Mr. Birkbeck's book before me to refer to, in order to see whether this is his third or fourth year; but, in either case, the result differs so widely from his anticipations, as to render it difficult for him to elude the charge of being a wild and sanguine speculator.

In one of his estimates, he states the following as the quantity of produce which a settler on 640 acres, may expect to raise in the first four years:

1st year, 100 acres of Indian corn. 2d year, 100 ditto ditto.

100 ditto Wheat.

3d year, 200 ditto Indian corn. 100 ditto Wheat.

4th year, 200 ditto Indian corn. 200 ditto Wheat.

This estimate was made not later, I believe, at any rate than in 1817, (you can refer to his book ;) and yet in the autumn of 1820, he has little or no wheat, and only 60 or 80 acres of Indian corn, though possessing unquestionably, in his skill and resources, more than the average advantages of new settlers, and stimulated to extraordinary exertions by a regard to his reputation. So much for quantity. With respect to price, in his estimate of profit, he takes wheat at seventy-five, and

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