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whether belonging to one or the other of these classes, is entitled to all the benefits of the Treaty, while he obeys the laws. If he fails to comply with this condition, he forfeits the protection which he might otherwise claim, and becomes liable to suffer the penalty of the law which he has broken; but if, without such forfeiture, he is unjustly wronged in his person or his property, he is entitled to full redress for such wrongs, by whomsoever committed. This is the rule which the President expects to be applied in the case of Mr. Ernst, and you will accordingly demand his immediate discharge from his compulsory service, and full reparation for whatever injury he has suffered either in person or property. It is due, also, to the friendly relations which exist between Hanover and The United States that an occurrence like this should be rendered, by such wise provisions as may be found necessary for the purpose, impossible in the future, and that thus the harmony and good understanding which now happily subsist between them may not be disturbed hereafter by any similar cause.

Mr. Ernst is represented to be now serving at Nordheim, in the third regiment of Hanoverian infantry. I inclose the description of his person, which accompanied his application for a passport. I am, &c.

J. A. Wright, Esq.

LEWIS CASS.

No. 54.-Mr. Wright to Mr. Cass.

(Extract.)

Berlin, August 6, 1859.

THE Minister of Foreign Affairs has advised me, to-day, that the Prince Regent has granted a full pardon to Francis A. Hoffmann, as contemplated by my despatch. Mr. Hoffmann left this country without performing his military duty, after he was 20 years of age, and settled in Illinois. Since then he has been a member of the Legislature and a candidate for Lieutenant-Governor of the said State. He returned to Prussia, and spent several days, during this year, in Berlin, and in the place of his birth, yet he was not disturbed, and now he receives a full pardon.

It is evident that this Government does not wish to have any difficulty with The United States on the question of military service, and is disposed to yield in individual cases; but it will make great opposition to surrendering the principle involved.

In my opinion, the prompt stand taken by the President in the case of Christian Ernst, upon the principle involved in his case, will triumph. I should be pleased to receive a copy of the unanswerable opinion of the Attorney-General in the case of Christian Ernst. Hon. Lewis Cass. JOSEPH. A. WRIGHT.

SIR,

No. 55.-Mr. Wright to Mr. Cass. Berlin, August 10, 1859. I HAVE the honour to forward herewith copies of the correspondence with Baron Reitzenstein, the Chargé d'Affaires of His Majesty the King of Hanover at this court, during the absence of the Minister Plenipotentiary of Hanover, in reference to the release of Christian Ernst from the Hanoverian army.

Mr. Butler, of his own accord, and at his own expense, has visited Ernst, at Nordheim, notwithstanding that Baron Reitzenstein and the Minister of Foreign Affairs of Prussia endeavoured to dissuade him from what they considered "a dangerous errand.”

The details which he then obtained, being found important in the treatment of this case, they have been set forth in the communication which is dated the 9th. I am now momentarily expecting the Chargé's reply.

It is not true, as stated by many of the American newspapers, that "there are several American citizens in the Prussian army." I know of none. John Statz's case, reported by my predecessor, was the last, and it is believed that he is now released.

I have, &c.

Hon. Lewis Cass.

JOSEPH A. WRIGHT.

(Inclosure 1.)-Mr. Wright to Baron Reitzenstein, the Chargé d'Affaires pro tempore of his Majesty the King of Hanover, at the Court of Berlin.

M. LE BARON,

Berlin, August 6, 1859.

HAVING had the honour to read to you upon yesterday, the 5th instant, the despatch from my Government concerning the case of Christian Ernst, a citizen of The United States, who is now being forced to serve in the army of His Majesty the King of Hanover, and to request that you will apply immediately to your Government for full powers to treat this case with me, I being now authorized by my Government, I have the honour to comply with your request to furnish you with a copy of said despatch, herewith annexed, and to beg that you will call the immediate attention of your Government to its matter. I seize this occasion, &c.

Baron Reitzenstein.

JOSEPH A. WRIGHT.

(Inclosure 2.)—Mr. Wright to Baron Reitzenstein.

M. LE BARON,

Berlin, August 11, 1859. SINCE my several interviews with you in reference to the discharge of Christian Ernst from the Hanoverian army, I have been made acquainted with additional facts connected with his arrest and treatment through so authoritative a source that I feel it my duty

to submit them to your Government, through you, for their immediate consideration.

I am advised that at the time of the arrest of Christian Ernst, at the town of Peine, in the Kingdom of Hanover, he was rudely deprived of his passport, and of some of 160 rix-thalers, which he had about his person; also, that he was placed in the common prison; during and from two to three days each, of the towns of Peine, Hanover, Nordheim, where he was made to eat the food and keep the company of criminals, until he was forced by 4 men to put on the uniform of the Hanoverian infantry. Christian Ernst left Hanover when 19 years of age, before he had ever received an intimation of any duty to serve in its army. He left his native country, having committed no offence against its laws, and without any debts, and sought in The United States a future home-an undoubted right in the 19th century. Therefore, on his return to his native land, Christian Ernst visits Hanover, as an American citizen, and in no other character.

In submitting to you, Monsieur le Baron, a copy of the dispatch from the Government of The United States in reference to Christian Ernst, as well as during the several conversations which we have had on the subject, I have flattered myself with the belief that the Government of his Majesty the King of Hanover would at once see the propriety of complying with the views expressed in said despatch, and with its demand for Ernst's immediate release, since said demands are dictated on the grounds of international comity and of strict justice. Now, I am convinced that your Government will perceive the propriety of an immediate and favourable reply. In demanding the immediate discharge of Ernst, with full reparation for the injuries he has sustained in person and property, I am not only expressing the language of the Government of The United States in the dispatch before you, but the sentiments of the people of every nation which protects its citizens when abroad.

I need not assure you, Monsieur le Baron, that a determination to press into the military service of Hanover American naturalized citizens, under such circumstances as are presented by the case of Christian Ernst, cannot but lead to the most serious difficulties between The United States and the Kingdom of Hanover.

This Legation desires to do all in its power to preserve the kind feelings and respect which so happily exist at present between the said countries.

While obeying my instructions in placing plainly and frankly these facts before the Government of His Majesty the King of Hanover, I take, &c. Baron de Reitzenstein.

JOSEPH A. WRIGHT.

(Extract.)

No. 56.—Mr. Wright to Mr. Cass. Berlin, August 13, 1859. I HAVE the honour to forward herewith a copy of the only note received from the Hanoverian Chargé d'Affaires at this court in the case of Christian Ernst.

Desiring to extend the utmost courtesy to the Government of Hanover, knowing such to be the desire of the President in treating all diplomatic negotiations, I have concluded to wait a few days before replying to this note. The department shall be promptly advised of every step taken in the case. Hon. Lewis Cass.

SIR,

JOSEPH A. WRIGHT.

(Inclosure.)-Baron Reitzenstein to Mr. Wright.

(Translation.)

SIR,

Berlin, August 11, 1859.

In reply to the notes of your Excellency, of the 6th and 9th of this month, I have the honour to say temporarily that I am directed by my Government to announce to your Excellency that, in conformity to your wish, the affair of Mr. Christian Ernst will be prosecuted with all possible promptitude. But it will be impossible for me to give your Excellency a precise answer in regard to this affair at a very early period, inasmuch as my Government is not sufficiently informed as to what relates to the person of Mr. Christian Ernst, and as to the period at which he left his country to go to America. The Minister of War will therefore be under the necessity of communicating in the first place with several Hanoverian officers, in order to assure himself in regard to these points, and to be able to report the affair for the decision of His Majesty the King, who is at this time at Norden. As soon as I am notified of the result of these inquiries, I shall have the honour of communicating it to your Excellency. Accept, &c. J. A. Wright, Esq.

Hon Lewis Cass.

REITZENSTEIN.

Berlin, August 20, 1859.

BARON REITZENSTEIN, Chargé d'Affaires for Hanover, has this moment advised me of the receipt of a despatch from his Government, informing him of the discharge of Christian Ernst from the Hanoverian army.

By next mail I shall be able to furnish the Department a copy of the despatch received by Baron Reitzenstein, as the Baron cannot furnish me the same in time for this day's mail.

I have, &c.

No. 57.—Mr. Wright to Mr. Cass.

JOSEPH A. WRIGHT.

No. 58.-Mr. Wright to Mr. Cass.
Berlin, August 24, 1859.

SIR,

I HAVE the honour to inclose two despatches of Baron Reitzenstein, of the date of the 16th and 20th instant. Knowing the interest the President takes in this case, I have forwarded the original despatch of August the 20th, also an English translation of the same, made out by an excellent scholar.

Expecting additional information as to the arrest and treatment of Mr. Ernst, I shall be able in a few days to make a reply on the subject of satisfaction and compensation, undoubtedly his right, and to the other matters mentioned in said despatch.

I have, &c.

Hon. Lewis Cass.

JOSEPH A. WRIGHT.

(Inclosure 1.)-Baron Reitzenstein to Mr. Wright.

(Translation.)

Berlin, August 16, 1859. HAVING reference to my note of the 11th of this month, I have the honour to inform your Excellency that the Minister for Foreign Affairs of Hanover immediately communicated to his colleague, the Minister of War, the despatches you were pleased to remit to me, with your note relating to the affair of Mr. Christian Ernst.

The Minister of War has now replied, that by these communications alone has he received information of the fact, that Mr. Ernst is enrolled in the royal army of Hanover. The Minister has called for a prompt report from the prefect of Hildesheim on the case in question, but does not believe that he will be able to pass upon the affair until the receipt of this official report.

My Government is further of opinion, that Mr. Ernst should at once have asked protection and defence from the superior authorities of the country in the particular in which he believes his rights are violated, and thinks that in case Mr. Ernst had complained to the Minister at War of Hanover, he would probably have succoured him before his complaint could have reached the Government of the United States of America. Be pleased to accept, &c. J. A. Wright, Esq.

REITZENSTEIN.

(Translation.)

(Inclosure 2.)-Baron Reitzenstein to Mr. Wright. Berlin, August 20, 1859. THE Undersigned feels great pleasure in being able to make to his Excellency the Minister of The United States, Mr. Wright, the following communication in re Christian Ernst, of Portsmouth, which has just reached him from his Government.

John Henry Christian Ernst was born on the 22nd October, 1831, at Handorf, in the district of Peine. He went to The United States about Easter, 1850, leaving his parents behind, and without

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