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democracy. Even American Catholicism is too liberal for the Quebec ecclesiastic. Nor does the sentimental affinity of the educated American for modern France win over the French Canadian, for he disapproves the very ideals of France which America admires. The American glories in his progressiveness, the French-Canadian lives on the authority of tradition. The latter holds the former at arm's length as a menace to his security; to the former Quebec is a picturesque corner of medieval Europe in a bleak northland, delightful merely for a summer tour. And

yet for nearly a century Quebec has seen her sons drawn without ceasing by the lure of the United States, and the stream still flows across the border though in smaller volume. Emigration began as long ago as 1834, and from that time until the present the movement has been so great that there are now said to be, on good authority, not less than 1,750,000 people of French-Canadian origin in the United States, and according to the United States census 307,800 of them Canadian born. Nearly 75 per cent. are to be found in New England settled in solid blocks in the industrial towns such as Fall River, Lawrence, Lowell, New Bedford, Haverhill, Worcester, where they are employed especially in cotton and shoe factories. True to type, they have large families and they now constitute one-seventh of the population of New England; they have acquired

great influence in some localities as they are naturally hard-working, thrifty, peaceful, and opposed to labour strikes. Though they are law-abiding citizens and all but a small percentage have become naturalized, the French-Canadians have been so far like an unassimilable deposit upon the soil of New England. They are the most conservative of all new-comers. Race, language, the mystical bonds of religion and tradition attach them to one another and to their kinsfolk on the banks of the St Lawrence, where lies their homeland spiritualized by the song, legend and labours of their fathers, consecrated by their piety and tradition. Even in New England the FrenchCanadian desires to keep not only his church, but his school and if possible his language. Will he be able to wrest these concessions from the politicians? If so, Quebec may reach down into New England and impose upon portions of that region a culture older than her own, as she has already done in the Englishspeaking eastern townships of the province and is now doing in some of the counties of New Brunswick and Ontario. There is, however, a counteractive influence at work in the efforts that are being put forth by many of the ecclesiastical and nationalist leaders to divert the tide of emigration into northern Ontario, and even to bring back home some of those who have crossed into New England. That these efforts have met with no little success may be inferred from the decided decrease during the last decade in the number of French Canadian-born residents of the United States, as shown by the census.

Notwithstanding this extension of Quebec into New England, the reciprocal influence of New England upon Quebec is almost negligible, apart from such transmission due to commercial establishments as is found in Montreal and in the shrinking English-speaking portions of the eastern townships.

If the wedge of Quebec were withdrawn, the Maritime provinces and Ontario would easily coalesce into a remarkably homogeneous population. Their origins are very similar; in the main a loyalist substratum with a superstructure of immigration from Great Britain. In Nova Scotia, however, there had been settlements from New England, the north of Ireland and Scotland before the American Revolution. Even the Canadian is apt to forget that within his own borders there is one community of white men which has existed for a longer time than any in the original English-speaking colonies. Port Royal, now the charming little town of Annapolis Royal in Nova Scotia, was founded in 1605, three years before Champlain first came to Quebec. Round its old fort were waged many battles between the French and the English, and long drawn out was the resistance of the Acadians. Francis Parkman has invested their history with romance, though he has also told it wit

the accuracy of a scientific investigator. If his ancestors in New England joined in the attacks upon the French in Acadia, he has made noble amends by the way

in which he has immortalized their story. After the expulsion of the Acadians in 1755, their vacant farms were occupied by colonists from Massachusetts and Connecticut, and to this day there is to be found along the shores of Minas Basin and in the valleys of the Cornwallis and the Annapolis rivers in Nova Scotia a genuine bit of old New England. American fishermen also had settled on the rugged southern shores, and their descendants have names like those that are to-day familiar on Cape Cod. In all these parts a generation later“Sam Slick"found himself at home.

When the Revolution broke out these Americans caused no little anxiety to the British Government by reason of their restiveness and occasional uprisings stimulated by agents provocateurs from the rebellious colonies. They were under cross fires. Their revolting kinsfolk despised them for their apathy, and privateers and even ships of war ravaged their hamlets and destroyed their trade; the British forced the oath of allegiance upon them and constrained them to take up arms in the royal cause; but had it not been for the garrison in Halifax, Nova Scotia would probably have fallen to the New England states, so few were the English, Irish and Scottish inhabitants at that time. The importance of these settlements in the history of the Dominion lies not so much in the part that their descendants have played, as in their having formed a nucleus for the coming into being of English-speaking Canada. Had not Nova Scotia remained steadfast to Britain, whither could the loyalists have gone? How, then, would an Englishspeaking Canada have been created ?

As has been already remarked, a common substratum of loyalism underlies the English-speaking population of Ontario and the Maritime provinces. It may, perhaps, be not too much to say that the loyalists have been the most influential element in the history of these provinces; at least in the order of time it has been so, for they were the founders of New Brunswick and of Upper Canada, and until this day the traditions of loyalism so pervade sections of eastern Canada that in some measure they determine the attitude of the country to the United States.

But loyalism has also left a permanent mark on the character of the American people. The persecution and extrusion of the loyalists reacted upon those who wronged them. Not only was a distinctive type of character with its ideals lost to the American democracy, but by the fault of human nature the American grew embittered against the injured exiles when he saw them struggling to their feet in a new home on his northern frontier, a nuisance, he believed, if not a danger, with which in time he would have to deal.

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