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dealers money on pledge of them, create a great and effective demand. The stocks are taken out of the hands of needy owners and deposited in the banks. The money thus drawn out of the banks finds its way very slowly into other branches of business. When there is no adequate foreign vent for agricultural produce, a similar effect can be brought about only very slowly. As soon as a rise is effected on the seaboard, the impulse runs through the whole country, carrying with it large sums of money, which becomes distributed in all the channels of circulation. This natural result has been re
tarded in an eminent degree by the uncertainty attending legislative action. The indomitable energies of the American people may be checked, but cannot be controlled for any length of time. The internal navigation presents already a degree of activity scarcely ever before equalled, and the tolls on all the great public works present a great excess over those for the same period last year. With a permanent return to the republican principle of a purely revenue tariff, without restrictions or special privileges, the swelling volume of American wealth would soon overshadow that of assembled Europe.
NEW BOOKS OF THE MONTH.
Classical Essays on Ancient Literature and Art, with the Biography and Correspondence of Eminent Philologists. By BASEARS, President of Newton Theological Institution; B. B. EDWARDS, Professor in Andover Theological Seminary; C. C. FELTON, Professor in Harvard University. Boston: Gould, Kendall, and Lincoln, 59 Washington-street. 1843.
This work appears to have been prepared primarily with a view of quickening the taste of the American public for classical studies, and indirectly to show the tendency of the German mind, and the habits it has adopted in the culture of ancient learning during the last half century. For the first end, this work is written too much in the spirit of idolatry. There has been no proper transmutation of the classic life and strength into modern formulas, no discrimination of the beauties from the deformities of ancient speculation, but the whole pagan dispensation of the classic era is made the burden of an unconditional panegyric. The days of such advocacy are past. Who would now advance the cause of classical learning must show some practical and definite advantage to accrue from their study, some result that can be weighed and measured. Such relation ship between the past and the present should be established, that from their
combined lights we may discern more clearly our way into the future, for it is the future the Americans are always looking, not enough perhaps to the past, and certainly not enough to the present. Herodotus somewhere tells of a people of Asia, who promised the crown to him who should first behold the break of day. All looked towards the East. One, however, more sagacious than the rest, fixed his eyes in the opposite direction, and while the East was all buried in utter darkness, he discerns in the western horizon the first rays of the harbinger of day lighting up the summit of a distant tower.
We conceive that if we should turn to the past for its instruction and advice, for the same purposes that this shrewd Asiatic turned to the western tower, we may be assisted by it in anticipating the future. We should look at ancient institutions and ancient literature, not to imitate, but more frequently to avoid. To see by the fact of ancient errors, ways and means of preventing their re-appearance Unless approached
in that spirit, the popularity of ancient writers is a curse rather than a benediction.
This is, we believe, substanti lly the public feeling with us, and until the habit of advocating classical studies by indiscriminate praise of what the ancients said and did is abandoned, the public
feeling will not undergo any material change in their favor. So entirely practical, and we think sensible, are the opinions of Americans getting to be, that we are confident no defence of the ancients can ever again elevate them, among the American people, to the dignity of examples or of authorities upon any of the more important questions that agitate modern society. For this reason we do not believe that the work before us, which is conceived throughout in an idolatrous spirit, will materially elevate the condition of classical learning among us. Who, for instance, that has any idea of its true vocation, would think of asking the following question which is presented in the Introduction, with the view of showing the importance of reading the ancients in the original instead of a translation:-"So of law and political science. Who has laid the best foundation for statesmanship, the man that has patiently studied Demosthenes, Thucydides, and Polybius, in the original, or he whose knowledge is made up from Langhorne's Plutarch, and Mitford's jaundiced History ?"
The idea of an American of the nineteenth century studying statesmanship either in Thucydides, or Langhorne's Plutarch, is almost as grotesque, as if he were to set about studying astronomy in Ptolemy's "Great Construction," or botany in the "History of Plants," of Theophrastus.
It is not, then, its direct advocacy of classic learning which gives this book its value, but as showing the achievements of modern German scholarship in that direction, and as presenting some of its most valuable observation and criticism in a language to which we all have access, we welcome this book with our warmest acknowledgments. It is composed chiefly of dissertations and essays upon ancient literature and art, by Jacobs and Hand, and what is to us far more interesting, of a large mass of correspondence upon philological subjects, between some of the greatest philologists probably that the world has ever seen. Among which we may enumerate RHUNKEN, RITTER, ERNESTI, HEYNE, KANT, TYRWHITT, VOSS, WOLF, LARCHER, WITTENBACK, BECK, CREUZER, MATTHIAE, BEKKER, SCHUTZ, HERMANN, PASSOW, and a multitude of others equally distinguished. We are presented with over a hundred of these letters, which have been translated from various collections of their authors' correspondence, and which abound not only in valuable suggestions upon different points of literary interest, but also in all that personal incident which usually
renders the letters of great men the most fascinating portion of their works. In addition to this correspondence, which occupies about one-third of the volume, we have the Inaugural Discourse deliv ered by Jacobs on entering, we presume, upon his professorship at Munich. The subject is "The Study of Classical Antiquity." From the same illustrious critic we have three other very valuable essays. One upon the "Wealth of the Greeks in Works of Plastic Art." Another upon "The Superiority of the Greek Language in the Use of its Dialects," and third, and far the most interesting of them all, upon the "Education of the Moral Sentiment among the Ancient Greeks." We have also here a very profound analytical history of the Latin language by Hand, who ranks among the first Latin scholars in Germany, and succeeded Passon at Weimar, and was afterwards appointed to a professorship in Jena.
These comprehend all the translations in the present volume, but by no means all of its valuable contents. Besides the notes, which give brief but very important biographical notices of all the distinguished scholars whose works and whose letters have been extracted by the editors of this volume, we have two exceedingly useful historic dissertations, one upon the "Schools of German Philology,' by President Sears, and the other upon the "Schools of Philology in Holland," by Professor Edwards. We have no doubt these dissertations will prove to most of the readers of this book, as it has to us, its most instructive and most convenient portion. They have made us for the first time personally acquainted with men whom we have hitherto found it exceeding difficult to invest with any of the ordinary attributes of humanity.
In conclusion, we must say that we have not seen any book of miscellany in a long time, the perusal of which has yielded us so much pleasure. We commend it earnestly to the attention of every man of elevated taste and liberal culture, though we know full well that no recommendation of ours should add currency to any work which comes endorsed by the elegant and accomplished scholars to whose taste, to whose learning, and to whose industry, the public are indebted for the preparation of this. Our only wonder is that they could have permitted such a puerile, unreasonable, trashy "Introduction," to be bound up with the rest of the work. It has no one conceivable claim for a place in such society.
Lectures on Magdalenism; its Nature, Extent, Effects, Guilt, Causes and Remedy. By Rev. RALPH WARDLAW, D.D. Delivered and published by special request of forty ministers of the Gospel, and eleven hundred fellow-Christians. First American from second Glasgow edition. New York: J. S. Redfield, Clinton Hall. Boston: Saxton, Peirce & Co. 1843. 16mo. pp. 172.
We looked into a few of the pages of the earlier chapters of this most painfully interesting little work, till in very sickness of heart, at the portraiture there drawn of the nature, extent and effects of that hideous and awful national disease, we turned from them and sought some relief in that portion which purports to treat of its "remedy." Alas, there is but little comfort to be found there, in the miserably petty expedients of alleviation, which are all it has to suggest! Of what avail your charitable projects and establishments, your Female Refuges, and manifold Moral Reform institutions, while the great root of the evil remains untouched, in that false organisation of society which is for ever keeping down in the dust of degradation, and the starvation of vainly toiling destitution, not only the great majority of the whole human family, but, with a peculiar weight of oppression, its weaker and tenderer half! What avail they all! To individual cases they may doubtless bring incalculable good; and for the sake of those individual cases they are well worthy of all the time, labor and money that benevolence can bestow upon them. But as a "remedy" for the great disease itself -as well undertake the task of emptying the ocean through a goose-quill. However, we have no doubt that a remedy is yet to be brought about, in the develop ment of that Providence whose combined prophecy and instrumentation are found in Christianity; but it will be incidentally attendant upon other social changes, much more than the immediate effect of any of those partial and petty palliatives about which these worthy and pious men busy themselves so zealously. God speed the day on !—and the publication of this work, superficial as it is, as well as of several others of the same general character, within a recent period, (of which that of Parent-Duchatelet is the most remarkable), is one of the influences calculated to advance it, by forcing thousands to that painful and reluctant necessity to which so few yield, namely, to open their eyes and ears, and see and hear a little of all that surrounds every step of their own daily life of comfort and content.
Psychology, or the Embodiment of Thought; with an Analysis of Phreno-Magnetism, Neurology," and Mental Hallucination, including Rules to govern and produce the Magnetic State. By ROBERT H. COLLYER, M. D., Member of Massachusetts Medical Society, &c. Zieber & Co. Philadelphia.
This pamphlet, in the form of a letter to Dr.Winslow Lewis, of Boston, has been elicited by the articles that have appeared in this Review in relation to "Neurology," &c. Its author, well known as a lecturer on Animal Magnetism, denies to either Dr. Buchanan, or to the Rev. La Roy Sunderland, the merit of having been the first to discover the separate excitability of the different phrenological organs of the brain. Dr. Collyer shows that he performed similar experiments, on patients in the mesmeric state, as early as May 15th, 1841, before large public audiences in Boston, the idea having been suggested by Dr. Shattuck of that city. Mr. Sunderland's discovery of the same fact was not till August 5th. Dr. Collyer states, however, that he has subsequently abandoned that ground, being satisfied that the effects are produced mesmerically by the operation of the will of the person acting. He therefore attacks Dr. Buchanan's peculiar theory of "Neurology," as imaginary and false. He states a number of striking mesmeric effects produced by him before large audiences; dwelling particularly on that of the injection of the thought of one brain into that of another person in a manner similar to some of the wellknown performances of oriental magic. Those interested in these curious subjects of inquiry will do well to look at his pamphlet, which may be had at the office of the Sun, in New York, and of Redding & Co., Boston.
Bankrupt Stories. Edited by HARRY
This very clever tale, by one of our cleverest tale writers, which originally appeared in the Knickerbocker, is now republished in numbers, as the commencement of a series designed to extend to eight or ten other stories, under a general title which is certainly calculated to commend them to a very numerous class of readers, at the same time that it will afford a wide range for materials of the most exciting interest. One recommendation they have, in addition to their own
intrinsic merit, which in these latter days is worthy of particular mention,-that while very cheap in price, they are well printed, in a large clear type and fair white paper; so that when a few years hence every third person to be met will be suffering from disease in the eyes, their publisher at least will feel his conscience free from the responsibility of having contributed to the national ophthalmia.
The Pomological Magazine. By CHARLES W. ELLIOTT. Cincinnati: Published by U. P. James. June, 1843.
This is the first number of a bi-monthly periodical which can scarcely fail to prove highly acceptable to all who interest themselves in the cultivation of fruits. It is to be devoted exclusively to the culture of choice fruits, each number containing five engravings of such, with descriptions, and two pages of other matter, consisting of short essays upon the history, culture, and diseases of fruit trees, drawn from the best experience. The fruits contained in the present number are the Beurre D'Aremberg Pear, the Washington Plum, the Baldwin Apple, the Elton Cherry, and the Detroit Apple. Its editor is a gentleman of fine intelligence and accomplishment, whom the more congenial attractions of country life have withdrawn from the crowd of cities, to the cultivation of those pursuits which have peculiarly qualified him for the editorship of the present publication. The agents of the work in New York are Wiley & Putnam; and we feel fully assured that it will well repay its subscription price (two dollars a year) to all who may feel interested in taking a work of this character.
Gardening for Ladies; and Companion to the Flower-Garden. By Mrs. LOUDON. First American, from the third London Edition. Edited by A. J. DOWNING, Author of A Treatise on Landscape Gardening, Cottage Residences, &c. New York: Wiley & Putnam. 1843. 12mo. pp. 347.
This is just the book that was wanted by many thousands of fair horticulturists,
anxious to indulge the beautiful taste and healthful enjoyment to which, as its title imports, it is designed to minister, yet sadly deficient in that practical combined with scientific knowledge, necessary to make its labors at once successful and agreeable. In the preface, it is planned and arranged precisely for those who know but little if anything on the subject, yet would desire both to know and to do a great deal,-the author having herself found herself in that exact situation, on her marriage with a gentleman well known by his publications to be mainly absorbed in this and kindred pursuits. is illustrated with a great number of instructive drawings; and its American Editor, by thus bringing it out, has added largely to the public gratitude to which his own former works had so well entitled him.
The Complete Poetical Works of John Milion; with Explanatory Notes, and a Life of the Author, by the Rev. H. Stebbing, A. M.; to which is prefixed Dr. Channing's Essay on the Poetical Genius of Millon. New York: D. Appleton & Co., 200 Broadway. Philadelphia: George S. Appleton, 148 Chestnut-st. 1843. 12mo. pp. 562.
The Appletons have here added Milton to their cheap series of the Classic Poets, in the same neat and compendious form with those already before the public, Cowper, Scott, and Burns. We can only bid them go on and "be not weary in well doing."
Literary news for the month is comparatively unimportant; the following comprise its principal items :-The new production by Mrs. Ellis, announced in our previous number, has just appeared, printed uniformly with the beautiful library edition of this popular writer's former works, by the Langleys. It is entitled, "A Voice from the Vintage, on the Force of Example, addressed to those who think and feel." No person we suppose will have failed to possess himself of a copy of this charming little work, and we need only say, that the Publishers have added to its charms by the elegant garb in which it is ushered forth to the American public. The same firm have also just published, uniform with the other works of this favorite writer, "Poetry of Life," a work of great beauty, and that which first laid the foundation for the great popularity which has attended all her after productions The forthcoming work by Dr. Pereira, on "Food and Diet, &c.," edited by Dr. C. A. Lee, is progressing, and will probably be completed before we issue our next Number. This book, about which we hear considerable speculation in the scientific world, is said to be one of high expectations and interest. The same firm are printing this work in elegant style; they are also on the eve of issuing the First Number of a New Medical Periodical, to be styled "The New York Journal of Medicine, &c.," edited by Samuel Forry, M.D., a writer who has rendered himself eminent among his professional brethren by his elaborated philosophical productions on the laws of climates, &c. One of the most unique and attractive forthcoming productions will be the Life of the octogenarian chief, General Jackson, by Amos Kendall. The work is to be compiled under the supervision and inspection of the General, who will impart much important elucidation to documents of value to the nation, which would otherwise possibly fail to interest the reader.
Adams's beautifully illuminated Bible
is soon to appear; 150 of the plates have been handed in to the Publishers, (Harper & Brothers), and although we think it questionable taste
to print the edition in the obsolete form of folio, as well as to incorporate the Apocrypha, it will certainly notwithstanding prove a a magnificent work of art, from the specimens we have seen of the designs of Chapman and Adams. It is certes a great day for Biblical embellishments. Two other works of a kindred class are on the tapis. One is Redfield's edition of the "London Pictorial Bible," which is to be completed in 16 Numbers, price twentyfive cents each. This will be the cheapest illustrated Bible ever offered to the American public; and as the embellishments which number something over a thousand, are fac-similies of the celebrated London edition, which cost about four times the sum, we suppose few will disregard such an opportunity for securing a copy of the work. The other work to which we allude is, Sears'"New and Complete History of the Bible," deduced from the labors of the most renowned biblical scholars of all countries, incorporated with numerous original and curious embellishments, engraved by the first artists. This work will be peculiar and highly attractive; it will not only form an admirably illustrated Commentary of the sacred text-the quintessence of the ablest writers on the subjects extant, but it will also present one of the most valuable contributions to religious literature which has perhaps ever appeared. It is to be comprised in about 1000 pages, 8vo., and will be ready during the present month. Sears' excellent "Family Magazine," still progresses with signal success; its pages are rife with the best cullings from the best writers on every variety of useful and instructive reading. Riker of this city has just produced a very a dmirable little manual, entitled "A School Dictionary of Roots and Derivatives, designed to train Children in Tracing the Origin of Words," by Theodore Dwight, Jr. We commend this work to the especial notice of teachers generally, who will find in it much that is curious and labor-saving in the instruction of youth. The same publisher has nearly ready, a new and elegant Annual, called The Opal, to be embellished with nine Plates, and the contributions by the ablest American writers.