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speeches which he made at various places in response to the addresses presented to him, forms a considerable portion of the Memoir. These impromptu speeches contain many beautiful passages and are full of Mr. Seward's peculiar sentiments.

The ORATIONS and ADDRESSES, following the Memoir, are among the most valuable productions of their author's fertile mind. They are entitled, The Destiny of America; The True Basis of American Independence; The Physical, Moral and Intellectual Development of the American People; and The Pilgrims and Liberty.

A BIOGRAPHY OF DE WITT CLINTON, Occupies the next twenty pages of the volume. This is an original paper,' prepared with that just appreciation of its subject which Mr. Seward is known to entertain. It gives more clearly than any biography, yet written, of that illustrious man, the political springs which moved his public life.

POLITICAL SPEECHES, is the title of the next division of the volume. The limits of a Preface will allow but a passing allusion to any of the contents of the volume. We can only, therefore, call attention to these speeches-some twenty in number, beginning with the advent of the Republican party, in 1854, and extending through the campaigns of 1856, 1858 and 1860-as containing the history and philosophy of the great party which now governs the country.

The SPEECHES IN THE SENATE OF THE UNITED STATES, embraced in this volume, present an eloquent and vivid history of the Kansas struggle from its inception in 1854, when Mr. Douglas introduced the bill to organize the territory, to the final success of Freedom in 1861, when the Senate by a decisive vote admitted the new state into the Union.

Mr. Seward's latest speeches, on THE STATE OF THE UNION, conclude the volume.

His speeches in the Senate, with those before the people in their primary assemblies, make a text book from which the richest instruc

1 A portion of it appears also in the New American Cyclopedia.

tions may be drawn in the new Era upon which our country is just entering.

Perhaps the criticism that in some quarters greeted the earlier volumes may salute this-that herein is Mr. Seward proven to be an Agitator. But History vindicates the agitator, from Paul to Luther and from Luther to the century of Romilly, Wilberforce and Jefferson. That Mr. Seward has been an Agitator to no purpose will hardly, now, be contended, if the to-day at Washington be contrasted with the morning when the Atherton resolutions were introduced into the House, or with the hour when Mr. Seward, almost alone, confronted an unbroken column of pro-slavery senators.

Nevertheless, as Mr. Seward himself has said, the verdict is not to be looked for in the passing hour. "There is Yet in that word Hereafter."

Neither, is this the place for vindication or eulogy, if any were needed. The four volumes speak for themselves.

In those before published, appear Mr. Seward's Orations and Discourses; his Occasional Addresses and Speeches; his Notes on New York and Executive Messages; his Forensic Arguments and Political Writings; his Correspondence with the Virginia and Georgia Governors, and his Letters from Europe in 1833; his Speeches in the Senate of New York, and in the Senate of the United States.

The friendly zeal which has prepared these volumes, may have given place or prominence to some sentiments and speeches which a timid policy would have suppressed. In similar collections an Index Expurgatorius, it is charged, has been allowed to swallow up the living issues of the day.

But the Works of William H. Seward could not escape an injunction writ from their primary author, unless the boldness and frankness of his thoughts had faithfully manipulated the types.

Mr. Seward's sentences are all so full of the inspiration of Liberty and Justice, and so like aphorisms, that it is difficult to abbreviate

or to suppress a page without loss to the public or injustice to the author's fame. Therefore, what at first may appear to be an editor's purpose to swell the size of the volume, will, on a closer view, be found a necessity.'

In the State Library at Albany, within the past year, has been erected the marble bust of the Ex-Governor and Senator of New York. It is midway between the alcove of History and Philosophy, and its gaze is directed at that immense compilation of brain laborthe Edinburgh Review. A lady visitor, who was stranger to the place and face, pausing before it said, "Here beams in expression, thought, benevolence, earnestness and devotion to principle."

When the partisan rancor and political schisms of to-day shall have subsided, when prejudice shall have given place to candor, the Muse of History, we believe, will say the same of these volumes, and of those which time may add.


March 4, 1861.

Another volume like the present will be required for the speeches yet remaining in the editor's hands, unpublished. Several important speeches intended for this volume, and to which references are made in the Memoir, are unavoidably crowded out. An APPENDIX to the present volume contains the eloquent speeches made at the Chicago Convention; the Platform; and also the addresses of welcome presented to Mr. Seward on his visit to the Western States.



13 A Retrospect, 13—The Struggle for Freedom in 1850, 15—Mr. Seward's Course, 16-Death of President Taylor, 19-The Compromisers Triumphant, 20-Nominations of General Scott and Frank Pierce, 21-Defeat of the Whigs and Supposed Overthrow of Mr. Seward, 22-Oration at Columbus, and Address before the American Institute, 23-The Repeal of the Missouri Compromise, 24-Mr. Seward's Speeches, 27-The New England Clergymen, 29-The Pacific Railroad and the Homestead Law, 31-The Fugitive Slave Act, 32-Mr. Seward's Reëlection, 33— The Plymouth Oration, 36-Aggressive Acts of Slavery, 36-Kansas Affairs, 37The Assault on Charles Sumner, 40-Organization of the Republican Party, 41Presidential Election of 1856, 43-Fulfillment of Mr. Seward's Prophecy, 44—The Atlantic Telegraph, 45-The Tariff Assailed, 46-The Dred Scott Decision, 47— Reconstruction of the Supreme Court, 49-Duties on Railroad Iron, 50-The Lecompton Matter, 50-The English Bill, 53-Oregon and Minnesota, 54-Mormons and Fillibusters, 55-The Elections of 1858, 56-Mr. Seward's Irrepressible Conflict Speech, 56-Cuba, Kansas and the Pacific Railroad, 57-The Homestead Bill, 58The Indiana Senators, 60-Acquisition of Cuba, 61-Overland Mails, 61—Mr. Seward Visits Europe and the Holy Land-Departure and Return, 63—Captain John Brown takes Harper's Ferry, 68-The Elections of 1859, 69-Death of Broderick, 70-Election of Speaker-The Impending Crisis, 70-Mr. Seward's Great Speech in the Senate, February 29, 1860, 71-The Spring Elections of 1860, favorable, 73-Presidental Nominations and Platforms, 74-The Republican Convention at Chicago, 76-The Ballot, 77-Mr. Seward's Cordial Approval of the Candidates and Platform, 78-His Visit to New England, Reception Speeches, 81— Enters the Canvass for Mr. Lincoln, 84-Remarkable Tour and Speeches through the West-DETROIT, 84-LANSING, 85-KALAMAZOO, 89-MADISON, 90-LA CROSSE, 93-ST. PAUL, 94-DUBUQUE, 96—In Missouri-CHILLICOTHE, 97-ST. JOSEPH, 98-In Kansas-LEAVENWORTH, 100-LAWRENCE, 101-LEAVENWORTh, 102—ATCHISON, 103-In Missouri, again-Sr. Louis, 106-In Illinois-SPRINGFIELD, Abraham Lincoln, 107-CHICAGO, 108-CLEVELAND, Ohio, 110-Buffalo, 111-AUBURN, 113-End of Campaign, 113-Result, 114-Celebration of Victory, 115-Admission of Kansas-Secretary of State-Speeches on Secession and the State of the Union, 117.



Oration at Columbus, Ohio, September 14, 1853-The Destiny of America, 121.
Address before the American Institute, New York, October 20, 1853-The True
Basis of American Independence, 144.

Address before the Phi Beta Kappa Society of Yale College, New Haven, July 26,
1854--The Physical, Moral and Intellectual Development of the American People, 160.
Oration on Forefathers' Day, at Plymouth, Massachusetts, December 21, 1855-The
Pilgrims and Liberty, 179-Speech at the Dinner, 203.



Birth and Parentage-George Clinton-Political Relations-The Council of Appointment, 209-John Jay-Party Spirit-Slavery-Mayor of New York, 211-Hamilton, Burr, Lewis and Tompkins-Candidate for President, 213-Projects the Canal, 216-A Private Citizen in Adversity-Elected Governor, 219-His Administration-Death.



The Advent of the Republican Party: The Privileged Class, Albany, October 12, 1855, 225-The Contest and the Crisis, Buffalo, October 19, 1855, 241-The Dominant Class in the Republic, Detroit, October 2, 1856, 253-The Political Parties of the Day, Auburn, October 21, 1856, 276-The Irrepressible Conflict, Rochester, October 25,1858, 289-The National Divergence and Return, Detroit, September 4, 1860, 303-Democracy the Chief Element of Government, Madison, September 12, 1860, 319-The Constitution Interpreted-an Extract-Madison, September 11, 1860, 329-Political Equality the National Idea, St. Paul, September, 1860, 330—The National Idea; Its Perils and Triumphs, Chicago, October 3, 1860, 348-The Republican Policy and the one Idea, Dubuque, September 21, 1860, 368-Young Men and the Future-an Extract-Cleveland, October 4, 1860, 384—Kansas the Savior of Freedom, Lawrence, September 26, 1860, 385-The Policy of the Fathers of the Republic, Seneca Falls, October 31, 1860, 397-Trade in Slaves-an Extract-La Crosse, September 14, 1860, 409-The Republican Party and Secession, New York, November 2, 1860, 410-Disunion and Secession-Extract-La Crosse, September 14, 1860, 421—The Night before the Election, Auburn, November 5, 1860, 422— The Past and the Future-Extract-Cleveland, October 4, 1860, 430.



Nebraska and Kansas-Freedom and Public Faith-Repeal of the Missouri Compromise, February 17, 1854, 433. Second Speech, the night of the final passage of the Nebraska-Kansas Bill, May 25, 1854, 464. The Immediate Admission of Kansas-Emigrant Aid Societies-Elections and Laws-Impeachment of the Presi dent-Compromises and Disunion, April 9, 1856, 479. Kansas Usurpations— Speech against Mr. Douglas's second Enabling Bill and in Favor of the Immediate VOL. IV.


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