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place from whence it came, which certificates are to be given by the officers of the place whence it came in the customary form. The neutral vessel cannot be detained for want of the aforesaid requirements, nor of any other respecting the ownership or the nature of its cargo, if the declaration of war was not known at the place whence it came before its departure.

XX. It has been further agreed, that the courts established for prize cases in the country to which the prizes may be brought, shall alone take cognizance thereof. And whenever the said courts of either of the parties shall pass sentence against any vessel or goods, or property claimed by the citizens of the other, the sentence or decree shall mention the reasons or grounds on which it is founded, and shall deliver, without any delay, to the commander or agent of the said vessel, if it be asked for, an authentic voucher of the sentence or decree, or of the whole proceedings, on payment of the legal fees.

XXI. For the greater security of the citizens of the Contracting Republics, it has been agreed that if, unfortunately, there should at any time occur any interruption of the commercial and friendly correspondence or any breach between them, the citizens of either of the two Contracting Parties residing in the dominions of the other shall have the right of remaining and continuing in the exercise of their calling without any kind of interruption, so long as they conduct themselves peaceably and do not infringe the laws; and their goods and properties, whether confided to private persons or to the State, shall not be subject to seizure or sequestration, nor to any other burthens than those which may be imposed on similar goods or properties belonging to citizens of the country in which they reside.

XXII. The Diplomatic Agents of both parties shall enjoy the same favours, immunities, exemptions, and privileges as are conceded, or may hereafter be conceded, by any of the Contracting Republics to the Diplomatic Agents of the most favoured nation.

XXIII. The Contracting Parties may establish Consuls and Vice-Consuls in the ports and places of the respective territories, open to foreign commerce, wherein those of any other nation are admitted, or may hereafter be admitted; and they shall enjoy the rights and privileges which are generally conceded by the law of nations to functionaries of that class. The archives and papers of the Consulates shall be inviolably respected, and no magistrate shall seize them under any pretext, nor interfere with them in any way.

XXIV. The said Consuls and Vice-Consuls of each of the Contracting Parties shall have the right of acting as judges or arbitrators in the disputes which may occur between the masters or captains and the crews of the vessels of the nation whose interests they

have under their charge, without the intervention of the local authorities; unless the conduct of the crews, or of their captains might disturb the order and tranquillity of the country, or that the aforesaid Consuls and Vice-Consuls should require the assistance of those authorities for the execution and support of their judgments. But it is understood that this kind of judgments, or arbitrations, does not deprive the litigating parties of their right to appeal on their return, to the tribunals of their own nation.

XXV. The said Consuls shall have the power of requiring the assistance of the local authorities for the apprehension, detention, and custody of deserters from the vessels of their country, and for this purpose they shall apply to the competent authorities, and shall claim the said deserters in writing, proving by the exhibition of the registers of the vessels, the roll of the crew, or other public documents, that those men formed part of the said crews, and the claim being thus proved, their delivery shall not be denied. Such deserters, as soon as they have been apprehended, shall be placed at the disposal of the said Consuls, and they may be confined in the public prisons, at the care and expense of those who have claimed them, in order to be sent on board the vessels to which they belong, or others of the same nation. But if they should not be sent away within 4 months, reckoned from the day of their apprehension, they shall be set at liberty, and they cannot be apprehended again for the same


XXVI. If any one or more of the citizens of either party should infringe any of the Articles contained in this Treaty, the said citizens shall be personally responsible, and the harmony and good understanding between the respective Governments shall not be thereby interrupted, each party undertaking not to protect the offender in any way, nor to sanction such violation.

XXVII. If, though in truth it is not to be expected, any one or more of the Articles contained in the present Treaty should be in any other way infringed or violated, it is expressly stipulated that neither of the two Contracting Parties shall order or authorize any acts of reprisal, nor shall declare war against the other, on complaints of injuries or damages, until the party which thinks itself injured shall have presented to the other a statement of such injuries or damages, verified by sufficient proofs and vouchers, requiring justice and satisfaction, and these have been denied or deferred without reason.

XXVIII. The present Treaty shall be of perpetual obligation in all that relates to peace and friendship; and on those points relating to commerce and navigation, it shall remain in force and vigour for the term of 12 years, reckoned from the date of the exchange of the ratifications. Notwithstanding the aforesaid, if neither of the parties


should notify to the other, one year before the expiration of the said term of validity, that its intention is to put an end to the Treaty, it shall continue always obligatory on both parties, until one year after notice has been given of the said intention.

XXIX. Although the present Treaty is common to the 3 Hanseatic Republics of Hamburg, Lubeck, and Bremen, it has also been agreed that the Sovereign Governments of those cities shall not be jointly responsible, and that the stipulations of the Treaty shall remain in full vigour relatively to the other of the said Republics, although it should cease to be so in regard to any one of them.

XXX. When the present Treaty of Friendship, Commerce, and Navigation, shall have been ratified by His Excellency the President, or by the magistrate having charge of the Executive Power of the Republic of Venezuela, with the previous assent and approval of the Congress thereof, and by the Senates of the Hanseatic Republics, the ratifications shall be exchanged at Caracas, within the space of 12 months, or before, if possible.

In faith whereof, we, the Plenipotentiaries of the Parties, have signed and sealed these presents.

Done in the city of Caracas, on the 31st of March, 1860.




ACCESSION of the Grand Duke of Hesse to the Conventions, concluded May 13, 1846,* and June 14, 1855,† between Great Britain and Prussia, for the Establishment of International Copyright. Signed at Berlin, November 19, 1861.

SA Majesté la Reine du Royaume Uni de la Grande Bretagne et d'Irlande, et Sa Majesté le Roi de Prusse, ayant conclu à Berlin, le 13 Mai, 1846, une Convention pour la protection réciproque des droits d'auteur contre la contrefaçon; et l'Article VIII de cette Convention ayant stipulé que ceux des Etats Germaniques qui composent avec la Prusse l'Association de Douanes Allemande, ou qui par la suite en deviendraient parties, auraient le droit d'accéder à la dite Convention, complétée plus tard par la Convention Additionnelle du 14 Juin, 1855;

Et Son Altesse Royale le Grand Duc de Hesse désirant profiter de l'occasion qui lui est offerte d'accéder à la susdite Convention du 13 Mai, 1846, comme à la Convention Additionnelle du 14 Juin, 1855;

Les Plénipotentiaires respectifs, savoir:

De la part de Sa Majesté la Reine du Royaume Uni de la Grande

* Vol. XXXIV. Page 4.

+ Vol. XLV. Page 11.


Bretagne et d'Irlande, le Très Honorable Lord Augustus Loftus, Envoyé Extraordinaire et Ministre Plénipotentiaire de Sa Majesté Britannique près Sa Majesté le Roi de Prusse;

De la part de Sa Majesté le Roi de Prusse, le Sieur Albrecht Comte de Bernstorff, son Ministre d'Etat et des Affaires Etrangères ;

Et de la part de Son Altesse Royale ie Grand Duc de Hesse, le Sieur François Arnauld de Biegeleben, son Envoyé Extraordinaire et Ministre Plénipotentiaire près la Cour de Prusse;

Se sont réunis afin de constater en due forme l'accession de Son Altesse Royale le Grand Duc de Hesse, ainsi que l'acceptation par Sa Majesté Britannique et par Sa Majesté Prussienne de la dite


En conséquence, le Plénipotentiaire de Son Altesse Royale le Grand Duc de Hesse déclare, en vertu de ses pleins pouvoirs, que Sa dite Altesse Royale accède, tant à la Convention du 13 Mai, 1846, renfermant 10 Articles, et dont une copie imprimée se trouve annexée au présent Acte, qu'aux dispositions particulières contenues dans les §§ 1-1 du Protocole séparé, également ci-jointe en copie et signé le même jour, et à la Convention Additionnelle du 14 Juin, 1855, dont une copie est jointe au présent Acte; promettant que les stipulations de ces deux Conventions, qui deviendront obligatoires pour le Grand Duché de Hesse à partir du 1 Avril, 1862, ainsi que celles du Protocole séparé, seront exécutées par Son Altesse Royale le Grand Duc de Hesse en tous points, en tant qu'elles sont applicables aux rapports dans lesquels le Gouvernement Hessois se trouve vis-à-vis du Gouvernement Britannique et de ses sujets; et déclarant que les ouvrages Anglais inscrits, en vertu de l'Article 11 de la Convention du 13 Mai, 1846, au registre tenu à Berlin, auront droit aussi à la protection contre la contrefaçon dans le Grand Duché de Hesse.

Les Plénipotentiaires de Sa Majesté la Reine du Royaume Uni de la Grande Bretagne et d'Irlande, et de Sa Majesté le Roi de Prusse, en vertu de leurs pleins pouvoirs, acceptant l'accession de Son Altesse Royale le Grand Duc de Hesse; promettant que les stipulations de la Convention du 13 Mai, 1816, et celles de la Convention Additionnelle du 14 Juin, 1855, ainsi que les dispositions particulières du Protocole du 13 Mai, 1846, seront exécutées par leurs Souverains respectifs en tous points vis-à-vis du Gouvernement Hessois et de ses sujets, comme entre les Gouvernements Britannique et Prussien et leurs sujets; le Plénipotentiaire de Sa Majesté le Roi de Prusse déclarant en outre, que le Gouvernement Prussien se chargera de faire part promptement au Gouvernement Hessois de tout enregistrement et de toute déposition d'ouvrages littéraires ou artistiques Anglais qui ont eu ou auront lieu à Berlin à partir du 1 Avril, 1862.

En foi de quoi les Plénipotentiaires respectifs ont signé le présent Acte, et y ont apposé le cachet de leurs armes. Fait à Berlin, le 19 Novembre, de l'an de grace, 1861.



TRAITE d'Amitié, de Commerce, et de Navigation, entre la Belgique et les lles Hawaiiennes.-Conclu à Bruxelles, le 4 Octobre, 1862.

[Ratifications échangée à Londres, le 12 Mars, 1864.]

SA Majesté le Roi des Belges, d'une part, et Sa Majesté le Roi des Iles Hawaiiennes, d'autre part, voulant faciliter l'établissement des relations de commerce entre la Belgique et les Iles Hawaiiennes et en favoriser le développement par un Traité d'Amitié, de Commerce et de Navigation propre à assurer aux deux pays des avantages égaux et réciproques, ont nommé à cet effet pour leurs Plénipotentiaires, savoir:

Sa Majesté le Roi des Belges, le Sieur Charles Rogier, son Ministre des Affaires Etrangères, Grand Officier de l'Ordre de Léopold, &c.

Et Sa Majesté le Roi des lles Hawaiiennes, Sir John Bowring, son Envoyé Extraordinaire et Ministre Plénipotentiaire,

Lesquels, après s'être communiqué leurs pouvoirs et les avoir trouvés en bonne et due forme, sont convenus des Articles suivants:

ART. I. Il y aura paix perpétuelle et amitié constante entre le royaume de Belgique et celui des Iles Hawaiiennes, et entre les citoyens des deux pays, sans exception de personnes ni de lieux.

II. Il y aura, entre la Belgique et les Iles Hawaiiennes, liberté réciproque de commerce et de navigation. Les Belges dans les Iles Hawaiiennes et les sujets Hawaiiens en Belgique, pourront en toute liberté et sécurité entrer avec leurs navires et cargaisons, comme les nationaux eux-mêmes, dans tous les lieux, ports et rivières qui sont ou seront ouverts au commerce étranger, sauf les précautions de police employées à l'égard des citoyens des nations les plus favorisées.

III. Les citoyens de chacune des deux Parties Contractantes. pourront, comme les nationaux, sur les territoires respectifs, voyager ou séjourner, commercer en gros ou en détail, louer ou occuper les maisons, magasins et boutiques qui leur seront nécessaires, effectuer

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